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GREAT WAR 1861 -'65. 




(Lieut. -Colonel Seventieth Eegiment N. C. T. ) 






Organization of Reserves, by the Editor, 1 

Sevkntibth Regiment ( First Res. ) by Colonel Charles W. Broadfoot, 9 

Seventy-First Regiment (Second Res. ) by Captain David E. McKinne 25 

Seventy Second Regiment ( Third Res ) by Colonel John W. Hinsdale 35 

Sevbnty-Third Regiment (Fourth Res. ) by. the Editor, 65 

Seventy-Fourth Regiment (Fifth Res. ) liy the Editor, 69 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment, (Seventh Ca v.) by Colonel John T. Kennedy 

and Lieutenant W. Fletcher Parker, 71 

Sevknty-Fifth Regiment (Seventh Cav. ) by Lieutenant E. J. Holt. . 91 

Seventy Sixth Regiment, (Sixth Res ) by the Editor 99 

Seventy-Seventh Regiment (Seventh Res.) by lAeutenant John O. 

Albright - 99 

Seventy-Eighth Regiment (Eighth Res.) by the Editor 107 

Seventy Ninth Regiment (Eighth Cav. ) by S. V. Pichens, Adjutant, 109 

Eightieth Regiment, by Captain R. A. Aiken 117 

Eighty-First'Regiment (First Detailed) *!/ JAe Editor 129 

Eighty-Second Regiment (Second Detailed) by Colonel A. O. 

Brenizer 131 

Eighty-Third Regiment (Third Detailed) by the Editor, 133 


Sixteenth Regiment, by Lieutenant 0. H. Mills, 137 

Tenth Regiment, by Lieutenant T. C. Moore 221 


Battalion Organization, bg the Editor 224 

First Battalion, by Major R. W. Wharton , 225 

Second Battalion, by Lieutenant- Colonel Wharton J. Qreen, 243 

Third Battalion, by Major John W. Moore, 261 

Fourth B.^ttalion, by the Editor, 270 

Fifth Battalion, by Captain Virgil S Lusk,' 271 

Sixth Battalion, by Major Matthew P. Taylor, 293 

Seventh Battalion, by the Editor, 301 

Eighth Battalion, by the Editor, 302 

Ninth Battalion, by Sergeant T. A. McNeill, 303 

Tenth Battalion, by Captain Woodbury Wheeler, 315 

Tenth Battalion, by Lieutenant F. C. Frazier, 325 

Tenth Battalion, by Adjutant C. S. Powell, . 329 

Eleventh Battalion, by the Editor, 338 

Twblth Battalion, by the Editor 339 

Thirteenth Battalion, by lAeutenant J. H Myrover, 341 

Thirteenth Battalion, by Captain Lewis H. Webb 355 

Thirteenth Battalion, by Captain James D. Cumming, 361 

Fourteenth Battalion, by Adjutant 8. V. Pickens 363 

Fifteenth Battalion, by Lieutenant-Colonel James M. Wynns, 365 

Sixteenth Battalion, by Colonel John T. Kennedy 370 

IV Contents 

Seventeenth Battalion, by Major A. C. Avery, 371 

EiaaTEENTH Battalion, by Major James 0. MacRae 379 

Nineteenth Battalion, hy the Editor 383 

Twentieth Battalion, by E. R. Hampton, Hospital Steward, 385 

TvfENTY-FiRST Battalion, by the Editor, 397 

Twenty-second Battalion, by the Editor, 398 

Twentt-third Battalion, hy the Editor, 399 

Twenty fourth Battalion, by the Editor, 400 

Twenty FIFTH Battalion, by the Editor, 401 

Unattached Companies, by the Editor, 401 

North Carolinians in other Commands, by the Editor, 403 

The Two Brothers, by Captain David G. Maxwell, 405 

The Conscript Bureau, by the Editor, 407 

The Corps of Engineers, by Captain C. B. Denson, 409 

BRIGADE histories. 

Brigade Organization, by the Editor, 435 

Anderson- Ramseur-Cox Brigade, by Brigadier-Oeneral W. R. Cox, 443 

Branch-Lane Brigade, by Brigadier- General J. H. Lane, 465 

Clingman's Brigade, by Captain W. H. S. Burgwyn, A. A. G.,. . . . 481 

Cooke's Brigade, by Captain James A. Graham, 501 

Daniel-Grimes Brigade, by Captain W. L. London, A. A O., . . 513 
Garland-Iverson-Johnston Brigade, 5y Lieutenant J. F. John- 
ston. A. D. C. 531 

Hoke Godwin Lewis Brigade, by Major J. F. Beall, 525 

Martin-Kirkland Brigade, by Captain C. G. Elliott, A. A. 527 

Pender-Scales Brigade by Adjutant T. L. Rawley, 551 

Pettigrbw-Kirkland-MacUab Brigade, hy Captain Louis G. 

Young, A. A. G • .. 555 

Ransom's Brigade, by Captain W. H. S. Burgwyn, ^ . 569 

Roberts Cavalry Brig ad b, by Lieutenant E. J. Holt 580 

Gordon-Barp.ingbb Cavalry Brigade, hy Private Julian 8. Carr, 581 

Junior Reserves' Brigade, by Lieutenant F. H Busbee, 583 

Chaplain Service, by Chaplain A. D. Belts 597 

The Medical Corps, by Surgeon P. E. Hines 623 

The Militia, hy Captain James M. Grizzard, 645 

The Home Guard, hy the Editor, 649 

military prisons. 

Prison Life at Johnson's Island, by Colonel R. E. Webb, 657 

Prison Life at Johnson's Island, by Colonel Thomas S. Kenan,. . . 689 

Prisoners at Johnson's Island to Governor Vance 697 

List of Prisoners at Johnson's Isi,and, by Lieutenant T. F. Cross, 703 

Prisoners at Morris Island, by Captain W. O. MacRae 713 

List OF N. C. Prisoners at Morris Island, % Col. Jno. L. Cantwell, Til 

Prison Life at Fort Delaware, by Sergeant C. W. Rivenbark 725 

Escape from Port Warren, by Lieutenant- Commander J. W. Al.ex- 

ander, C. S. N., 733 

Salisbury Prison, by Chaplain A. W. Mangum ,. . . 745 


By WALTER CLARK, Lieutbnant-Colonel 70 N. C. T. 

When the Southern leaders were contemplating separa- 
tion, they estimated largely upon the expectation that all the 
States South of Mason and Dixon's line, the Ohio and the 
northern boundary of Missouri would go with the South, in- 
eluding Indian Territory and Nc-w Mexico. This would 
have given the new Confederacy nearly one^third of the pop- 
ulation of the old Union. In this event there would have 
doubtless been a peaceable separation and no war. But it 
proved that in the States of Maryland, Delaware, that part 
of Virginia since known as West Virginia, Kentucky and 
Missouri, the majority were largely on the northern side and 
there was no small defection among the whites in East Ten- 
nessee and other localities, to say nothing of the colored refu- 
gees who swelled the Union army. It is estimated that no 
less than 350,000 men from the Southern side of the line 
above indicated served in the Federal armies which also con- 
tained, besides the troops from the populous T\ orthern States, 
a host of foreigners attracted by high bounties and good pay. 

The result was that instead of the Confederate armies being 
one-third of the forces in the field (which would have insured 
early success if there had been war) the official records show 
that first and last over 3,000,000 of men served in the ISTorth- 
em armies and 600,000 — certainly not more than 650,000 — 
in those of the South. This disproportion of 5 to 1 struck 
the cold calculating mind of Edwin M. Stanton, who perceived 
that in an exchange of prisoners, man for man, the Soiith 
therefore was largely advantaged. With an iron will, and 
reckless of all considerations of humanity, he stopped the ex- 
change of prisoners. The blow was a staggering one to the 
Confederacy. It could not recruit its armies from abroad 
and the loyal population, capable of bearing arms, was already 
almost en masse in service. 

2 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

President Davis, contrary to the course pursued by Gov- 
Bmor Vance, instead of shipping cotton as a basis of credit 
and to procure supplies, conceived the fatal idea, and pursued 
it to the disastrous end, that by withholding our cotton, a 
"cotton famine" would force the nations of Europe to raise 
the blockade, and come to our aid. Thus besides the natural 
weariness of war, the lack of supplies caused the soldiery to 
Ibe half fed and badly clothed and shod, and more than this, 
-when the cry of want went up from wives and little ones in 
many an humble home, the cancer of desertion became an 
open sore. 

With ranks daily depleted by deaths on the battlefield and 
in the hospitals, by wounds, by the growing volume of deser- 
tions, by the necessity of detailing troops fropi the front to 
prevent depredations at home, and the "unreturning brave" 
who languished in ISTorthern prisons, the necessity to replen- 
ish the ranks was overpowering. A resort to the colored 
population for many reasons was deemed impracticable and 
when tried in a small way, in the last days of the war, in 
the spring of 1865, the experiment was not satisfactory. 

There was only one other resource, to extend the age of the 
military conscription, which already embraced all able^-bodied 
men between the ages of 18 and 45, except those exempt as 
State officers, physicians, and ministers of the gospel, and per- 
haps some others. In the presence of a necessity which 
would admit of no denial, the Confederate Congress on 17 
Pebruary, 1864, passed a law placing in the "Reserves" those 
between the ages of 17 and 18 and between 45 and 50. A 
salvo was added that they were not to serve out of their res- 
pective States, but this was, by reason of the same necessity, 
disregarded. Junior Reserves from this State served in 
South Carolina and Virginia and our Senior Reserves fought 
in South Carolina and Georgia, though the bulk of the latter 
relieved other troops to go to the front by taking their places 
in preserving internal order, arresting deserters, forwarding 
conscripts, guarding bridges on the great railway lines (over 
which passed the supplies and recruits for our armies) and 
guarding the prisoners at Salisbury. 

A brief breathing spell was given in which those who 

Organization of Resekves. 3 

■wished might volunteer. Then the General Orders to em- 
body the Eeserves were formulated and issued. Those be- 
tween 17 and 18 years of age were embodied in April and 
May, 1864. Those between 45 and 50 were, with the excep- 
tion of two regiments and two battalions, left at home till Au- 
gust and September to make and harvest the crops, and the 
remainder were organized into regiments in the Fall. The 
reserves ordered out in April were organized into companies 
and sent to camps of instruction at Wilmington, Ealeigh and 
Morganton and during May and June nine battalions were 
organized, as follows — the men electing their company officers 
find these latter electing the Field Officers : 

First Battalion (three companies), Major Charles W. 
;Broadfoot, 25(JVlay, at Raleigh. 

Second Battalion (three companies). Major John H. An- 
derson, 28 May, at Raleigh. 

Third Battalion (three companies). Major B. F. Hooks, 31 
May, at G-oldsboro. 

Fourth Battalion (three companies). Major J. M. Reece, 
fit Raleigh, 30 May. 

Fifth Battalion; (three companies), Major W. F. Beasley, 
ftt Goldsboro, 2 June. 

Sixth Battalion (five companies). Major Walter Clark, 3 
June, at Raleigh. 

Seventh Battalion (three companies,) Major W. Foster 
French, 4 June, at Wilmington. 

Eighth Battalion (three companies). Major J. B. Elling- 
ton, 10 Jime, at Morganton. 

Ninth Battalion (three companies), Major D. T. Millard, 
Asheville, 28 June. 

The Sixth was the only battalion having more than three 
companies when organized. On 15 June another company 
each was added to the First, Fourth and Fifth Battalions 
.and later another company to the Second. 

All these were Junior Reserves except the Third Battalion, 
which were Seniors. This battalion of Seniors went into im- 
mediate service as bridge guards and later on were in several 
battles and became part of the Eighth Regiment of Re- 
serves — or Seventy-eighth North Carolina. Another Batr 

4 North Cakolina Troops, 1861-65. 

talion was partially organized -with three companieg at JMoi*- 
ganton where over 100 of them were captured 28 June, 1864, 
in Geo. W. Kirk's raid. The remainder were recruited up 
by the addition of Juniors from other counties and two new 
companies were thus created which later at Salisbury were 
added to Millard's Ninth Battalion. This battalion after see- 
ing sei-vices at Wilmington as is narrated in its history herein, 
was brigaded with the three Junior Eeserve Regiments (Sev- 
entieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second North Carolina) at 
Kinston in January, 1865, and attached to Hoke^s Division 
whose fortunes that brigade thenceforward shared till John- 
ston's surrender. As to the other eight battalions, the First 
(Broadfoot) and Sixth (Clark) Battalions with two other 
companies added, were organized into the First Regiment of 
Reserves (Seventieth North Carolina) at Weldon 4 July, 
1864. The Second (Anderson) and Fifth (Beasley) were 
organized into a larger battalion at Weldon 16 July, and this 
on 7 December, 1864, by the addition of two companies, was 
raised to a regiment, the Second Reserves or Seventy-first 
North Carolina. The Fourth (Reece), Seventh (French), 
and Eighth (Ellington) Battalions were organized into the 
Third Regiment of Reserves or Seventy-second North Caro- 
lina, at Wilmington, 3 January, 1865. Major Reece, with 
six other officers and between one hundred and two hundred 
men of these three battalions, which were then under his com- 
mand, were captured near Fort Fisher the night of 25 De- 
cember, 1864, under circumstances not creditable to him. 
His brave but inexperienced boys, many of them, stoutly re- 
fused to be surrendered and saved themselves. The report 
made by one of these, the gallant young Adjutant, F. M. 
Hamlin, will be found in Serial Volume 87, Official Records 
Union and Con.federa.te Armies, p. 1025. 

The Junior Reserve Brigade, composed of the above three 
regiments and Millard's Battalion, was commanded at first 
by Colonel F. S. Armistead, of the Seventieth. At the bat- 
tle of South West Creek below Kinston 8-9 March, 1865, it 
was under General L. S. Baker, and 15 March Colonel J. H. 
N'ethercutt, of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina, was assigned 
to it just before the battle of Bentonville and commanded the 

Organization of Reserves. 5 

brigade till the surrender under Johnston. At first, Adju- 
tant A. T. London and Lieutenant E. S. Eoster of the Seven- 
tieth acted as Assistant Adjutant General and Ordnance Offi- 
cer, respectively, of this Brigade but when Colonel JSTether- 
cutt took command 15 March he assigned Lieutenant Wm. 
Calder as Assistant Adjutant General and Lieutenant E. S. 
Martin as Ordnance Officer, both of the Eirst Heavy Artil- 
lery Battalion. • 

The field officers of the Junior Reserves without exception 
had seen previous service in the army. The writer was the 
only field officer who was himself a Junior Reserve (under 
18) and only one other (Beasley) was under 21 years of age, 
which fact it appears from General Holmes' letter book he 
reported to the authorities at Richmond. The company of- 
ficers were, as a rule, 17 years of age when elected, but 
those who passed the Examining Board were retained after 
they reached that age and there was a good sprinkling of 
company officers of maturer age and army experience who 
having resigned, or been discharged, from the army by rea- 
son of wounds or physical disability re-entered service with 
the Juniors. The Examining Board was composed of Ma- 
jors C. W. Broadfoot, J. H. Anderson and Walter Clark. 
As may be imagined at first many of the young company 
officers were found by this board deficient in education or 
knowledge of tactics and dropped. These as fast as they 
became 18 years of age were sent, together with all non-com- 
missioned officers and privates who arrived at that age, to the 
regiments in Virginia. The company officers who passed 
the required examination were retained with their companies. 
The vacancies caused by those failing to pass were filled usu- 
ally by electing old soldiers "on light duty" by reason of 
wounds, or other disability or by the election of young men 
of better education, resulting in a very decided improvement 
in the personnel of the company officers. Towards the last, 
amid the pressure and hurry of events, privates and non- 
commissioned officers arriving at 18 years of age were not 
always sent off to the older regiments. 

So much for the three regiments and the battalions of the 
Juniors. Of the Seniors, there were five regiments and two 

G North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

battalions. The words "Junior" and "Senior" were not 
officially used and . the first three were designated simply 
"First, Second and Third Kegimenta of Keserves" (or Sev 
entieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second North Carolina), 
The latter were"designated as the "Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Sev- 
enth and Eighth Eegiments of Reserves" (or Seventy-third, 
Seventy-fourth, Seventy-sixth, Seventy-seventh, and Seventy- 
eighth jSToi-th Carolina, for a cavalry regiment has some how 
gotten switched into the enumeration in Moore's Roster as the 
Seventy-fifth ) . There were also three battalions, besides that 
of Major Hooks', above mentioned, which was incorporated 
into the Eighth Reserves (Seventy-eighth North Carolina). 
These were a battalion of Seniors organized at Asheville and 
commanded by Major L. P. Erwin, who did good service in 
that section, another from Catawba and adjacent counties, 
commanded by Major A. A. Hill, and the Third Battalion or- 
ganized at Raleigh, which served at Fort Fisher and was 
commanded by Major J. T. Littlejohn. A large part of the 
officers of these five regiments and three battalions of Seniors 
had doubtless seen service in the army and probably many of 
the privates had also. 

The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Reserves were formed into 
the Second Brigade and commanded by Colonel John F. 
Hoke, with headquarters at Salisbury. Of this Brigade Ma- 
jor jVr. P. Beardon was Quartermaster and Captain R. P. 
Waring Adjutant General. The Seventh, together with the 
companies late organized into the Eighth Reserves in De- 
cember, 1864, were in a brigade at Wilmington command-- 
ed by Colonel Jno. K. Connally, of the Fifty-fifth North 
Carolina. 87 Official Records Union and Confederate Ar- 
mies, p. 1021. From December, 1864, to March, 1865, 
the Seventh Reserves served in Georgia, South Carolina and 
this State, brigaded with the Tenth North Carolina Battalion 
(Young) and part of the time with the Fiftieth North Car- 
olina, the brigade being commanded by Colonel Wash. iL 
Hardy, of the Sixtieth North Carolina. 

The sei-vices of the above regiments and four battalions of 
Reserves are narrated, as well as they can now be recalled, in 
the following sketches of their respective regiments and bat- 

Organization of Reserves. 7 

talions, but this history of thedr organization is here given 
as the reference thereto in Major Gordon's admirable article 
on the organization of troops in Vol. 1 (p. 16) of this work 
was very brief from his lack of information in this particular 
matter. Major H. R. Hooper was Quarter Master of all the 
Reserves of North Carolina and Dr. Thomas Hill, Surgeon 
in Chief. Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes commanded 
the Reserves with Captain John W. Hinsdale Assistant-Ad- 
jutant General till his promotion to Colonel of the Seventy- 
second IsTorth Carolina (Third Juniors) when he was suc- 
ceeded by Major Chas. S. Stringfellow as Assistant-Adjutant- 

The rolls kept in Raleigh of our regiments were duplicates 
and naturally not kept up with the care of those used as pay 
rolls, which were sent to Richmond, hence much of the com- 
plaint of the defects in Moore's Roster, which is nowhere 
more incomplete than in regard to the Reserves. The State 
can not now get a complete and correct roster of her troops 
unless an act of Congress is passed to have a complete ti-an- 
soript made from the original Confederate pay rolls which 
were surrendered at Greensboro, where they had been carried 
from Richmond, 100 (Serial Vol.) Q-ff. Rec. Union and Con- 
fed. Armies, S^S, and which are now on file at Washington, 
and this ought to be done with a careful collation of the rolls 
which were sent in from time to time, of each company and 


Baleigh, N. C, 

4 July, 1901. 


1. Chas. W. Broadfoot, Colonel. 

2. Walter Clark, Lieut.-Colonel. 

3. N. A. Gregory, Major. 

(Picture in 71st Regiment.) 

4. Thos. L. Lee, Captain, Co. G. 

5. Christopher C. Smith, 1st Lieut., Co. A. 

6. B. I. Breedlove, Private, Co. B. 

7. LucuUus Hunter, Private, Co. B. 


(first junior rhsbbves. ) 


Under the inexorable necessity of filling the ranks depleted 
by the waste of three years of war, the Confederate Congress 
on 17 February, 1864, passed the act by which the military 
age, previously 18 to 45, was extended to embrace all from 
17 to 50. Those from 17 to 18 years of age, known later as 
Junior Reserves, were embodied intO' companies in April and 
May, and in May and June were formed into battalions, and 
later on into regiments — forming a total in this State of three 
regiments and one battalion, which became the Junior Re- 
serves' Brigade in Hoke's Division, Hardee's Corps. The 
embodying of those from 45 to 50 years of age was postponed 
a few weeks to enable the men to make and save their crops 
and make arrangements for the care of their families. 

The First Regiment of Junior Reserves was formed by the 
consolidation of the First and Sixth Battalions, of whose 
organization it is proper to speak at this place. 


This battalion consisted of three companies. Company 
A, Captain Charles Price, 81 officers and men; Company B, 
Captain D. S. Speed, 78 officers and men ; Company C, Cap- 
tain C. J. Richardson, 93 officers and men. Total, with 
field and staff, 255. 

It was organized into a battalion at Camp- Holmes, near 
Raleigh, 25 May, 1864, by electing as Major, the writer, who 
had served in the "Bethel" Regiment and afterwards in Com- 
pany D, Forty-third North Carolina, but at this time was an 
Aide on the staff of Lieutenant-General Holmes, and had re- 
cently returned with him from the campaign in Arkansas. 

The battalion was equipped vidth clothing, shoeS' and ac- 
coutrements as well as the government at that time could do. 

10 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

but were armed with Enfield rifles, which had been changed 
to percussion from flint and steel, and which were well nigh 
worthless. Later on better guns which had been captured in 
Virginia, were issued to the Juniors. 

On 29 May the battalion was ordered to Weldon, where it 
went into camp on the Northampton side of the river, on the 
ground formerly occupied by the Fifty-sixth Regiment, near 
the residence of Mr. John M. Moody, who with his entire 
family was as kind and considerate of the soldier boys as it 
was possible to be. The camp was styled "Camp Daniel" in 
honor of Brigadier-General Junius Daniel, then recently 
killed in battle and who was born a few miles distant in Hal- 
ifax County. 


The Sixth Battalion consisted of five companies. Com- 
pany A, Captain A. M. Heitmaji, 89 officers and men ; Com- 
pany B, Captain C. D. Dowd, 80 officers and men ; Company 

C, Captain W. S. Lineberry, 78 officers and men ; Company 

D, Captain W. H. Carter, 76 officers and men ; Company E, 
Captain Thos. L. Lea, 82 officers and men. Total when or- 
ganized, including field and staff, 408 officers and men. 

This battalion was organized at Camp Holmes near Ral- 
eigh, 3 June, 1864, by electing Walter Clark, Major. Major 
Clark, a cadet at Tew's Military School, had in May, 1861, 
entered the service as drill-master and later went to Virginia 
with Pettigrew's regiment. Twenty-second North Carolina; 
in 1862-'63 he had served as Adjutant of the Thirty-fifth 
North Carolina (Colonel M. W. Ransom). On the return 
to this Stat© of that brigade in 1863, he resigned and entering 
the senior class at the State University, graduated 2 June, 
the day before his election as Major. His battalion was 
equipped much as the First had been and was ordered to 
GoldsboTO', 8 June. After a few days stay it was ordered to 
Weldon 18 June and went into camp 19 June, near the First 
Battalion, in a camp styled "Camp Ransom," in honor of 
General M. W. Ransom, whose residence was close by and on 
whose staff (when Colonel Ransom) the Major commanding 
had served. 

Seventieth Regiment. 11 

Tlie post at Weldon was commanded by Colonel James W. 
Hinton, of the Sixty-eighth North Carolina, and the district 
was under the command of General L. S. Baker, with head- 
quarters at Goldsboro. Pickets were kept out by the two bat- 
talions to guard against surprise by raiding parties, or a sud- 
den advance of the enemy from the Chowan. The com- 
mand was rigidly and constantly drilled and with the facility 
of boys soon acquired military discipline and efficiency. On 
27 June the Sixth Battalion was ordered to Gaston and took 
post on the east side of the river to protect the railroad bridge 
at that point from a threatened cavalry raid, but returned to 
Weldon 1 July. 


On 4 July, 1864, the First and Sixth Battalions were, in 
pursuance of General Orders, organized into a regiment. On 
15 June, Captain M. C. Nixon's company had been assigned 
to the First Battalion. The Halifax County company of 
Captain W. R. Williams, was now added to the two battal- 
ions, making ten companies whose officers on that day elected 

Charles W. Broadfoot, Colonel. 
Walter Clark^ Lieutenant-Colonel. 
N. A. Gregory^, Major. 

The election was conducted by Lieutenant Graham Daves, 
Aide to General Holmes. Upon his report of the election, 
orders were issued assigning above officers to duty accordingly. 
Major Gregory had seen service as First Lieutenant of Com- 
pany I, Twenty-third North Carolina Regiment, but having 
been wounded and disabled at Chancellorsville, had resigned. 
He now patriotically acepted his election and re-entered the 

During July, the headquarters of Lieutenant-General 
Holmes were removed to Weldon. Not long after his arri- 
val, he sent for the above field officers of the First Regiment 
and explained tO' them his earnest wish that his chief of staff, 
Lieutenant'Colonel F. S. Armistead, might be made Colonel 
of the First Regiment, as thereby he felt confident that he 
would without delay be appointed Brigadier-General of the 

12 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Junior Reserves Brigade (which was to be formed) by Pres- 
ident Davis, who had been a cadet at West Point with him- 
self and a life-long friend. Colonel Armistead was himself 
a West Pointer and brother of General Armistead who was 
killed at Gettysburg. Their mother was a Stanly, of New 
Bern. In deference to General Holmes' wishes the field 
officers resigned and at the new election F. S. Armistead 
was elected Colonel, C. W. Broadfoot Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Walter Clark Major, and IST. A. Gregory accepted the vacant 
captaincy of Company H. This arrangement was expected 
to endure for a very brief period and in order to carry it out 
fully, General Holmes delayed 'the formation of the other 
battalions into regiments as long as he could. But the ex- 
pected promotion of Colonel Armistead, for some reason, did 
not materialize, and the arrangement continued to the end, ex- 
cept that on formation of the Second Regiment, Gregory was 
elected Major of that. As Colonel Armistead for many 
months commanded the post, or the brigade, the regiment was 
in the actiial command of Lieutenant-Colonel Broadfoot and 
in his absence by Major Clark. On the second organization, 
the company of Captain W. R. Williams was transferred to 
Anderson's Battalion and that of Captain John A. Manning 
was substituted. 

The companies as relettered after the second organization 
were officered as follows : 

Company A — Warren, Franklin arid Nash — Captain, 
Charles Price, of Warren ; First Lieutenant, C. C. Smith, of 
Nash ; Second Lieutenants, E. S. Foster and W. B. Coppedge, 
both of Franklin. This company was the only one which 
had no change in its officers from its organization in May, 
till the surrender a year later. Captain Price is a distin- 
guished lawyer, living in Salisbury and has been United 
States District Attorney for Western North Carolina ; Lieu- 
tenant Foster is a promising physician in Louisburg. 

Company B — Granville — Captains, D. S. Speed, R. L. 
Crews, F. R. Gregory ; First Lieutenants, A. Thorpe, T. W. 
Taylor ; Second Lieutenants, F. S. Daniels, W. H. Gregory 
R. H. Andrews, Alex. Turner. 

Seventieth Regiment. 13 

Company C — Dmidson — Captain, A. M. Heitman; First 
Lieutenant, J. A. Parks ; Second Lieutenants, C. L. Badgett, 
E. W. Lindsay, F. E. Thomas. 

Company D — Wake — Captain, C. J. Richardson; First 
Lieutenants, A. J. Alford, G. R. Smith ; Second Lieutenants, 
G. R. Smith, W. H. Crabtree, R. Halyburton. 

Company E — Moore and Montgomery — Captains, C. D. 
Dowd, W. W. Beard ; First Lieutenant, W. A. Fry, R. W. 
Wellborn; Second Lieutenants, J. T. McCaulay, D. J. Dye, 
E. J. Dye, J. C. Weal. 

Company F — Randolph — Captain, W. S. Lineberry; 
First Lieutenants, L. S. Gray, H. C. Causey ; Second Lieviten- 
ants, H. C. Causey, Z. T. Rush, W. T. Glenn, W. R. Ash- 

Company G — Casurell and Stanly — Captain, Thos. L. Lea, 
of Caswell ; First Lieutenant, J. W. Smith, of Stanly ; Sec- 
ond Lieutenants, J. G. Denny and L. Eudy, of Caswell, 
Waverly Johnson, of l^Torthampton. 

Company H — Chatham — Captains, W. H. Carter, N. A. 
Gregory, J. A. Faison; First Lieutenants, J. T. McAuley, 
Carson Johnson; Second Lieutenants, W. Y. Fulford, J. J. 
Watson, J. W. Treloar. 

Company I — Orange — Captains, M. C. Nixon, J. S. Far- 
thing, A. D. Markham, W. F. Hargrave, B. F. Weaver, Ga- 
briel Holmes. The latter was a son of Lieutenan1>General 
Holmes and grandson of Governor Holmes. 

Company K- — Martin, Northanvpton, Bertie andChowan — 
Captains, Jno. A. Manning, Frank S. Faison ; First Lieuten- 
ants, Frank S. Faison, W. D. Pruden; Second Lieutenants, 
W. D. Pruden, J. K. WheeJer. Lieutenant Pruden is now 
the well known lawyer of Edenton. 

There were many changes among the officers by the oper- 
ation of the Examining Board and resignations and some 
names may be indavertently O'mitted. Among the company 
officers. Captain N". A. Gregory, F. R. Gregory, J. A. 
Faison and W. W. Beard and Lieutenant W. H. H. Gregory 
had seen previous service in the army. Captain Faison was 
a West Pointer. 

14 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

The staff of the regiment was as follows : 

A. T. London^ of Wilmington, Adjutant. 

'N. M. JoNEs^ of Chatham, SergeantrMajor. 

C. S. Weddetst^ of "Wake, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Assistant Suegeons, James Jordan, of Northampton ; F. 
E. Gregory, of Granville; G. G. Smith, of Concord. Dr. 
Gregory had previously been Captain of Company B. 

When first organized into battalions, we had no surgeons 
and the following extract of a letter from the writer at that 
time gives an idea of the situation : 

"Camp Daniel, 
"June 2, 1864. 
"I have no surgeon and have to prescribe for the sick 
myself. A doctor of Major Hahr's Battalion has kindly fur- 
nished me with some medicines with fvll directions how to 
use. To-day I dosed about thirty. * * * j have a good 
deal to amuse me in camp. My men come to me for every- 
thing. One wants a furlough, one has broken his gun and 
expects me to mend it for him ; another wants tO' go home to 
get married, etc." 

An assistant surgeon reported for duty on 17 June, 1864, 
but with no medicines. These came within a short time, 
however, and thereafter we had the services of kind, attentive 
and competent surgeons. This regiment, with the other 
Junior Reserves, joined in the following letter: 

"Camp ojt Junior Reserves, 
"Near Weldon, N. O., October 10, 1864. 
"Hon. Secretary of War, Richmond, Va. : 

Sir: — ^We, the undersigned Field Officers of the Junior 
Reserves of North Carolina stationed near Weldon, N. C, at 
the unanimous request of the officers and enlisted men of the 
commands, respectfully tender their services to the depart- 
ment for duty in Virginia during the present emergency, 
while our National Capital is threatened and its brave defend- 
ers stand in need of reinforcements." 

This letter was a source of pride to Lieutenant-General 

Seventieth Regiment. 15 

Holmes, commanding the Reserves of North Carolina, -who 
often spoke of it in highly complimentary terms to the writer. 
On 16 October, 1864, the regiment went to Boykin's Depot, 
met a raid from the Blackwater where it remained a day or 
two, and returned to Weldon, as the enemy had retired, where 
we continued to furnish guards for bridges at Gaston and else- 
where, and heavy details for outpost duty. 


This regiment and Anderson's Battalion were ordered to 
Plymouth on Saturday, 29 October. We left Weldon and 
went by rail to Tarboro. On Sunday marched eighteen 
miles, on Monday twenty-five to within thirteen miles of Ply- 
mouth, where we met our troops returning from the capture 
of the place and the blowing up of the Albemarle by the en- 
emy, and were ordered to Hamilton, IST. C. This was extra- 
ordinary' marching for raw levies. There was little or no 
straggling and the regiment was highly complimented by Gen- 
eral Baker, commanding. 

Camp "Baker," near Hamilton, waa headquarters, and 
from this point the outpost service become both arduous and 
important, as our advanced posts extended to Foster's Mills, 
below Williamston, in Martin County. Covering the ap- 
proaches to Martin, Edgecombe and Pitt Counties, whence 
at the time large supplies were drawn for the support of Lee's 

Early in November, four companies (B, E, H and I), were 
sent under command of the Major of the regiment tO' William- 
ston where he was placed in charge of the post, relieving Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Van Hook with six companies of the Fiftieth. 
Two companies of cavalry, Captains Pitts and Brown, of the 
Sixty-fifth North Carolina, and Lee's Alabama Battery of 
artillery were also under his command, seven companies al- 
together. With these he was to guard the crossings at Fos- 
ter's and Rawls' Mills and patrol the roads leading to Ply- 
mouth and Washington where the enemy were in force. One 
of the principal objects served by the outpost at that time was 
to cover the movements of Dr. Fretwell, who had been sent 
out from Richmond to place torpedoes in the Roanoke below 

16 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Williamston, which he did successfully with a force of de- 
tailed men as experts. The enemy made two or three at- 
tempts to disturb our quiet, and on one occasion Major Clark 
followed them with part of the cavalry, and three companies 
of infantry and a section of artillery nearly to Jamesville, 
the rest being left to guard the road from Washington. 


About 10 December, six companies, A, C, D, F, G and K 
were ordered from Camp Baker to Virginia and went as far 
as Belfield, Va., where they took part in the fight at that place 
which turned back the raid under General Warren. The other 
four companies, B, E, H and I, were at the time below Wil- 
liamston at and near Foster's Mills, and were ordered to 
follow the othei's as rapidly as possible. These four made 
a forced march to Tarboro, when they were immediately or- 
dered back to meet a raid from Plymouth. 


On 12 December, after marching one hundred miles in 
eight days, they were in line behind breastworks at Butler's 
Bridge, near Hamilton, Fort Branch and Camp Baker, with a 
section of Lee's light battery from Montgomery, Ala., and two 
companies of cavalry of the Sixty-fifth TSTorth Carolina State 
Troops, Captains Brown and Pitts in the im.m.ediate front. 
The whole force under command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Broadfoot. Just before daylight on the morning of the ISth, 
we were attacked in front and rear at the same time, the 
party in the rear having been piloted through the swamps by 
one or more traitors, known as Buffaloes. The cavalry com- 
panies were dismounted and in front as skirmishers, and their 
horses were a few yards in rear of the breastworks, on the 
Hamilton side, when they were fired upon by the enemy and 
broke away from the few men in charge of them and dashed 
over the bridge and up the road in the direction of Tarboro. 
The noise of these loose horses crossing the bridge was mis- 
taken by the enemy in front for a charge, and they fell back, 
allowing the entire command to escape, and reform on the 
Tarboro road about one-fourth of a mile distant, in a line of 
old breastworks commanding the road. 

Seventieth Regiment. 17 

In this affair the regiment lost Dr. Gregory captured in 
Camp Baker, where he went to attend the wounded, Lieu- 
tenant VanB. Sharpe, of Pitt County, who had been wound- 
ed while on the skirmish line, and several privates were also 
captured, and we had our camp plundered, if a camp of 
Junior Reserves at that time can be said to be the subject of 
plunder. Colonel Hinton and Adjutant Hinton, of ttie Sixty- 
Eighth, who had spent the night at the Sherrod house in our 
rear, waiting tlie coming up of tbat regiment, were captured, 
as they came out expecting to meet it, but the Adjutant soon 
escaped. He had a leave of absence in his pocket to go home 
to be married and he kept his tryst. The enemy returned 
hastily to Plymouth. ITpooi the return of the six companies 
from Belfield, the regiment resumed its duties at Camp Baker 
of protecting the approaches from below and thus gTiarding 
Tarboro and Weldon. 


Late in December, the enemy sent several boats up tbe Roan- 
oke, threatening Fort Branch, and on 23 December, two com- 
panies of the regiment, with a section of Dickson's light bat- 
tery (Company E, of Starr's Battalion), the whole imder the 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Broadfoot, who had volun- 
teered for this service, went to Poplar Point on the Roanoke, 
a short distance below Fort Branch, tO' reconnoitre, and pre- 
vent, if possible, their further ascent of tbe river. The loss 
of a boat, sunk near Williamston by a torpedo placed in the 
river the night before by Dr. Fretwell. who had been sent 
from Richmond asi already stated, for the purpose of obstruct- 
ing the river, had cheeked the gunboats which were advanc- 
ing slowly, dragging tlie river from open boats as they went. 
When they passed a bend in the river below Poplar Point and 
came into view, the guns of Dickson's Battery located on the 
bluff, opened fire and stopped them. The enemy shelled the 
banks, which were lined with two companies of our regi- 
ment, without damage, and upon 24 December another bat- 
tery having been placed below the gunboats and the infantry 
having been reinforced by Colonel Whitford's Sixty-seventhi 

18 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Hegiment, the enemy retired, shelling heavily the woods as 
they withdrew. General Leventhorpe, commanding the Dis- 
trict of North Carolina, complimented our command for its 
part in this affair. 

Just here an anecdote: While passing along the line the 
officer in command caught one of the boys with an unex- 
ploded shell from the enemy between his knees, trying to ex- 
tract the powder. Upon being sharply reprimanded and told 
•of the danger to himself and others, the boy replied : "I am 
not skeered of the d — d things when they are coming at me 
through the air, and I know I ain't afraid of 'em when I have 
'em in my hands." About 29 January this regiment, with 
the Second and Third Regiments and Millard's Battalion of 
Junior Reserves, commanded by Captain C. M. Hall, were 
formed into a brigade under command of Colonel F. S. Arm- 
istead, by General Order No. 1, of this date, and Captain B. 
P. Smith, Assistant Quartermaster, was assigned to duty as 
brigade Quartermaster. This was our first acquaintance with 
a quartermaster, as our dealings heretofore with that branch 
of the service were at long range. We never had a commis- 
sary officer, but our brigade had an excellent ordnance officer 
in Lieutenant E. S. Foster, of Company A, of our regiment, 
assigned to duty as such. 

About the middle of February, 1865, our regiment as part 
of the First Brigade Reserves, went to Kinston, N. C, and 
were accounted worthy to stand with their older brethren of 
Hoke's Division, as part and parcel of the same; and from 
this time to the farewell address of that gallant General made 
to his division on 1 May, 1865, we shared its hardships, as 
well as its glories. 


After being encamped with the brigade for some three 
weeks at Kinston (about one mile west of the Jno. C. Wash- 
ington residence), news came that the enemy was advancing 
from New Bern in force. The brigade was placed under 
command of General L. S. Baker, and attached tO' Hoke's 
Division, and on 6 March we crossed the river and marched 
down to South West Creek, where we lined the bank of that 

Seventieth Regiment. 19 

fitream, the right of our brigade (the First Eegiment) resting 
on the county road where it crosses that stream north of the 
railroad. The morning of the 8th we heard the heavy fight- 
ing and joined in the cheering as the news came down the line 
that Hoke had captured 1,600 prisoners and a general officer 
on the right. About 3 p. m. we were ordered to cross the 
stream before us, which we did on an improvised bridge under 
firing going on between our skirmishers and those of the en- 

On the other side the brigade formed line of battle in the 
same order as before, the First Regiment Reserves (Seven- 
tieth Xorth Carolina) on the right. On orders from Gen- 
eral Baker the brigade moved handsomely forward, and drove 
the enemy from behind their temporary breastworks of fence 
rails and logs. We captured some prisoners and the loss in 
the brigade was not very heavy. 


General D. PI. Hill, writing a month after, says in his re- 
port of this battle, speaking from hearsay, for he states 
therein that the Reserves were not under his command, as 
follows, 9S (Serial Vol.) Ojf. Rec. Union and Confed. 
4.rmies, 1087. The Reserves advanced handsomely for 
a time, but at length one regiment (the First, I think), 
l>roke and the rest lay down and could not be got forward." 
Had General Hill been writing of troops under his own com- 
inand, or of matters of his own knowledge, his statement 
would be accepted. But by the very reason of his high chax- 
flcter this statement by him on hearsay can not be allowed to 
go down in history uncorrected. I, who saw the whole mat- 
ter, must say, and all others who were present (of whom hun- 
dreds are still living,) among them the editor of this work, 
will concur with me that this statement is a gross injustice to 
the gallant boys. The facts are that the whole brigade went 
forward handsomely, as General Hill says, and while closely 
engaged, a portion of the First Regiment (not all) miscon- 
ceiving a command that was given to the skirmish line, did 
break and fell back some 150 yards to the stream. They did 
jiot attempt to cross it by the bridge or otherwise and were 

20 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

readily and promptly rallied and immediately went forward 
again. Tliey were much cliagrined at misunderstanding the 
orders which alone had caused them tO' fall back. No part of 
the brigade at any time lay down and refused to go forward- 
Those who' commanded the Juniors or saw them in action 
know that there were no troops who had more enthusiasm or 
were more easily led than they. 

Abo'Ut dark General Hoke placing hiinself at the head of 
our brigade, some other troops being added, marched us 
down the road towards Nense river with the intention of turn- 
ing the enemy's flank, but about midnight the scouts brought 
in news which induced General Hoke to retrace our steps and 
at daylight we had recrossed the creek and were back in our 

The enemy in front were repulsed, but Sherman's army 
was coming up from South Carolina and we were in danger 
of being" "in a strait betwixt two." On the 10th we retreated 
through Kinston, thence through Goldsboro to Smithfield, 
where we saw General Joseph E. Johnston, who was in chief 
command. There one morning the Junior Reserves Brigade 
was drawn iip on three sides of a square to witness the execu- 
tion of three men from Zachary's Georgia Regiment, who were 
to be shot for mutiny. There were threats of rescue, hence 
this precaution. The men were tied to stakes and shot by a 
detail, half only of whose g^lns were loaded with ball, the 
other half with powder (the loading being done by others) so 
nO' man would know that he fired the fatal shot. It was a 
painful scene. 


On 16 March the battle of Averasboro was fought and the 
next morning we moved forward to meet Sherman. The 
night of the 18th we camped in the woods beyond the stream 
which runs through Bentonville. The next day, 19 March, 
was a bright Sunday morning. Hoke's Division lined the 
road and at right angles to us was the Army of the West, 
The enemy were in the angle. In the afternoon we saw the 
Western army at right angles to us as it charged and took two 
successive lines of breastworks, capturing the enemy's artil- 

Seventieth Regiment. 21 

lery. Several officers led the charge on horseback across an 
open field in full view, with colors flying and line of battle 
in such perfect order as to be able to distinguish the several 
field officers in proper place and followed by a battery which 
dashed at full gallop, wheeled, unlimbered and opened fire. 
It looked like a picture and at our distance was truly beauti- 
ful. It was gallantly done, but it was a painful sight to see 
hoAV close their battle flags were together, regiments being 
scarcely larger than companies and a division not much larger 
than a regiment should be. In the meantime Hoke's Division 
was sharply engaged with a corps which was trying to turn 
our flank. The enemy's large force enabled him to do this and 
next morning Hoke's Division was thrown back and formed a 
new line of battle facing nearly due east, whereas the day be- 
fore we had been facing southwest. 

Tbis new line the division promptly fortified with breast- 
works hastily thrown up of logs, filled in vsdth earth dug up 
with bayonets and tin pans and a few spades and shovels. In 
front of this line, two hundred yards, was the skirmish line 
of each brigade. That of our brigade was commanded by 
Major Walter Clark, of the First Eegiment. During the 
two days we held that position the enemy repeatedly charged 
and sometimes drove in the skirmishers to our right and left, 
but being favored by the ground or for some other cause, the 
skirmishers of our brigade held their ground the entire time. 
On Tviefiday afternoon, the enemy having broken through to 
our extreme left, threatened our communications. That 
night General Johnston withdrew across the stream, having 
held 70,000 of Sherman's troops at bay with forces in the 
beginning not exceeding 14,000, and at no time reaching 
20,000. In many respects this was one of the most remarka- 
ble battles of the war. Sherman's troops were evidently de- 
moralized by a long course of pillaging and plunder. 

Sherman did not follow our retreat, but sheered off to 
Goldsboro. General Johnston's army was encamped around 
Mitchener's depot and was reorganized 31 March, 100 Offi- 
cial Records Union and Confederate Armies 738-736. On 
6 April we had the last great review held of any of the Con- 
federate armies and Governor Vance made one of his most 

22 North Carolina Troops, 1861 -'65. 

inspiring speeches. No brigade there made a finer appear' 
ance than the Juniors. It was the largest brigade in Hoke's 
Division, nearly doubling in numbers Clingman's, and in- 
deed was the largest brigade in the whole army by the official 


On 10 April we began our final retreat. On 12 April we 
passed through Ealeigh, Hoke's Division being the rear guard 
and our last pickets passed through the town at midnight, 
Governor Vance passed out just ahead of us and spent tlie 
night in General Hoke's tent about seven miles west of Eal- 
eigh. We passed through Chapel Hill and the Alamance Reg- 
ulator battle ground (of 16 May, 1771) and thence on up to 
Red Cross in Randolph, where we halted several days await- 
ing the result of the "Bennett House" surrender of 14 ApriL 

In passing through Alamance the streams were much 
swollen by recent rains, and there was great difficulty in cross- 
ing and many narrow escapes from drowning occurred, espe- 
cially among the boys. 

The first treaty for surrender, the most creditable thing 
in the career of General Sherman, having been disallowed by 
President Johnson, we were again moved westward but we 
were again stopped at Bush Hill, near Trinity College, by the 
news that a final surrender had been made on 26 April. 
There on 1 May $1.25 in silver was paid tO' each one 
from general to private and on the next day, what was left 
of the command received paroles from the commanding officer 
of their respective regiments. By this time the army had 
dwindled tO' a skeleton, the certainty of a surrender and the 
unwillingness to be made prisoner having rapidly thinnedf 
the ranks. 

On the afternoon of 2 May, 1865, what was left of the 
First Regiment of Junior Reserves received their paroles and 
quietly dispersed to their respective homes. The regiment 
was off duty forever. 

We suffered, we fought, we failed, it has pleased some to 
call us rebels because we had done our duty, but history will 
record the names of the gallant, bright-faced boys of the 

Seventieth Regiment. 23 

North Carolina Junior Eeserves on that page where only 
those of heroes are written. 

Chaeles W. Beoadfoot. 
Fayettevillb, N. C, 

2 May, 1901. 


1. w. F. Bewley, Lieut.-Colopel. 

5. Wm, H, Overman, Captain, Oo, B. 

6. B. F. Eoglirs, 2d Lieut., Oo. E. 

3 d! e! MeKJinft Qaptain, Co. A. T. R M. Snirjnan, Sd Ueut., Co. B, ^ 

4 J aHStSciJUin.Co.C. a M^PA-Ludwig.Drummer.Co.F. 

9. J, W. Denmark, Drummer, Co. A. 

2. N. A. GreKory, Utajpr 


(second junior EE8ERVES. ) 

By DAVID E. McKlNNE, Captain Company A. 

The Second Eegimesnt Reserves (Juniors) was formed by 
the consolidation of the Second and Fifth Battalions, with 
the addition of other companies. 


This battalion was composed of three companies, Company 
A, Captain W. H. Overman ; Company B, Captain J. Q. Hol- 
land ; Company C, Captain John K. Wells, and was organized 
31 May, 1864, at Camp Holmes near Raleigh, by the elec- 
tion of John H. Anderson, Major. Major Anderson had 
served as a private in the "Bethel" Regiment and later as 
First Lieutenant Company D, Forty-eighth JSTorth Carolina, 
and had resigned on account of wounds. His battalion 2 
June was ordered to Goldsboro. There on 15 June Captain 
T. C. Rowland's company was added as Company D. 


This battalion was also of three companies. Company A, 
Captain A. R. Hicks ; Company B, Captain J. W. Grainger, 
and Company C, Captain McD. Boyd. It was organized at 
Goldsboro 2 June, 1864, by electing W. F. Beasley Major. 
Major Beasley had seen service as First Lieutenant Com- 
pany H, Forty-eighth jSTortli Carolina Regiment. A few 
days later Captain S. Spears' company, afterwards command- 
ed by Captain Corl, was added to this battalion and both these 
battalions were ordered to Weldon. 


On 16 July at Weldon the Second and Fifth Battalions 
were combined into Anderson's Battalion of eight compa- 
nies by electing J. H. Anderson Lieutenant>Colonel and W. 
F. Beasley Major. 

26 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

The fall of 1864, this battalion spent at Weldon. On 4 
October Captain W. S. Flynn's company was added and on 
10 October this battalion and the First Eegiment of Ee- 
serves united in an offer of their services to go to Virginia. 

personal expebiences. 

The writer, in August, was assigned to duty as Adjutant of 
the post of Weldon and filled that position until called to the 
command of his company by the subsequent retirement of 
Captain Hicks and Lieutenant Draughon. The following 
personal experiences may be of interest. On 31 August, a 
dispatch came that the enemy had burnt Winton and ISTew- 
som's and were advancing. The commander of the sub-de- 
partment issued an order to Major Walter Clark, of the Sev- 
entieth Regiment (First Junior Reserves) to go to the front, 
and take command of the scattered companies, infantry, 
cavalry or artillery in that section and keep the enemy in 
check till he could send back authentic information. The 
writei' was ordered to accompany him as Acting Adjutant- 
General. An engine and a box car containing our horses, were 
obtained by an order for them from General Arnold H. Elzey, 
commanding at Richmond, who happened to be passing 
through Weldon. The engine ran down the Seaboard road, 
car in front, till we reached Boykins, where Lieutenant Bien- 
venu, of the Louisiana Artillery, was on post with a section 
of his battery. He and some of his men armed with rifles 
were taken on board. Lieutenant Bienvenu and his men, 
took post with us on the top of the front end of the car and 
we ran down to the end of the track at Nottoway river. The 
enemy had burnt a few houses but our pickets reported they 
had left. Returning to Boykins the special train was sent 
back to Weldon while we saddled our horses and reached 
Murfreesboro by 10 o'clock at night. Off at daylight next 
morning, we went to Winton to find the enemy had burnt 
houses there and withdrawn. Thence we went on in the Cole- 
raine section towards Pitch Landing, everywhere visiting 
our cavalry outposts. Nothing naore being left to be done, 
we got back to Murfreesboro by dinner and here a singular 
thing happened. Major Clark seeing a soldier sitting on 

Seventy-First Regiment. 27 

the porch with a Spencer seven-shooter, captured from the 
enemy, reached out his hand to look at it, when to his sur- 
prise the soldier held on to one end of it and declined to 
let it go out of his hand. When we went to the stables to 
order our horses, he kept at a respectful distance, but in sight. 
Soon after Captain Hugh L. Oole, enrolling officer of that 
district, whom we knew, came over to the hotel, and at sight 
of us seemed much amused for some unknown cause, while 
the soldier suddenly and mysteriously disappeared. Not till 
after the war did we learn the solution. The sight of two 
boys of 17, one wearing the stars of Major and the other the 
bars of a Lieutenant together with our very rapid movements, 
had caused some of the cavalry the former had been sent 
to command to suspect we were spies and we had been vir- 
tually prisoners in the hotel "unbeknownst to ourselves" till 
Captain Cole raised the blockade. That evening we reach- 
ed Jackson, having ridden that day 72 miles, capturing on 
the way a Yankee straggler and a Confederate deserter, both 
of whom, with the aid of two cavalrymen, picked up by us, 
we carried into Weldon next day as the sole result of our 
commission to "take command of our forces on the Chowan 
and skirmish with the enemy, falling back if necessary, but 
sending all the information to be gathered." 


After this, in October, the Seventieth Regiment and An- 
derson's Battalion were ordered to Tarboro and thence to 
Plymouth, where the "Albemarle" had just been blown up 
by Lieutenant W. B. Cushing, of the I'ederal Navy. After 
a forced march, just as we were nearly to Plymouth, we met 
the Fiftieth North Carolina, which had been forced to evac- 
uate the town by the Federal fleet now that their dreaded en- 
emy, the iron-clad "Albemarle," was out of the way. An- 
derson's Battalion returned to Tarboro and thence to Wel- 
don, leaving the First Regiment at Fort Branch near Ham- 


On 7 December the company of Captain W. R. Williams 
was added, making a full regiment, of which -Jno. H. Ander- 

28 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

son was elected Colonel, W. F. Beasley Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and JSr. A. Gregory Major. W. G. Hunter, of Salisbury, was 
appointed Adjutant; J. P. Jordan, Assistant Surgeon; Chas. 
E. Ramseur, of Lincoln, Sergeant-Major; C. F. Bisaner, of 
Lincolnton, Commissary Sergeant; J. W. Wortt, Quarter- 
master Sergeant. 

The companies as finally reorganized and relettered, were 
as follows (including all the officers from the beginning) : 

Company A — Wayne and Duplin — Captains, Albert K- 
Hicks, of Duplin, David E. McKinne, of Wayne ; First Lieu- 
tenant, James Walter Draughan, of Sampson; Second Lieu- 
tenants, David E. McKinne and Buckner H. Smith, of 
Wayne, and Hugh F. Murray, of Pitt. 

Company B — Rowan — Captain, W. H. Overman; First 
Lieutenant, Nevin D. Fetzer; Second Lieutenants, J. J. 
Trotter and Turner P. Trotter, all of Eowan. 

Company C — Lincoln and Gaston — Captain, J. Q. Hol- 
land, of Gaston; First Lieaatenant, J. A. Beale, of Bertie; 
Second Lieutenants, L. M. Hoffman of Gaslon, C. F. Bisaner 
of Lincoln, G. F. Lucas and J. N. Hopper. 

Company D — Cleveland and Rutherford — Captain, J. K. 
Wells, of Cleveland ; First Lieutenant, H. G. Logan, of Ruth- 
erford; Second Lieutenants, J. G. Falls, Jr., of Cleveland, 
H. H. Weatherman and R. J. Durham. 

Company E — Caharrus — Captains, S. Spears and G. F. C. 
Corl, of Cabarrus; First Lieutenants, W. G. Hunter of 
Rowan, Thos. J. Shinn of Cabarrus; Second Lieutenants^, 
Frank Winecoff, John 0. Wallace and B. F. Rogers of Ca- 
barrus, and W. R. Hines of Edgecmobe. 

Company F — Union — Captain T. C. Rowland ; First Lieu- 
tenant, B. H. Benton ; Second Lieutenants, S. R. Robinson 
and H. E. Nelson. 

(jompany G — Greene and Lenoir — Captain, Jesse W. 
Grainger, of I^enoir; First Lieutenant, Samuel Laughing- 
house of Pitt; Second Lieutenants, J. Ed. Clarke of Pitt, 
Jno. F. Humphrey of Wayne, jDharles S. Smith of Halifax. 

Company H — Pitt, Johnston and Wilson — Captains, 
McD. Boyd and Joseph J. Laughinghouse ; First Lieutenants^ 

Seventy-First Regiment. 29 

J. J. Laughinghoiise, Benj. Sheppard; Second Lieutenante, 
E. B. Anderson, — . — . Smith, all of Pitt, and Eobert M. 
Funnan, of Franklin. 

Company I — Beaufort, Hyde and Tyrrell — Captain Wil- 
liam S. Flynn, of Beaufort (previo'usly in United States 
Army); First Lieutenjint, Samuel Selby, of Hyde; Second 
Lieutenants, John W. Wilkinson and John Adams. 

Company K — Halifax — Captain, W. E. Williams; First 
Lieutenant, David C. Whitaker; Second Lieutenants, W. K. 
Martin, Jr., and W. T. Purnell, all of Halifax. 

This last company had done provost duty at Weldon from 
its organization in May, 1864. Captain Williams had been 
Captain Company' F, Forty-third Eegiment, and had resigned 
on account of wounds. It had been attached to the Seven- 
tieth North Carolina as Company K, 4 July, when it was 
first organized, but subsequently Captain Jno. A. Manning's 
company was substituted. 


On 8 December, the regiment, together with six companies 
of the Seventieth Eegiment (First Juniors), hastily ordered 
from Plamilton, and the Seventh Battalion (French's), 
Eighth Battalion (Ellington's), and Ninth (Millard's) bat- 
talion, all of Junior Eeserves, ordered from Wilmington, 
were sent to Belfield, Va., to meet the advance of Warren's 
Corps. The Junior Battalions from Wilmington were un- 
der the command of Colonel George Jackson. They were 
there under the enemy's fire for the first time and followed 
the enemy several miles on his retreat. The weather was 
intensely eold and the boys, poorly clad and badly fed, suffer- 
ed terribly from exposure, though only a few were killed or 
wounded in the fight. For their conduct in this expedition, 
the Legislature of North Carolina passed a special vote of 
thanks to the Junior Eeserves. 

cou:eaine espedttion. 

In January, the regiment was joined by Millard's Battal- 
ion and sent to Coleraine, on the Chowan, to meet an expected 
advance of the enemy. The command forded rivers, 

30 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

marched in the rain without tents at night, with almost no 
camp equipage, to find that the enemy had withdrawn. On 
our return, we were ordered to Gold&boro, thence to Kin- 
ston where the three regiments of Junior Keserves (Sevesnti- 
eth. Seventy-first and Seventy-second North Carolina) and 
Millard's Battalion — being all the Juniors — ^were placed in 
a brigade commanded by Colonel F. S. Armistead and en- 
camped on the north of the railroad, about one mile west of 
the residence of John C. Washington. 

south west ceeek. 

The enemy advancing from New Bern on 6 March, we 
crossed the river with Hoke's Division (to which we were 
thenceforward attached) and O'ther troops and marched down 
to South West Creek four or five miles below Kinston, where 
we were on the left of our army, the right of our brigade rest- 
ing on the county road which runs north of the railroad. For 
some reason, Millard's Battalion was. not with us in this bat^ 
tie, but was placed farther to the right. On the afternoon 
of the 8th wp crossed the creek in our front on an improvised 
bridge and as soon as the brigade was formed in line, we 
moved forward in handsome style and drove back the enemy 
in front of us. After dark General Hoke put himself at our 
head, some other troops being added, and we moved by the 
left flank down the road towards Neuse river, the object being 
to turn the enemy's right flank. About midnight, scouts 
came in with information which caused General Hoke tO' or- 
der us to retrace our steps and by daylight we were again 
in our intrenchments west of the creek, which we had marched 
out of the afternoon before. 

As news came that Sherman was coming up by way of 
Fayetteville on the 11th, we were withdrawn, passing tbrough 
Kinston. We marched through GoldsboTO on to. Smithfield, 
where we united with the Western army and saw General 
Joseph E. Johnston. En route, on 15 March the brigade 
which at the battle of South West Creek was commanded by 
General L. S. Baker, was placed under Colonel John H. 
JSTethercutt, of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina, and that gal- 
lant oflicer and good fighter remained with us to the close. 

Seventy-First Regiment. 31 


On 17 March the army took up the movement to meet 
Sherman. On the night of the 18th we encamped just be- 
yond Bentonville. The next day was a bright Sunday morn- 
ing, and we were in the fight on the left of Hoke's Division. 
In the afternoon we witnessed the gallant charge of our de- 
pleted army of the "West when it charged and took two succes- 
sive lines from the enemy. His overwhelming numbers, 
however, enabled Sherman to out-flank us on our left during 
the night and next morning our line of battle which had faced 
southwest on Sunday was thrown back and faced nearly due 
east. This line was strengthened by a hasty breastwork of 
logs and dirt which we held, against all assaults, on the 20th 
and 21st. On the night of the latter day the enemy having 
outflanked us again on our left we quietly withdrew, and 
leisurely fell back to Mitchener's depot. Sherman did not 
pursue, but moved on to Goldsboro to join the column from 
ISTew Bern which we had met at South West Creek. The 
conduct of the Junior Brigade at Bentonville was admirable 
and elicited high praise not only from Colonel Nethercutt, 
commanding the brigade, but from Generals Hoke and Har- 
dee, commanding the division and the Corps. General Jos. 
E. Johnston in his published writings since the war has added 
his encomiums. Our loss in killed and wounded was report- 
ed as 41. For three days with 14,000 men, at no time, with 
all reinforcements, reaching 30,000, Johnston had held at 
bay Sherman's 70,000, and had fought one of the most re- 
markable battles of the war. 

At Mitchener's depot, the army was reorganized and took 
a much needed rest. On 6 April we had a grand review, the 
last held in the Confederate armies. The Junior Brigade 
was the largest on the parade. Governor Vance was present 
and made one of his most stirring speeches. 

THE eeteeat. 

On 9 April General Lee surrendered at Appomattox. On 
the next day, we began our retreat simultaneously with Sher- 
man's advance from Goldsboro. On 12 April we passed 
through Raleigh, Hoke's Division being the rear guard. 

32 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Here a few of the officers heard of Lee's surrender, but it 
was not known to the army at large. At midnight, our last 
pickets passed through and early on the 13th the United 
States forces took possession of the Capital of the State. 

We encamped the night of the .12th about seven miles west 
of Kaleigh. Next morning our army divided, part going 
via Ilillsboro to Greensboro, while Hardee's Corps, to which 
we belonged, took the route through Chapel Hill and via Al- 
amance battle ground. Haw river and Alamance creek were 
greatly swollen by the rains and with great difficulty were 

A striking incident of the crossing is thus related by Lieu- 
tenant E. M. Furman, of our regiment (since State Auditor). 
One of the smaller boys disappearing under the water, a 
taller and stouter comrade grabbed him and pulled him up, 
he dived down a second and third time and on being pulled up 
his comrades, suspecting an attempt at suicide, asked what he 
meant. "'Why," said the little fellow, shivering and drip- 
ping, "My gun's down thar and I'm trying to git hit." 


We halted several days at Eed Cross, in Eandolph, to await, 
as it turned out, President Johnson's action on the Johnson- 
Sherman treaty made at the Bennett house near Durham 14 
April. This being disapproved at Washington, we again 
moved westward but the definite surrender of 26 April near 
Greensboro having been arranged, we were again halted at 
Bush Hill, half way between Trinity College and High 
Point. This proved our last march and oiir last halting place 
as Confederate soldiers. After it became apparent that a 
surrender was at hand, many left, fearing a prison. At 
our last halt $1.25 in silver was paid to each man in the army 
without respect to rank and at the close the mule teams were 
divided among the members of the regiment to Avhich the 
wagons belonged. 

On 1 May, Major-General Robert P. Hoke, who was one 
of the youngest and best generals in the army and command- 
ed our division, issued the following farewell address to the 

Seventy-First Regiment. 33 

"Soldiers of my Division : 

"On tJie eve of a long, perhaps final separation, I desire to 
address to you the last sad words of parting. 

"The fortunes of war have turned the scales against us. 
The proud banners which you have waved so gloriously on 
many a field are to be furled at last; but they are not dis- 
graced. My comrades, your indomitable courage, your 
heroic fortitiide, your patience under suffering have sur- 
rounded these witii a halo which future years cannot dim. 
HistO'ry will bear witness to your valor and succeeding gener- 
ations will point with admiration to your grand struggle for 
constitutional freedom. Soldiers, your past is full of glory. 
Treasure it in your hearts. Remember each gory battle field, 
each day of victory, each bleeding comrade. Think then of 
your future. 

" Freedom's battle once begun, 
Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son, 
Though baffled oft, is ever won." 

"You have yielded to overwhelming forces, not to supe- 
rior valor; you are paroled prisoners, not slaves; the love of 
liberty which led you in the contest still bums as brightly in 
your hearts as ever, cherish it, nourish it, associate it with 
the histoTy of the past. Transmit to jowr children, teach 
them the rights of freemen and teach them to maintain them ; 
teach them that the proudest day in all your proud career 
was that on which you enlisted as a Southern soldier, entering 
that holy brotherhood whose ties are now sealed in the blood 
of your compatriots, who have fallen and whose history is 
covered with the brilliant records of the past four years. 

"Soldiers amid the imperishable laurels that surmount 
your bx'ows, no brighter leaf adorns you than your late con- 
nection with the AriTiy of JSTorthern Virginia. The star that 
shone with splendor over its oft repeated field of victory, over 
the two deadly struggles of Manassas Plains, Richmond, 
Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg has sent its rays and 
been reflected wherever true courage is admired and wherever 
freedom has a friend. That star has set in blood, but yet in 
glory. That army is now of the past. Its banners trail, but 

34 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

not with ignominy ; no stain blots its escutcheon, no blood can 
tinge your face as you proudly announce that you have a part 
in the past history of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

"My comrades, we have borne together the same hard- 
ships, we have braved the same dangers, we have rejoiced 
over the same victory ; your trials and your patience have ex- 
cited sympathy and admiration and I have borne willing wit- 
ness to your bravery. It is with a heart full of grateful emo- 
tion for your service and ready obedience that I take leave of 

"May the future of every one of you be as happy as your 
past career has been brilliant and no cloud ever dim the 
brightness of your fame. The past looms before me in its 
illuminating grandeur. Its memories are a part of the past 
life of each one of you ; but it is all now over. The sad, dark 
veil of defeat is between us and a life time of sorrow is our 
only heritage. 

"You carry to your home the heartfelt wishes of your Gen- 
eral for your prosperity. 

"My command, farewell ! 

"E. F. Hoke, 
"Maj or-Gener al. 

"Headquarters Hoke's Division, near Greensboro, N. 0., 
1 May, 1865." 

On 2 May, 1865, we fell in ranks for the last time . 
and our paroles were given to each man and dividing 
into squads, we took our several ways to our homes, where 
"amid departed hopes there lingered (for many) the melan- 
choly attractions of the grave." Those days have passed, so 
has our youth. The Juniors are now more than Seniors, but 
while one of our regiment remains, he will always say with 
pride "I belonged to the Second Regiment of the ITorth Caro- 
lina Junior Reserves." 

David E. McKinne. 
Phikckton, N. C. 
2 May, 1901. 

1 O «;.. Wi 



Wki . 

'v JfMiH 





1 -^> 





1 . , 









1. John W. Hinsdale, Colonel. 

2. W. Foster French, Lieut-Colonel. 

3. W. W. King, 1st Lieut., Co. A. 

4. Jno. W. Harper, 2d Lieut., Co. C. 

B. H. W. Connelly, 2d Lieut., Co. C. 

6. J. M. Bandy, 2d Lieut., Co. E. 

7. D. S. Reid, 2d Lieut., Co. K. 

8. C. W. Taylor, Orderly Sergt., Co. 0. 

9. J. L. McGimpsey, Private, Co. B. 


(third junior resehvbs.) 

By JOHN W. HINSDALE, Colonel. 

It affords the writer pleasure to respond to the invitation 
of Judge Walter Clark, himsielf a distinguished officer of the 
boy-soldiers, to make a lasting memorial of the courage and 
heroism of the brave and patriotic lads who composed the 
Third Regiment of Junior Reserves, known since the war as 
the Seventy-second Regiment of North Carolina Troops. It 
is to be regretted that the task has not been performed at an 
earlier day, before the stirring scenes in which these youths 
took so conspicuous a part have faded into the dim outline of 
ft shadowy dream. Some inaccuracies must now necessarily 
creep into- this sketch. Fortunately, the writer was Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General of Lieutenant-General Theophilus H. 
Holmes, who commanded the Reserves of North Carolina, 
and has in his possession many valuable records pertaining 
to that office, access tO' which has been of great ass.istance in 
the preparation of this regimental |iistory. 

It is deemed not inappropriate here to narrate some things 
of a general nature concsirning the Reserves. 

The year 1863 closed with depression and gloom through- 
out our young Confederacy. Missouri, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Tennessee and the Arkansas and Mississippi Valleys had 
been lost. Vicksburg, with its ill-fated commander, had sur- 
rendered. Gettysburg, in spite of the heroic efforts of Caro- 
lina's best and bravest, had been turned by Longstreet's de- 
fault into a Union victory. All of our ports had been block- 
aded. Sherman with his army of bummers, was preparing 
for his infamous march through Georgia and the Carolinas in 
which he emulated the atrocities of the Duke of Alva, pro- 
claiming as his excuse that "War is hell," and violating, with 
fire and sword, every principle of civilized warfare. Grant 

36 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

had been placed in command of all the Union armies and was 
preparing to take personal charge of a campaign of attrition 
against the Army of Northern Virginia, willing to swap five 
for one in battle, if need be, in order to exhaust his straitened 
adversary — a process by which with his unlimited resources 
of men, he knew he was bound to win in the end. 

It was under such dire distress that the Confederate Con- 
gress lY February, 1864, aroused to a full sense of the magni- 
tude of the struggle, and recognizing the necessity for putting 
forth our whole strength in the contest for Southern inde^ 
pendence, passed an act for the enrollment of the Junior and 
Senior Reserves — the formeir, lads between 17 and 18 years — 
the latter, old men, between 45 and 50 years — thus, in the 
language of President Davis, "robbing the cradle and the 

Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes was entrusted by Pres- 
ident Davis with the organization of the reserve forces in 
North Carolina. A true son of the Old North State, he had 
promptly responded to- her call, and resigning a Major's com- 
mission in the United States Army, had been appointed by 
the President first Colonel, then Brigadier, then Major-Gen- 
eral and finally Lieut6nan1>General. As courageous as a 
lion, he was as gentle as a woman. At the battle of Hele- 
na, Arkansas, amid a storm of shot and shell, with a cool- 
ness which the writer hasj never seen surpassed, he rode into 
Graveyard Hill, upon which was concentrated the fire at short 
range of fifty cannon and five thousand muskets. It was a 
daring and fearless ride. Like General Pettigrew, he was 
one of the few men who declined promotion. Well does the 
writer, remember the receipt by General Holmes, when com- 
manding the Trans-Mississippi Department in Little Eock, of 
a LieutenantGeneral's commission, all unsought and unex- 
pected. He at once dictated a letter to the President, declin- 
ing with grateful thanks the high honor and requesting him 
to bestow it upon a worthier man. It was only upon Mr. 
Davis' insistance that the promotion was afterwards accepted, 

Mr. Davis in his "Rise and Fall of the Confederate Gov- 
ernment," says of him: 

"He has passed beyond the reach of censure or of praise, 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 37 

after serving his country on many fields wisely and well. I, 
who knew him from our school boy days, who served with 
him in garrison and in the field, and with pride watched him 
as he gallantly led a storming party up the rocky height at 
Monterey, and was 'intimately acquainted with his whole 
career during our sectional war, bear willing testimony to the 
purity, self abnegation, generosity, fidelity and gallantry 
which characterized him as a man and as a soldier." A 
truer, braver, purer heart never beat under the Confederatei 

General Holmes on 28 April, 1864, established his head- 
quarters at Raleigh, N. C, and undertook the task of or- 
ganizing the Reserves of the State. His staff consisted 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Frank S. Armistead, a graduate of 
West Point, as Inspector-General. He was later elected Col- 
onel of the First Regiment of Junior Reserves and was after- 
wards assigned tO' the command of the brigade consisting of 
the first three regiments. He was recommended by General 
Holmes for vlie appointment of Brigadier-General in terms 
of high praise. 

Captain John W. Hinsdale, as Assistant Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, who had served in this capacity on the staffs of Gen- 
erals Pettigrew at Seven Pines, and Pender, through the 
Seven Days' Fight around Richmond, and also with General 
Holmes in the Transi-Mississippi. 

First Lieutenants Theophilus H. Holmes, Jr., and Charles 
W. Broadfoot, Aides-de-Camp. The first, a mere boy, soon 
afterwards gave his young life to his country while gallantly 
leading a cavalry charge near Ashland, Virginia. The lat- 
ter, a member of the Bethel Regiment, rose from private to 
Colonel of the First Junior Reserves, and is now one of the 
first lawyers of the upper Cape Fear. 

First Lieutenant Graham Daves was appointed Aide^de- 
Camp after the death of young Holmes and the promotion of 
Lieutenant Broadfoot. He was a brave and efficient officer of 
scholarly attainments and high integrity. A. W. Lawrence, 
of Raleigh, was appointed ordnance officer, and Dr. Thomas 
Hill, now an eminent physician of GoldsborO', was appointed 
Hedical Director. 

38 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Major Charles S. Stringfellow, now on© of Eichmond's 
most distinguished lawyers, succeeded Captain Hinsdale as 
Assistant Adjutant-General upon the latter's promotion. 


The Third Regiment of Junior Reseirves was formed 3 
January, 1865, by the consolidation of the Fourth Battalion, 
commanded by Major J. M. Reece; the Seventh Battalion, 
commanded by Major W. F. French; and the Eighth Battal- 
ion, commanded by Major J. B. Ellington. It is proper, 
therefore, to give an account of their services as separate or- 


The Fourth Battalion, four hundred strong, was organ' 
ized at Camp Holmes, near Raleigh, N. C, on 30 May, 1864, 
by the election of J. M. Reece, of G-reensboro, Major: .Tohu 
S. Pescud, of Raleigh, was appointed Adjutant. Pescud 
was a brave, true-hearted lad, and is now an honored citizen 
of Raleigh. The battalion was sent to Goldsboro 2 June. 
It was composed of the following companies : 

Company A — From Guilford County — John W. Pitts, 
Captain; J. IST. Crouch, First Lieutenant; T. A. Parsons and 
George M. Glass, Second Lieutenants. 

Upon the resignation of all the company officers, W. W, 
King was elected First Lieutenant and Davis S. Reid Second 
Lieutenant. The former was in command of the company 
at Fort Fisher, Kinston and Bentonville. He also' acted as 
Regimental Adjutant for a time, when D. S. Reid com- 
manded the company. Both of these officers were intelligent, 
brave and efficient. 

Company B — From, Alamance and Forsyth Counties — A. 
L. Lancaster, Captain ; A. M. Craig, First Lieutenant ; Wil- 
liam May and C. B. Pfohl, Second Lieutenants. 

Company C^ — From Stokes and Person Counties — R. F, 
Dalton, Captain ; G. Mason, First Lieutenant ; G. W. Yan- 
cey and J. H. Shackelford, Second Lieutenants. 

Company D — From Rockingham — A. B. Ellington, Cap- 
tain ; J. P. Ellington, First Lieutenant ; F. M. Hamlin and 
William Fewell, Second Lieutenants. This company was 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 39 

added to the Battalion 15 June. Captain Ellington was pro- 
moted to the Majority when the regiment was formed. 

Lieutenant J. P. Ellington in July, 1864, was drowned 
in Masonboro Sound, while in the discharge of his duty as of- 
ficer of the day, visiting the pickets on the beach. His body 
was recovered by exploding torpedoes in the sound. 

Lieutenant F. M. Hamlin was promoted to the First Lieu- 
tenancy and commanded the company until he was made Ad- 
jutant of the regiment. 

The battalion soon after its organization was ordered to 
GoldsboTO to report to Brigadier-General L. S. Baker, com- 
manding the district of Southern Virginia and Eastern 
North Carolina. It was sent thence to Kinston and there 
did guard and picket duty. On 15 June it was ordered to 
report to Colonel Frank S. Armistead at Weldon. He had 
been placed in command of the defences at that point. On 
26 June the battalion was ordered tO' report to General W. H. 
C Whiting, at Wilmington, the only remaining port of the 
Confederacy. The battalion thereupon was stationed at Camp 
Davis near Wilmington, on Masonboro Soimd, under com- 
mand of Colonel George Jackson, an efficient officer, and 
did picket and guard duty on the sound and the beach to pre- 
vent the landing of the enemy, the escape of slaves to the 
blockaders and all communication with the passing vessels. 
It was here that young Ellington, of Company D, lost his life, 
crossing the Sound in a storm while on his rounds as officer of 
the day. He was a zealous and capable officer. The salt 
works, from which large supplies of salt were obtained for the 
army, were in the vicinity of this camp, and were guarded by 
the battalion. 

From Camp Davis the battalion moved to Sugar Loaf, on 
the Cape Fear River, about fifteen miles below Wilmington, 
six miles above Fort Fisher and one mile from the oceaiu 
where it drilled and did guard and picket duty. "Sugr.r 
Loaf" is a singular formation. It is a high sand hill run- 
ning from the river bank half way across the peninsula, stce]. 
on the exterior, but sloping on all sides to a basin in the cen- 
tre. It is a natural fortification, which the engineering skill 
of General Whiting, by fosse and rampart, had converted 

40 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

into an impregnable intrenched camp, containing perhaps 
one hundred acres. 

On 9 December, 1864, the battalion went from Sugar Loaf 
to Belfield, Virginia, in company Avith the Seventh and 
Eighth Battalions. Its future movements will be described 
in connection with the other two- batteries. 


The Seventh Battalion, 300 strong, was organized at Camp 
Lamb, near Wilmington, in June, 1864, by the election of W. 
F. French, of Lumberton, Major, and E. F. McDaniel, of 
Fayetteville, was appointed Adjutant. This battalion was 
composed of the following companies : 

Company A — From Cumberland, Robeson and Harnett 
Counties — T. L. Ilybart, Captain ; I). S. Byrd, First Lieuten- 
ant; C. C. McLellan and C. S. Love, Jr., Second Lieuten- 

Upon the death of Captain Hybert, on 9 September, D. S. 
Byrd was promoted to the Captaincy. 

Company B — From New Hanover, Brunswick and ColuTn- 
hus Counties — John D. Kerr, Captain ; J. B. Williams, First 
Lieutenant; E. H. Moore and B. F. Gore, Second Lieuten- 

Company C — From. Richmond County — Donald Mc- 
Queen, Captain ; A. B. McCoUum, First Lieutenant ; A. 0. 
McFadyen and S. A. Barfield, Second Lieutenants. 

The battalion did guard duty at Wilmington until the mid- 
dle of July. Here Captain Donald McQueen died of typhoid 
fever on 25 June. He was a fine soldier, an honor to his 
name and to his cause. Lieutenant McCoUum succeeded him 
in command of the company. 

On the night of 3 July, 1864, Lieutenant Cushing, of the 
Federal Navy (the same who blew up the Confederate ram 
"Albemarle" at Plymouth), with a few detailed men, entered 
the Confederate headquarters at Smithville (now Sonthport) 
and carried off General Paul O. Hebert's Adjutant-General 
to the Federal fleet. Thereupon the Seventh Battalion was 
ordered from Wilmington to Smithville for its protection. 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 41 

It camped in a beautiful grove of live oaks back of the town. 
Here it did its full share of guard and picket duty under the 
command of General Hebert, an old officer who had served 
with distinction in Mexico and had been Governor of Louis- 
iana. It was here that Captain T. L. Hybart, of Fayetteville, 
was stricken with typhoid fever and died 9 September, 1864. 
He was one of the best officers in the command, and had he 
lived and the war continued, would have made his mark. 
The battalion remained at Smithville until 9 December when, 
with the Fourth and Eighth Battalions, all under Colonel 
Jackson, it moved tO' Belfield, Virginia, tO' repel a Federal 


The Eighth Battalion, 300 hundred strong, was organized 
at Camp Vance, near Morgan ton, N. C, on 7 June, by the 
election of James B. Ellington (First Lieutenant in Com- 
pany D, Sixty- first North Carolina Regiment), as Major. 
It was composed of the following companies : 

Company A — From, Iredell County — W. G. Watson, Cap- 
tain ; George Ruf us White, First Lieutenant ; Amos M. Guy 
and Sinclair Preston Steele, Second Lieutenants. 

Captain Watson resigned in January, 1865, for the pur- 
pose of joining a cavalry regiment in Lee's army. He re- 
turned home to procure his outfit for the service, but was 
captured by Stoneman and sent to prison in Louisville, Ky. 
He is now the excellent and populai' clerk of the Superior 
Court of Rowan County. Upon his resignation, Lieutenant 
White was promoted to the Captaincy. 

Company B — From Catawhw — J. R. Gaither, Captain; J. 
M. Lawrence, First Lieutenant (both captured at Fort 
Fisher) ; Charles Wilfong and J. M. Bandy, Second Lieu- 

Lieutenant Wilfong resigned after the battle of Kinston, 
and Lieutenant Bandy thereafter until the surrender, com- 
manded the company. He made a fine off.cer. After the 
war he was for a number of years a professor in Trinity Col- 
lege. He now resides in Greensboro, where as a civil engineer 
he ranks high in his profession. Sergeant James M. Barkley 

42 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

was elected Second Lieutenant and F. H^. Busbee Junior Sec- 
ond Lieaitenant. Both of them were excellent officers. Lieu- 
tenant Barkley is now an able and eminent minister of the 
Gospel in Detroit, Mich. I am indebted toi him for many 
data M'hich I have incorporated intO' this sketch. Lieutenant 
Busbee is now one of the first lawyers of the State — a bril- 
liant advocate and a wise and learned counsellor. 

Company C — Prom Burke and Caldwell Counties — Lam- 
bert A. Bristol, Captain; Marcus G. Tuttle, First Lieuten- 
ant ; George T. Dula and Horace W. Connelly, Second Lieu- 

George T. Dula resigned and John W. Harper was elected 
Junior Second Lieoitemant. He soon thereafter laid down 
his young life on his country's altar. He was killed at the 
battle of Kinston. 

The battalion remained for some days at Camp Vance and 
was drilled by Lieutenant Bullock, a drill master. On 24 
June, it was ordered to Raleigh and at Camp Holmes was 
uniformed and equipped with small rifles, which were very 
inferior and quite dangerous — to the "man behind the gun.'' 
On 26 June the battalion was ordered to Wilmington. It 
went into camp at Caanp Davis. It afterwards did picket 
and patrol duty on Masonboro and Wrightsville Sounds under 
Colonel George Jackson. On 4 August it was ordered to re- 
port tO' General L. S. Baiter, at Goldsboro, but returned to 
Wilmington 16 August and was again placed under Colonel 
Jackson's command at Masonboro Sound. 

On 2 September, under orders from the War Department, 
Major Ellington, who when elected Major was disabled from 
active service by wounds, and who afterwards recovered, was 
relieved of his command and sent to his company near 
Petersburg, Virginia, He was soon afterwards killed at 
Fort Harrison, Virginia. Major Ellington was a gallant 
officer and much beloved by the boys. It was a mistake to 
have relieved him. General Holmes afterwards secured a 
ruling of the War Department by which the officers of the 
Junior Reserves after they reached the age of 18, were re^ 
tained. But the privates and non-commissioned officers were 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 43 

still required to be sent to General Lee as fast as they became 
eighteen years old. 

Captain William G. Watson succeeded Major Ellington in 
the command of the battalion. In the fall, the battalion was 
ordered to Sugar Loaf, on the Cape Fear river, where for 
several months it did picket duty, drilled, etc. On 10 Decem- 
ber it was ordered to Belfield, Va., under Colonel Jackson. 
Its further career will be traced in connection vsrith the 
Fourth and Seventh Battalions from which it never after sep- 
arated until Johnston's surrender. 


On 8 December, 1864, General Whiting was notified by 
General Lee that the Fifth and Second Corps of Grant's 
army, with Bragg's Division of Cavalry, were moving under 
General Warren upon Weldon, and that they were near Bel- 
field and that Hill and Hampton were following them. One 
object of this raid was to destroy the railroad bridge at Wel- 
don and thus cut off supplies for Lee's army from that direc- 
tion. General Whiting at once ordered Colonel George Jack- 
son to proceed with the Fonrth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth 
Battalions of Junior Reserves and four pieces of Paris' Artil- 
lery with three days' cooked rations, to Weldon, and there 
report for temporary service to General Leventhorpe, com- 
manding. The latter, an Englishman by birth, was the first 
Colonel first of the Thirty-fourth and then of the Eleventh 
North Carolina Regiments, and had done splendid service in 
clearing the enemy from the Roanoke river and in defending 
the Wilmington & Weldon Railway. 

The four battalions assembled in Wilmington from Sugar 
Loaf and Smithville. Through the efforts of Major French, 
the troops were here shod. They were placed on flat cars 
and thus exposed, were transported tO' Weldon. The weather 
was intensely cold. More than once the train had to be 
stopped, fires made in the woods and some of the boys lifted 
from the train and carried to the fires and thawed out. Many 
went to sleep in their wet clothes to find them frozen stiff 
upon awakening. This suffering was undergone without a 
murmur. The old guard of Napoleon on the retreat from 

44 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Moscow, never displayed more heroism and fortitude than 
did the boy-soldiers — the Young Guard of the Confederacy. 

Under the law, the reserves could not be required to cross 
their State lines, bvit without hesitation and without an ex- 
ception, the brave boys at Weldon hxirried on to Belfield, Vir- 
ginia, there tO' meet the invading foe. The Federals with- 
drew, leaving their dead unburied, after a sharp fire and re- 
pulse from the reseih^es who had just reached the battlefield, 
and the latter joined in the pursuit across the Meherrin river 
at Hicks' Ford. On 17 December, 1864, the General Assem- 
bly of North Carolina, recognizing their heroism, passed the 
following resolutions : 

"Whereas, The Legislature has heard with satisfaction 
of the good conduct of the officers and soldiers of the Junior 
Reserves and Home Guards, who volunteered to cross the 
State line into Virginia, in order to repel the late advance of 
the public enemy on Weldon ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That the officers and soldiers of the Junior Re- 
serves and Home Guards, so' acting, deserve the commenda- 
tion of their fellow citizens, and are entitled to the thanks of 
this Legislature. 

"Resolved, That a copy of these proceedings be transmitted 
to Lieutenant-General Holmes and Major-General R. C. Gat- 
lin, that it may be communicated to the commands which 
they are intended to honor." 

From Belfield the four battalions, together with the First 
and Second Regiments of Junior Reserves, were ordered, un- 
der (^olonel Levemthorpe, to Tarboro' to repel a Federal raid 
from Washington, JST. C. The command moved to Hamilton, 
some miles below Tarboro^. The enemy retired upon the ad- 
vance of the Confederate troops. The battalions remained 
there a day or two and returned to Tarboro. The troops 
camped about a mile northeast of the town for several days. 
The boys were \vithout overcoats, tent flies or tents, and lay 
upon the bare ground in the rain and sleet and sno'W Many 
of them were frost bitten A good old farmer along side 
whose fence the boys camped on the first night of their stay, 
kindly gave them leave tO' start their fires by using the top rail 
of his fence. When he came back next morning there was 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 45 

not a rail to be seen. When he remonstrated, saying that 
they had taken more than he had given them leave to' take, 
one wag said: "]^o, sir; as long as there was a top rail, 
we had your permission to burn it. We never took any but 
the top rail." The old man laughed good naturedly and 

The severity of the experience of the Reserves on the Bel- 
field expedition may be realized when it is stated that 
although they had been in camp over six months and had 
been somewhat enured to a soldier's life, over one-half of them 
were sent to the hospital when the battalion returned to Wil- 

The command marched thence to' Goldsboro and by train 
was conveyed to Wilmington, and thence back to- Sugar Loaf. 
There they remained under the command of General W. W. 
Kirkland until the battle of Fort Fisher. This officer was 
a splendid fighter and a superb soldier. He was Colonel of 
the Twenty-first North Carolina Regiment, and afterwards 
commanded Early's Brigade, Pettigrew's Division. He had 
taken part in many of the desperate battles of Virginia and 
had been twice severely wounded. He was transferred to 
Wilmington late in December and established his headquar- 
ters at Sugar Loaf. 


TTie three battalions composing the Third Regiment of 
Junior Reserves participated brilliantly in the defence of 
Fort Fisher, when attacked by General B. F. Butler and Ad- 
miral Porter on 23, 24 and 25 December, 1864. 

Fort Fisher was located on the point of a narrow penin- 
sula which extends southwardly from New Inlet between the 
ocean and Cape Fear river, near its mouth. It defended 
Wilmington, the last remaining port through which army 
supplies, ammunition, clothing and food for Lee's Army 
were brought in by blockade runners. Under its guns, the 
"Ad- Vance" brought in supplies of inestimable value to our 
North Carolina troops. Its defence was of supreme import- 
ance to the Confederacy. It was an earthen fort of an irreg- 
ular form, with bastions at the angles. The land face, 250 

46 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

yards long, was continuous from ocean to river. The sea 
face was 1,300 yards long. Both faces were mounted with 
heavy guns, mortars and light artillery, presenting a formid- 
able front to the enemy. It was the strongest earthwork 
built by 'the Confederacy, really, as Admiral Porter said, 
"stronger than the MalaiofE tower which defied so long the 
combined power of France and England. Two miles above 
the fort were the Half Moon and the Flag Pond Batteries, 
and a mile and a quarter below, and at the extreme end of the 
peninsula. Battery Buchanan with four heavy guns. 

When Butler's expedition of 8,000 men set fortb against 
it, the fort was garrisoned by only 66 Y men — a totally inad- 
equate force for its defence. General Butler, with General 
Weitzel and his troops, appeared in transports off New Inlet, 
near Fort Fisher, on 15 December. The navy under Ad- 
miral Porter, did not appear until the 18tli. He had col- 
lected the largest and most formidable naval expedition of 
modern times. The weather being stormy, prevented any 
hostile operations until the 23d. On the night of the 23d, 
Admiral Porter anchored a powder ship, containing 215 ton* 
of powder, about 800 yards from the northeast salient of the 
fort. It was anticipated that the explosion of this mass of 
powder would greatiy impair, if not destroy, the works, and 
the least effect expected was that the garrison would be so par- 
alyzed and stunned as to offer but small resistance to subse- 
quent attacks. The explosion did nO' more harm than a Chi- 
nese flre-eracker. Colonel William Lamb, then in command 
of the fort, wired General Whiting at Wilmington tbat one of 
the enemy's fleet had blown up, so little impression did it 
make on him. 

General Benjamin F. Butier, of New Orleans fame, in bis 
autobiography, gives an amusing account of an interview 
with Major Eeece, who commanded the Fourth Battalion of 
Junior Reserves and was captured at Fort Fisher. Butler 
says : "I inquired of him where he was the night before last 
(the night of the explosion of the powder boat). He said 
he was lying two miles and a half up the beach. I asked 
him if he had heard the powder vessel explode. He said he 
did not know what it Avas, but supposed a boat had blown up, 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 47 

that it jumped him and his men who were lying upon the 
ground, like pop-corn in a popper, to use his expression." It 
is hard to tell which most to admire. Butler's gullibility or 
Reece's "jollying" extravagance. 

The next day, 24 December, was employed by Porter in 
bombarding the fort, dropping into it as many as 130 shells 
a minute. At this time the three battalions of Junior Re- 
serves, about 800 strong, were encamped near Sugar Loaf, six 
miles up the Cape Fear river from the fort. On the night 
of the 24th, the Fourth, Seventh and Eighth battalions were 
assembled at Sugar Loaf under Brigadier-General William 
W. Kirkland. Major French had been temporarily assigned 
tO' the command of a regiment of Senior Reserves, but at his 
request was permitted to return to^ his own command and fol- 
low its fortunes. General Whiting directed General Kirk- 
land to send these battalions to Battery Buchanan, there to 
take boat for Bald Head and relieve Colonel J. J. Hedrick 
and his seasoned veterans, in order that they might reinforce 
Fort Fisher. They marched soon after midnight through 
Fort Fisher to Battery Buchanaa, on the extreme end of the 
peninsula. In the darkness, many of the boys while passing 
through the fort, stumbled into the holes which were made in 
every direction by the shells. All the battalions arrived at 
Fort Buchanan before day. The boat which was to carry 
them to Bald Head could not make a landing on account of 
the tide, whereupon Captain Bristol early in the morning re- 
ported in person the situation tO' Colonel Lamb, who or- 
dered the Juniors intO' the Fort. This was early Christmas 

Between Fort Buchanan and Fort Fisher is a clear, open 
beach, upon which a partridge could not hide himself, over 
which they must pass in full view of the fleet. As soon as 
the march began the fleet poured upon the command a terrific 
discharge of shot and shell. The first one killed at Fort 
Fisher was Private Davis, of French's Battalion of Juniors, 
who on this march was cut in two by a large shell. Another 
private was severely wounded by the same shell. Nothing 
but the poor practice of the fleet saved the boys from utter 
destruction on this perilous march. When they reached 

48 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Fort Fisher a scene of desolation met their gaze. The bar- 
racks had been destroyed and the interior of the fort was 
honeycombed by holes in the gro-und large enough to bury 
an OK team made by the huge shells from the fleet. French's 
battalion and as many of the others as could be ac- 
commodated, wei*e placed in the already over-crowded bomb- 
proofs. Those who could not obtain protection here were 
carried by Major Reece to the breastworks at Camp Wyatt, 
three miles above the fort. The gunboats soon discovered 
their presence there and enfiladed the trenches with a terrific 
fire. The boys sought shelter under the banks of the river, 
where tlaey spent the day listening tO' the music of the great 
guns of the fleet and watching the great shells as they passed 
over them into the river — a grand, but not a very engaging 

It was after dark when Major Reece determined to take his 
command back tO' the fort. Late in the afternoon he heard 
the report of small arms in the direction of the fort. He 
knew that a land force was attacking the fort, and he felt 
that it was his duty tO' take his boys to the rescue. He 
marched them down the river towards the fort But unfor- 
tunately he failed to put out a skirmish line and fell upon a 
regiment of General Weitzel's troopsr by whom he and a ma- 
jority of his command were captured and carried to Point 
Lookout. The following is a list of the officers who were 
taken prisoners: 

Major J. M. Reece; Captain J. R. Gaither, First Lieu- 
tenant J. M. Lawrencei, of Company B, Eighth Battalion; 
First Lieutenant M. G. T'uttle, Company C, Eighth Battal- 
ion ; Second Lieutenant George W. Yancey, Company C, 
Fourth Battalion; Second Lieutenant C. P. Pfohl, Com- 
pany B, Fourth Battalion. Those officers who escaped 
were Captain A. L. Lancaster, Company B, Fourth Bat- 
talion ; First Lieutenant G. R. White, Company A, Eighth 
Battalion; Second Lieutenant Amos Guy, Company A, 
Eighth Battalion; Third Lieutenant S. P. Steele, Company 
A, Eighth Battalion. 

First Lieutenant F. M. Hamlin, Company I), Fourth Bat- 
talion, a brave young subaltern, led a part of his company up 

Seventy-Second Kegiment. 49 

the river and escaped capture. Ttey found their way to 
Kirkland's Brigade at Sugar Loaf and rejoined their cora- 
mand at the fort next day. 

The fleet bombarded the fort until 12 o'clock Christmas 
day, when Butler landed 2,500 troops near tbe Half Moon 
Battery, about two miles north of Fisher. He immedi- 
ately pushed up Curtis' Brigade within a few hundred yards 
of the parapet of the fort. A skirmish line was then, ad- 
vanced to within seventy-five yaxds of the fort. Upon the 
approach of the enemy, the Junior Reserves sprang to the 
parapet of the land face which was swept by tbe guns of the 
fleet, and by a well-directed fire, delivered with a coolness 
which could not be excelled, they repelled the attack. One 
little fellow from Columbus County, whope name is not re- 
membered, being too small to shoot over the parapet, mounted 
a cannon and fired from there as coolly as if he were shoot- 
ing squirrels, until he fell wounded. About dusk the Re- 
serves were ordered to the palisades in front of the parapet 
and immediately under the guns of the fort, where they re- 
mained till morning. The guns of the fort were discharged 
over their heads. The rain was descending in torrents. That 
night the Federals re-embarked most of their men. 

General Whiting in his report says: "Colonel Tansill 
was ordered to the command of the land front. The gallant 
Major Reilly, with his battalion and Junior Reserves, poured 
cheering, over the parapet and through the sallyport to the pal- 
isades. The enemy had occupied the redoubt (an unfinished 
fort) and advanced into the port garden. A fire of grape 
and musketry checked any further advance. The garrison 
continued to man the out-works and channel batteries through- 
out the night, exposed to a pelting storm and occasionally ex- 
changing musket shots with the enemy. The fire had been 
maintained for seven hours and a half with unremitting 

Colonel William Lamb who, under General Whiting, com- 
manded the troops, in his refport says: "At 4:30 p. m., 25 
December, a most terrific fire against the land face and pali- 
sades in front commenced, unparalleled in severity. Ad- 
miral Porter estimated it at 130 shot and shell per minute. 

50 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

vanced towards the works. When the parapet and the guns 
were manned by regnlars and the Junior Reserves. 

"During the night the rain fell in torrents, wetting the 
troops and their arms, but it did not dampen their spirits nor 
interfere with their efficiency. * * * 

"On Tuesday morning the foiled and frightened enemy 
left our shores. I cannot speak too highly of the coolness 
and gallantry of my command." 

Colonel Lamb at another time said: "Be it said to the 
eternal credit of these gallant boys that they, from this first 
baptism of fire, emerged with a reputation for bravery estab- 
lished for all time, and that to no troops more than these is 
due the honor of our splendid victory." 

The troops were complimented in general orders by Gen- 
eral Bragg for their heroism and gallantry. The heaviest 
loss suffered by any one command in the fort was by. the 
Junior Reserves. Thus ended the first glorious defence of 
Fort Fisher. 

When the news "s^'as flashed to Raleigh that Butler's ships 
had appeared off Fort Fisher, Lieutenant-General Holmes 
promptly tendered his sendees tO' assist in repelling the threat- 
ened attack and was assigned to duty by General Bragg in the 
city of Wilmington, where he was put in charge of the move- 
ment of troops at that point. The writer who accompanied 
Genera] Tiolmes as his Adjutant-General, unfortunately did 
not participate in the battle of Fort Fisher. He is indebted 
to Lieiitenant-Colonel French for most of the foregoing de^ 

On 26 December, the reserves were moved to camp on Bald 
Head Island, where they remained on guard and picket duty 
for several days when they were ordered to Camp McLean at 
Goldsboro, N. G. 

On 6 December, there had been an attempted consolida- 
tion of these three battalions near Sugar Loaf, when Captain 
William R. Johns was elected Colonel ; Captain C. IST. Allen, 
Lieutenant-Colonel ; and A. B. Johns, Major. Captain W. R. 
Johns, a disabled officer, was then in the enrollment service 
under Colonel Peter Mallett, the Commandant of Conscripts 
of ISTorth Carolina, and being unable to undergo the- hardships 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 51 

and exposure of camp life, declined tlie election. Captain Al- 
len, the Lieutenant-Golonel, declined for the same reasoii. 
Hajor Johns was never assigned and never entered upon the 
discharge of the duties of Major and so the battalions con- 
tinued to ser\-e under separate organizations. Major Johns 
afterwards formally tendered his resignation, which was ac- 


On 3 January, 1865, while the regiment was at Camp Mc- 
Lean, near Groldsboro, it was finally organized by the elec- 
tion of Captain John W. Hinsdale, Colonel; W. F. Trench, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain A; B. Ellington, Major. 
On 7 January the last two were assigned to duty. Frank M. 
Hamlin, one of the gallant yovmg officers who refused to sur- 
render with Major Eeece, was appointed Adjutant. But 
from time tO' time Lieutenants W. W. King, Andrew J. Bur- 
ton and Frank S. Johnson, son of Senator R. W. Johnson, of 
Arkansas-, who had shortly theretofore left the University of 
Korth Carolina and volunteered in the Third Regiment, acted 
as Adjutant. J. K. Huston was appointed Quartermaster 
Sergeant, and George B. Haigh, of Fayetteville, grandson of 
the Hon. George E. Badger, Co-mmissary Sergeant. Drs. E. 
B. Simpson and J. S. Robinson were assigned to the regiment 
as Surgeon and Assistant Surgeon. 

The companies composing the regiment were then lettered 
and designated as follows: 

Company A — From Guilford County — Captain, John W. 

Company B — From Alamance and Forsyth Counties — 
Captain, A. L. Lancaster. 

Company C — From Stokes and Person Counties — Cap- 
tain R. F. Dalton. 

Company D — From New Hanover, Brunswick and Co- 
lumbus Counties — Captain, John D. Kerr. 

Company E — From Catawba County — Captain, J. R. 

Company F — From Iredell and Rowan Counties — Cap- 
tain, W. G. Watson, 

52 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Company G — From Burke and Caidwell Counties — Oap' 
tain, L. A. Bristoe. 

Company H — From Gumherlcmd, Boheson and Harnett 
Counties — Captain, D. S. Byrd. 

Company I — From Richmond County — Captain, A. B< 

Company K — From Rockingham County — Lieutenant F. 
M. Hamlin. 

Colonel Hinsdale, upon receiving notice in the city of Ral-- 
eigh of his election, at once signified his acceptance, but it 
was questioned by General Holmes whether he was eligible 
under the orders of the War Department, by reason of the 
fact that he was not a disabled officer. The matter was re- 
ferred to the authorities in Eichmond and after considera- 
ble delay the department decided in Colonel Hinsdale's f avoi' 
and he was assigned to the command of the regiment on 14 
February, 1865, by the following all too partial general or- 

"Headquaetees Reserves North Carolina.. 

Ealeigh, N. C, 14 February, 18*65. 
General Orders No. J^. 

"MajoT C. S. Stringfellow, Assistant Adjutant-General 
C. S. P. A., will relieve Captain John W. Hinsdale, Assist-^ 
ant- Adjutant-General of Reserves of North Carolina, and 
the latter officer will proceed to join the Third Regiment Re^ 
serves of North Carolina as its Colonel, he having been duly 
elected to that office on 3 January, 1865. 

"The Lieutenant-General commanding in taking leave of 
Colonel Hinsdale, tenders his warm congratulations on his 
promotion and earnestly hopes that the intelligence, zeal and 
gallantry, which has characterized his services as a staff officer 
may be matured by experience into greater usefulness in his 
new and more extended sphere. 

"Theo. H. Holmes, 
"LieutenanIhGeneral Commanding." 

While at Camp McLean, near Goldsboro, the regiment was 
ordered to Halifax to repel another Federal raid. It re-- 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 63 

mained there only a day or two, the enemy having with- 
drawn. It returned to Goldsboro where it remained drilling 
and doing guard duty until the last of January. It was then 
ordered to Kinston and camped near the beautiful home of 
Colonel John 0. Washington. It was here employed in con- 
structing the breastworks and fortifications for the defence 
of the town and especially of the county bridge across the 
Neuse river. Kinston was in easy reach from New Bern 
.and had been visited by many Federal raiding parties from 
time to time. Our boys were heartily welcomed by the good 
people of that town. 

The rations which were issued to officers and men 
while here and at Goldsboro were very scant. They con- 
sisted of half a pint of black sorghum syrup, a pint of husky 
meal every other day, a third of a pound of pork or Il^assau 
bacon and a few potatoes occasionally. The old soldiers will 
.all remember Nassau bacon, a very gross, fat, porky substance 
which ran the blockade at Wilmington and was distributed 
among Lee's veterans as bacon. When a ration of cornfield 
peas was issued the boys were in high jinks indeed. Eut 
never was there collected together more uncomplaining men. 
They recognized the fact that the Confederacy was doing for 
them its best. 


Upon the discovery of the advance of the enemy from New 
Bern, whence they set out early in March, General Hoke's 
Division was ordered to Kinston. On 6 March, the Junior 
Keserve Brigade, consisting of the First Uegiment under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles W. Broadfoot; the Second under 
Oolonel John PL Anderson, and the Third under Colonel 
Hinsdale, and Millard's Battalion under Captain 0. M. Hall, 
nil under Colonel F. S. Annistead, marched through Kinston 
and across, to> the south side of Neuse river, which here runs 
in an easterly direction past the breastworks which they had 
so laboriously constructed. They marched down the river 
road which leads out in a southeasterly direction to Southwest 
creek. This creek is a sluggish, unfordable stream, which 
runs in a northerly direction and empties into the river about 

54 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

six miles below Kinston. The regiment was placed in sorrie 
old breastworks on the margin of a swamp, about a hundred 
yards from the creek. Our pickets were stationed on the 
creek. The nest day the enemy made their appearance on 
the other side of the stream and established a line of skir- 
mishers and sharpshooters. During the day our skirmishers 
were engaged and occasionally a minie ball would whistle 
over the breastworks as each individual boy of the regiment 
believed, "just by my ear." On the morning of 8 March, 
General Hoke, whose troops were also stationed along the line 
of the creek, was relieved by the arrival of D. H. Hill's troops. 
Hoke's Division crossed the creek and made a detour down 
the lower Trent road which crossed the British road at Wise'a 
Fork, about three miles' in our front. The lower Trent road 
runs in a southeasterly direction to Trenton. The British 
road runs in a northeasterly direction towards the river. Gen- 
eral Hoke with his usual dash surprised a Federal brigade, 
captured it and sent it to the rear. The reserves held the 
breastworks throughout the 8th. On the morning of the 9th, 
the reserves crossed Southwest creek on an improvised bridge 
constructed by them about 200 yards above the bridge on 
the Dover road which had been destroyed. This bridge was 
made by felling trees across the creek and covering them 
with lumber taken from Jackson's mill in the vicinity. Line 
of battle was formed on the east side of the creek on swampy 
ground and the brigade was ordered forward under fire 
through fallen trees, brush, brambles, and bullets — making 
it difficult to- preserve the alignment. They advanced as 
steadily as veterans driving the enemy who were fresh troops 
from ISTew Bern, well dressed, well fed, well armed and well 
liquored, as was evidenced by the condition of some prisoners 
captured. The Third Regiment suffered the loss of a num- 
ber of brave officers and men, among them Lieutenant John 
W. Harper, a gallant young officer of Company C, from Cald- 
well. Here also Lieutenant Hamlin was wounded in the 
arm. That night General Hoke imdertook a flank movement 
down the British road and the ISTeuse river road, the Junior 
Reserves being a part of his command. We could plainly hear 
the enemy at work on their fortifications. The night was 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 55 

rainy and so dai'k you could not see your hand before you. 
After marclimg through slush and rain about six miles, we 
countermarched and returned. On the afternoon of the 10th 
all .of O'ur troops fell back to the entrenchments on the British 
road, and later in the day we re-crossed the ISTeuse, burning the 
bridge behind us, and marched through Kinston, our brigade 
camping at Moseley Hall. This retrograde movement was 
the consequence of the arrival of Sherman's army in North 

The operations near Kinston, sometimes called the battle 
of Kinston, but iisually the battle of South West Creek, were 
upon the whole a Confederate success, and when the dispar- 
ity in numbers between the contending forces is considered, 
M'ere very creditable to the Confederates. General Bragg in 
general orders thanked the troops for their heroism and valor 
and complimented them upon their achievements. 

The arrival of Sherman in Fayetteville and the approach 
of the troops from Wilmington to form a junction with Sher- 
man at Goldsboro, made it necessary for us to Avithdraw to 
prevent being cut off and in order to form a junction with 
General Johnston's Army, which was moving in the direc- 
tion of Smithfield. On 15 March Colonel John H. Neth- 
ercutt, of tlie Sixty-sixth No^rth Carolina, was placed in com- 
mand of our brigade which was permanently assigned to 
Hoke's Division. 


Arriving at Smithfield 16 March, we remained twO' days 
and there witnessed one of the saddest spectacles of the war — 
a military execution. The regiment constituted a part of 
the military pageant which attended the shooting to death of 
G. W. Ore, a private of Company B, Twenty-seventh Georgia 
Regiment, who had been tried for mutiny by a court-martial 
and had been condemned. The poor fellow was first marched 
around to tlie solemn music of the Dead March, in front of 
the regiments which were drawn up in an open square, facing 
inwards, he was then made to kneel, and was tied to a stake on 
the open side of the hollow square. A detail of twelve men 
drawn up at ten paces performed the painful duty of carry- 

66 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

ing out the sentence of the court. At this late stage of the 
war, when the striiggle wa^ perfectly desperate and all hope 
of success had fled, this seemed to us tO' be little less than mur- 

On 18 March we marched again, not tO' the West, but to 
the South. We knew that Sherman was approaching from 
that direction, and we surmised that there was serious work 
befoire us. General Joseph E. Johnston, who rode for a short 
distance on that day at the head of the Third Junior Ke- 
seiTes, said as much to its commander. Sherman was 
moving from Fayetteville in the direction of Goldsboro in 
two parallel columns, about a day's march apart. General 
Johnston had determined to take advantage of the fact that 
Sherman's left wing" was thus separated from the right, and 
to strike a bold blow on the exposed flank at Bentonville in 
Johnston County. 


As soon as General Hardee, our corps conunander, 
reached Bentonville with his troops, he moved by the left 
flank, Hoke's (our) Division leading, to the ground previ- 
ously selected by General Hampton. It was the eastern edge 
of an old plantation, extending a mile and a half to the west 
and lying principally on the north side of the road and sur- 
rounded east, south and no'rth by a dense thicket of black- 
jacks. There was but one road through it Hoke's Division 
formed in the road with its line at right angles to it on 
the eastern edge of tlie plantation and its left extending 
some four hundred yards into the thicket on the south. The 
Junior Reserves constituted the right of Hoke's Division and 
supported a battery of Starr's Battalion of artilleiT' command- 
ed by Captain Geo-. B. Atkins, of Fayetteville. The brigade 
of Juniors were led by Colonel John H. JSTethercutt, who had 
superseded Colonel Armistead. This gallant ofiicer was Colo- 
nel of the Sixty-sixth ISTorth Carolina Regiment — a plain, 
blunt man, but every inch a soldier. The Third Regiment 
threw out a skirmish line whioh was commanded by Captain 
Bristol and hurriedly constructed a rail fence breastwork. 
Here under a fire of artillery we suffered many casualties. 



fought March 16ft>,ia65 . 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 57 

The troops belonging to the Army of Tennessee were formed 
on the right of the artillery. A wooden farm house in front 
of the Third Regiment for soine time afforded cover for a 
number of sharpshooters, who did excellent practice on our 
line, until Captain Atkins, with a few well-directed shells, 
caused them, to pour out like rats out of a sinking ship. 

The enemy soon thereafter charged Hoke's Division, but 
after a sharp contest at short range was handsomely repulsed. 

On the morning of the 20th it was reported that the Fed- 
eral right wing had crossed over to unite with the left wing 
which had been driven back and was coming up rapidly upon 
the left of Ploke's Division. That officer was directed to 
change front to the left. By this movement, his line was 
formed parallel to and fronting the road. Here light en- 
trenchments were soon made out of dead trees and such mate- 
rial as could be moved with our bayonets. From noon to 
sunset Sherman's army thus united made repeated attacks 
upon Hoke's Division of six thousand men and boys, but 
were uniformly driven back. The skirmish line of our bri- 
gade was commanded by Major Walter Clark, of the Seven- 
tieth Regiment (First Juniors), on the 20th and 21st. On 
the 21st the skirmishing was heavy, and the extreme of the 
Federal right, extending beyond our left flank, made our posi- 
tion extremely hazardous in view of the fact that the bridge 
over the creek in our rear was our only chance of retreat. 
The Seventeenth Army Co'rps of the enemy late in the after- 
noon broke tlirough our line considerably to the left, but by 
superhuman effort, its leading division was driven back along 
the route by which it had advanced. 

That night the Confederate Army recrossed the creek by 
the bridge near Bentonville and were halted beyond the town 
two miles north from the creek. The Federals made re- 
peated attempts to force the passage of the bridge, but failed 
in all. At noon the march was resumed and the troops camped 
near Smithfield. Sherman proceeded on his way to Golds- 
boro to form a junction with Schofield, without further moles- 
tation. The Confederate losses in the battle of Bentonville 
were 2,343, while that of the Federals was nearly double as 
many. (For many of the foregoing facts, see Johnston's 

58 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Narrative, pages 384 to 393, from which liberal extracts 
have been made. ) 

The Confederates never fought with more spirit, and the 
Federals with less, than in the battle of Bentonville. Gen- 
eral D. H. Hill remarked upon this and said : "It may be 
that even a Yankee's conscience has been disturbed by the 
scenes of burning, rapine, pillage and murder so recently 
passed through." 

General Hampton said of this last great battle of the Civil 
War, that in his opinion it was one of the most extraordinary : 
"The infantry forces of General Johnston amounted to about 
14,100 men, and they were composed of three separate com- 
mands which had never acted together. These were Har- 
dee's troops, brought from Savannah and Charleston ; Stew- 
art's from the Army of Tennessee; and Hoke's Division of 
veterans, many of whom had served in the campaigns of Vir- 
ginia. Bragg, by reason of his rank, was in command of this 
latter force, but it was really Hoke's Division, and the latter 
directed the fighting. These troops, concentrated only re- 
cently for the first time, were stationed at and near Smith- 
field, eighteen mileS' from the field, where the battle was 
fought, and it was from there that General Johnston moved 
them to strike a veteran army numbering about 60,000 men. 
This latter army had marched from Atlanta to Savannah 
without meeting any force to dispute its passage, and from the 
latter city tO' Bentonville unobstructed save by the useless and 
costly affair at Averasboro, where Hardee made a gallant 
stand, though at a heavy loss. No bolder movement was con- 
ceived during the war than this of General Johnston when he 
threw his handful of men on the overwhelming force in front 
of him, and when he confronted and baffled this force, holding 
a weak line for three days against nearly five times his num- 
ber. For the last two days of this fight he only held his posi- 
tion to secure the removal of his wounded, and when he had 
accomplished that he withdrew leisurely, moving in his first 
march only about four miles." 

The Junior Reserves lost quite a number of officers and 
boys in this battle. Their conduct was creditable to the last 
degree. General Hoke, their attached and beloved com- 

Seventy-Second Eegiment. 59 

ier, thus writes concerning them: "The question of 
iourage of the Junior Reserves was well established by 
selves in the battle below Kinston, and at the battle of 
onville. At Bentonville you will remember, they held 
•y important part of the battlefield in opposition to Sher- 
's old and tried soldiers, and repulsed every charge that 
made upon them with very meagre and rapidly thrown 
reastworks. Their conduct in camp, on the march, and 
he battlefield was everything that could be expected of 
I, and I am free to say, was equal to that of the old sol- 
5 who had passed through four years of war. On the re- 
through Ealeigh where many passed by their homes, 
jely one of them left their ranks tO' bid farewell to their 
ids, though they knew not where they were going nor 
b dangers they would encounter." 


he regiment remained in camp near Smithfield until 10 
il. During this time our corps under command of Gen- 
Hardee was reviewed by General Johnston, General Har- 
Governor Vance and others. There was not in the grand 
,de of that day — the last grand review of the Confederate 
ly — a more soldierly body of troops than the Junior Jle- 
es. Later in the day. Governor Vance made a stirring 
ch to the ISTorth Carolina troops, which by its eloquence 
Lsed enthusiasm and caused fire of patriotism to burn 
e brightly in our hearts. On 10 April we begun our last 
;at before Sherman. 


n 12 April we reached Raleigh. I recall how we marched 
ugh Raleigh past the old Governor's Mansion on Fay- 
dlle street, facing the Capitol, then up Fayetteville street 
west by tlillsboro street past St. Mary's young ladies 
ol in a beautiful grove on the right How the servants 
1 at the fence with supplies of water for us to drink! 
' the fair girls trooped down tO' see us pass! How one 
beautiful damsel exclaimed: "Why, girls, these are all 
ig men," and how one of our saucy Sergeants replied: 

60 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

"Yes, ladies, and we are all looking for wives I" It was in 
Raleigh that we heard the heartrending rumor of General 
Lee's surrender. 

Our line of march was through Chapel Hill. The TTniver- 
sity at that place was deserted and many refugees from the 
lower counties were preparing to fly again. After leaving 
Chapel Hill we camped on the Eegulators' Battleground, 
thence our line of march was on the Salisbury and Hillsboro 
road, over which 200 years before the Catawba Indians passed 
in their visits to the Tuscaroras in the East. Governor Tryon 
and later Lord Cornwallis had led their troops over this his- 
toric way in the vain endeavor to subdue the men whose sons 
now trod footsore and weary over the same red hills, engaged 
in a like struggle for local self government. 

When we reached Haw river on Saturday, 15 April, we 
found the stream rising rapidly. In crossing the river, sev- 
eral of our boys were dro\vned by leaving the ford to reach 
some fish traps a short distance below and being caught by 
the swift current and swept down into the deep water below. 
On i-eaching Alamance creek, we had a novel experience. 
On account of heavy rains the stream was much swollen 
and the current very strong. General Cheatham's command 
was moving in front of General Hoke's Division and on at- 
tempting to ford the stream several men were swept down by 
the current, whereupon the others absolutely refused to move. 
This halted the entire column, and as the enemy's cavalry 
were closely pressing our rear, the situation was becoming 
critical. General Cheatham rode to the front and learning 
the cause of the halt, ordered the men to go forward, but, em- 
phasizing their determination with some pretty lively swear- 
ing, they doggedly refused to move, whereupon General 
Cheatham seized the nearest man and into the stream they 
M^ent. After floxindering in the water awhile, he came out., 
and after repeating the process for a few times, they raised a 
shout and proceeded to cross. Three wagons, two with guns 
and one with bacon, capsized and were swept down the river. 
Some lively diving for the bacon followed, but I guess the 
guns are still rusting in the bottom of the creek. I am sure 
none of them were disturbed on that occasion. 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 61 

In the midst of the peril of the crossing of the river, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel French realizing the danger to which the 
smaller boys were exposed, jumped from his horse, and sta- 
tioning himself in mid-stream just below the line of march, 
rescued several of the brave lads from inevitable death. 
Standing there, watching his chance to save life, he was every 
inch the faithful officer and brave soldier, and no wonder the 
boys loved him. Within the last twelve months he, too, has 
crossed over the river and is now resting undeir the shade of 
the trees. Farewell my dear old comrade! 

We reached Red Cross, twenty miles south of Greens- 
boro, late on 16 April. Here we stayed until the following 
Easter Sunday morning. On Saturday afternoon, a bright 
boy from Cleveland County, named Froneberger, was killed 
in camp by lightning within ten steps of regimental head- 
quarters. His death was instantaneous. The next morn- 
ing, 17 April, after a scanty breakfast we made ready as 
usual to resume the march, but i-eceived no . orders. We 
waited till noon, then all the afternoon, then till night, and 
still no orders. The next morning we heard that General 
Johnston had surrendered. 

We camped at Red Cross for a few days. Meanwhile it 
became known that we had not surrendered. That Johnston 
and Sherman had undertaken to make terms for the surren- 
der of all the then existing armies of the Confederacy and for 
the recognition of our state governments — about the only 
decent act of Sherman's life. But it came to naught by rea- 
son of its disapproval in Washington. The armistice which 
had been entered into for this purpose was terminated, and 
the toilsome, weary, hopeless march was resumed, but we all 
knew that the war was over. 

It wasi at this time that a quantity of silver coin, in Greens- 
boro, belonging to the Confederate Government was seized 
by General Johnston and distributed among his officers and 
men — each receiving one dollar and twenty-five cents without 
regard to rank. The writer has in his possession the identi- 
cal Mexican milled silver dollar which came to him on this 
occasion. On one side of it has since been engraved "Bounty 
to John W. Hinsdale for four years' faithful service in the 

62 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Confederate Array." One hundred times its weight in gold 
woLild not purchase this old piece of silver, associated as it 
is with the distressing memories of the heart breaking sur- 

The regiment marched about eight miles to Old Center 
Meeting House, in Randolph County, staying here about 
three days and then we moved by way of Coleraine's Mills to 
Bush Hill (now Achdale) , and came to a halt one mile from 
old Trinity College. 


General Johnston on 26 April made his final surrender of 
the army to General Sherman and on 2 May, 1865, at Bush 
Hill, what remained of the Third Junior Reserves were 
paroled, and turned their faces sorrowfully homeward. The 
regiment had been disbanded for all time. 

This was the end of all our hopes and aspirations. Might 
had prevailed, over right and the conquered banner had been 
furled forever. 

JSTorth Carolina has much to be proud of. She was first 
at Bethel, she went farth.est at Gettysburg, she w;:s last at 
Appomattox, her dead and wounded in battle exceeded in 
numbers those of any O'ther two States of the Confederacy to- 
gether. But, her last and most precious offering to the cause 
of Liberty were her boy-soldiers, who at her bidding willingly 
left their homes and marched and fought, and starved, and 
froze, and bled, and died that she might live and be free. God 
bless the Junior Reserves. Their memory will ever be cher- 
ished by the Mother they loved so well. 

The following patriotic lines, written by the author of the 
"Conquered Banner," will appeal to the heart of many a 
mother whose young son marched away with the Junior Re- 
serves : 

" Young as the youngest, who donned the Gray, 
True as the truest who wore it, 
Brave as the bravest he marched away 
(Hot tears on the cheeks of his mother lay), 
Triumphant waved our flag one day- 
He fell in the front before it. 

Seventy-Second Regiment. 63 

Firm as the firmest where duty led, 

He hurried without a falter ; 
Bold as the boldest he fought and bled. 
And the day was won — but the field was red — 
And the blood of his fresh young heart was shed 

On his country's hallowed altar. 

On the trampled breast of the battle plain, 

Where the foremost ranks had wrestled, 
On his pale pure face not a mark of pain, 
(His mother dreams that they will meet again), 
The fairest form amid all the slain, 

Like a child asleep he nestled. 

In the solemn shade of the wood that swept 

The field where his comrades found him. 
They buried him there — and the big tears crept 
Into strong men's eyes that had seldom wept, 
(His mother — God pity her — smiled and slept, 

Dreaming her arms were around him). 

A grave in the woods with the grass o'ergrown, 

A grave in the heart of his mother 
His clay in the one lies lifeless and lone ; 
There is not a name, there is not a stone. 
And only the voice of the winds maketh moan 
O'er the grave where never a flower is strewn. 

But his memory lives in the other." 

John W. Hinsdale. 

Raleigh, N. C, 

26 April, 1901. 

J. F. Hoke, Colonel. (Also Colonel of Twenty-third.) 


(fourth reserves.) 

By the editor. 

Tbe Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Eegiments 
of lieserves (Seventy-third, Seventy-fourth, Seventy-sixth, 
Seventy-seventh and Seventy-eighth North Carolina) being 
composed of men at that time between 45 and 50 years of age, 
those few still living are over 81 years of age. Hence it has 
been impossible to get their histories written by participants 
as has been rigidly required of other commands. We have 
to rely for our scanty data upon the order books and letter 
books of General T. H. Holmes, who was in charge of the ot- 
ganization of the Keserves in this State, which books have 
been fortunately preserved by Colonel John W. liinsdale, his 
Adjutant-General, and upon such references as are found in 
the "Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies." 
As to the Seventy-seventh North Carolina (Seventh Reserves) 
alone we have a partial sketch, written by John G. Albright, 
First Lieutenant of Company A, which was published in 
"Our Living and Dead" October 1874, pp. 134-137, and 
which is used as the basis of the sketch of that regiment. We 
also have in Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, pp. 333-344, the muster 
rolls of six companies purporting to belong to the Seventy- 
third regiment, but the Field officers and all the companies 
except Company A (which belonged to the Seventy-seventh) 
seem to have belo'Uged to the Seventy -eighth (Eighth Re- 
serves). At pp. 345-358 are the muster rolls of seven of the 
coinpajiiee of what purports to be the Seventy-fourth and its 
•field officers, but in fact they seem to have belonged to the 
Seventy -seventh (Seventh Reserves.) To those should be 
added Company A, which is erroneously given on pp. 333-335 
as belonging to the SeA'-enty-third. 

The muster rolls of all the regiments of Junior and Senior 
Reserves were captured, with the other Confederate muster 

66 North Carolina Troops, 186l-'65. 

rolls, after the fall of Richmond, and are now in the Bureau of 
Pensions and Records at Washington, but to an application by 
the writer, backed by an official request of Governor Aycock, 
General JP. C. Ainsworth, in charge of the bureau, gave only 
the list of the field officers of the eight regiments of reserves 
(which we already had in General Holmes' Order Book), and 
stated that owing to the precarious condition of the rolls writ- 
ten on Confederate-made paper, he could not give a list of the 
company officers or men ^vithout an act of Congress. We 
know by incidental mention in General Holmes' letter book 
that Captains Turner and Surratt commanded two of the com- 

The Fourth Regiment of Reserves (Seventy-third North 
Carolina) were as already stated, Senior Reserves, i. e., men 
between the ages of 45 and 50. The names of the company 
officers can only be had from the rolls at Washington, which 
are now not accessible. The regiment was organized in 
July, 1864, at Salisbury, by the election of — 

Joiii\ F. Hoke, Colonel. 

Leeoy W. Stowe, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Jno. ]Sr. Prioe, Major. 

All three of these had seen previous service. Colonel Jno. 
r. Hoke in the beginning of the war was Adjutant-General 
of North Carolina, and later for a time, Colonel of the Twen- 
ty-third Regiment; Lieutenant-Colonel Stowe and Major 
Prior had both served in Virginia, and been wounded, in con- 
sequence of which the former (who was Captain in the Six- 
teenth North Carolina) had resigned, and the latter assigned 
to light duty was Lieutenant and Enrolling Officer when 
elected Major of this regiment. R. P. Waring, of Meck- 
lenburg, who had served as Captain Company B, Forty- 
third North Carolina, was appointed Adjutant, and J. M. 
Williams Surgeon, and Daniel W. Perry Assistant Surgeon. 
John F. Hill was captain of one of the companies. A portion 
of the regiment was assigned to the important duty of guard- 
ing the bridges on the lines of railways upon which depended 
the sustenance and recruiting of our armies and the remaining 
companies were sent to Salisbury to guard the thousands of 

Seventy-Third Regiment. 67 

prisoners there confined, thus relieving other troops for the 

The regiment was ordered to Raleigh 21 August for service 
flt Wilmington, but was stopped at Greensboro and soon after 
it was sent to Salisbtiry where it performed the duties above 
mentioned till 4 March, 1865, when not being longer needed 
to guard prisoners, it was placed in the Eighth Congressional 
District to arrest deserters with regimental headquarters at 

A brigade was formed in November, 1864, of the Fourth, 
Fifth and Sixth Regiments of Reserves (Seventy-third, Sev- 
enty-fourth and Seventy-sixth ITorth Carolina) all of which 
were on the same service, guarding prisoners at Salisbury, 
bridges on railroads and arresting deserters. This brigade 
was placed under command of Colonel Jno. F. Hoke with 
headquarters at Salisbury. The services performed were 
useful and indispensable and relieved other troops for ser- 
vice in the field. On some occasions there were fights with 
deserters who were armed and when banded together made 
themselves a terror to certain neighborhoods. The only time 
these three regiments seemed to have come in contact with the 
enemy was when Stoneman made his raid to Salisbury to re- 
lease the prisoners at that point. 

Upon Johnston's surrender, some few of the regiment were 
paroled, but the majority doubtless went home without cere- 


(fifth reserves.) 

By the EDITOE. 

The history of this regiment is substantially told in what 
has been said of the Seventy-third. It was organized 3 De- 
cember, 1864, by the election of — 

David ,T. CoRPENiiirG, Colonel. 
GTsoEaE C. StowEj LieutenanlhColonel. 
JosEPJi K. EuiiKE, Major. 

All these were doubtless officers who had seen previous ser- 
vice and had been retired or had resigned on account of 
wounds. The only company officer whose name is accessi- 
ble (till we get copies of the captured rolls filed at Washing- 
ton) is Captain Nicholson, of Company A. The companies 
composing the regiment either separately or organized as 
battalions, had been in service several months. Except de- 
tachments guarding prisoners and on local service against de^ 
sorters, the regiment was at Salisbury guarding prisoners till 
March, 1865, when being no longer needed for that service, 
they were sent to the Sixth Congressional District to arrest 
deserters and patrol and protect the country districts with 
regimental headquarters at Greensboro. 

Upon Johnston's surrender some of them were paroled, but 
the bulk of them probably returned quietly to their homes. 












1. John A. Collins, 1st Lieut,, Co. F. 3. E. J. Holt, 1st Lieut., Co. A. 

2. W, F. Parker, 2cl Lieut., Co. F. 4. W. H. Call. Ord. Sergeant. 


(seventh cavalky. ) 


LIEUT, W. F. PARKER, Company F. 

By paragraph 8 of Speoia] Orders JSTo. 161, from Adju- 
tant and Inspector General's Office, Kiciimond, Ya., 11 July, 
3 864, it was ordered as follows: "The five Xorth Carolina 
companies* of the Seventh Confederate Regiment, the three 
IS'orth Carolina companies, D, E and I, of the Sixty-second 
Georgia Regiment and Company C, of the Twelfth North 
Carolina Battalion will constitute the Sixteenth Battalion 
ISTorth Carolina Cavalry to the command of which Lieutenant- 
Colonel Jno. T. Kennedy is hereby assigned." This order 
will he found in 82 Vol. (Serial JSTo.) Off. Bee. Union and 
Confed. Armies at p. 763, and also in Serial Vol. 129 of same 
publication at page 536. One of the ISTorth Carolina com- 
panies (Kennedy's) in the Sixty-second Georgia had become 
so large that it had already been divided into two companies 
(Richardson and Dees), so that at the time of above order 
there was really four JSTorth Carolina companies, which 
obeyed the order of transfer, making a complete regiment. 
This was to be the Seventh North Carolina Cavalry, or Sev- 
enty-fifth jSTorth Carolina Regiment, of which John T. Ken- 
nedy was Colonel, Jno. B. Edelin was Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and Captain Pitts was promoted to Major. But Colonel 
Kennedy being wounded, was placed on detached service, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Edelin was in command till his cap- 
ture in March, 1865, when Major Pitts took command. In 
the rush of events the formal order to change the designation 
to Seventh Regiment of Cavalry (or Seventy-fifth North 
Carolina) was either not issued or not observed. Though 
having ten companies and a Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel and 
Major, it was in fact a regiment commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Edelin, it officially retained the designation of Six- 

72 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

teenth Battalion till the very end. Jno. E. Moore was Adju- 
tant and W. H. Call, of Company G, was made Ordnance 
Sergeant; Sergeant-Major John McGuy; Surgeon, Dr. Eves. 
The North Carolina companies, D, E and I, of the Sixty- 
second ■ Georgia, were all raised in 1862. They became in 
the new command : 

CoMPAisrY A — Wayne and Johnston — Captain, W. A. 

Company B — M^ayne, Wake, and Johnston — Originally 
commanded by Captain J. T. Kennedy, then divided into two 
companies. Captain John A. Richardson and Geo. T. Dees. 

Company C — Forsyth and Guilford — Captain, T. R. Du- 
vall. These three companies had been assigned to Colonel 
Griffin's Sixty-second Georgia in August, 1862. They 
served in 1862-'63 and till May, 1864, on the Blackwater in 
Virginia and Eastern North Carolina. This command was 
engaged in scouting and was in frequent skirmishes with the 
enemy, especially around Plymouth, Washington, N. C, and 
New Bern. Captain J. T. Kennedy was elected Major of 
the Sixty-second Georgia. 

The live companies transferred from Colonel Claiborne's, 
later Colonel James Dearing's Seventh Confederate Cavalry, 
became : 

Company D — Captain J. J. Lawrence, later Captain L. G. 
Pitts, from Wilson and Johnston. 

CojuPANY E — Captain B. C. Clement, from Davie. 

Company F — Captain W. K. Lane, of Wayne. The com- 
pany was froin Halifax. 

CoirPANY G — Captain J. A. Clement, from Davie. 

Company H — Captain E. A. Martin was from Northamp- 
ton and had been, till the above order. Captain Company C 
in the Twelfth (Wheeler's) Battalion, and as such had done 
service since its organization in 1862 on the Chowan. 

Company I — Captain F. G. Pitts, from Edgecombe, and 
after his promotion to Major, by Captain J. B. Edgerton. 

Company K — The fourth company transferred from Grif- 
fin's Sixty-second Georgia, and which had been created by 
dividing Kennedy's original company became Company K in 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 73 

the new regiment and was commanded by Captain George 
T. Dees. 

The Seventh Confederate Cavalry, to which five of these 
companies belonged, was broken up into companies and squad- 
rons, and performed similar duties to the Sixty-second 
Georgia throughout Eastern North Carolina and Southeast 
Virginia. In May, 1864, both commands were ordered to 
Petersburg and there the North Carolina companies in these 
regiments ^vere assembled into a new command, entirely com- 
posed of North Carolina companies as above stated. In the 
meantime, Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Kennedy had been 
severely wounded in a hot fight near City Point in June, 
1864, and was not able to be with the new regiment after 
its organization but very little. 

To give a history that will embrace these companies after 
their organization in 1862 up to the formation of the regi- 
ment in 1865, it will be necessary to give something of their 
history while parts of Griffin's Sixty-second Georgia, and 
while the others were in Claiborne's, later Bearing's Seventh 
Confederate Cavalry, and then of their career after the for- 
mation of the Sixteenth Battalion (later Seventy-fifth Regi- 
ment) 11 July, 1864. 

The Sixty -second Georgia Regiment was organized at 
Garysburg-. Joel R. Griffin was Colonel, — . — . Towns, of 
Georgia, Lieutenant-Colonel, and J no. T. Kennedy, Major, as 
an acknowledgment to the three North Carolina companies 
in the regiment. We were drilled by General Beverly H. 
Robertson, an officer who had been in the cavalry service in 
the West. There were seven companies of Georgia and 
three from North Carolina, which were afterwards increased 
to four by the division of Kennedy's old company as above 
stated. Captain Duvall's, from Guilford County; Captain 
W. A. Thompson's, from Wayne County ; Captain J. A. Rich- 
ardson's, of Wayne, Avho succeeded the writer, who was then 
Major, and G. T. Dees, of Wayne also. The Seventh Con- 
federate Regin-ient drilled with iis. In November, 1862, 
the camp of instruction was left for active service. Colonel 
Griffin was ordered to Franklin, Va., and remained there 

74 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

during the winter of 1862, doing duty the most of the time 
between Franklin and Suffolk, where his services seemed to 
be most needed. Also Colonel Claiborne's Eegiment went 
up the Blackwater with headquarters at Ivor, in the same sec- 
tion, near enough to combine their forces when necessary. 
It did excellent and gallant work on every occasion. 


In the spring of 1863, both regiments were brought back 
to Worth Carolina and were carried down to a little village 
on the railroad a few miles this side of Morehead City called 
JSTewport, in order to capture some guns and other stores 
which were being deposited there by the Federals. In this 
expedition Major Kennedy was not a party, having been sent 
home with a critical case of typhoid pneumonia. When the 
troops returned from this expedition the Sixty-second 
Georgia was sent to the vicinity of Greenville, on the Tar 
river, where they remained only a few days on picket and 
camp duty. 

Colonel Griffin was then ordered to take half his regiment 
and report to Petersburg with it in person. Soon after he 
left Major Kennedy was ordered to take a position between 
Greenville and Washington, and stop all communication be- 
tween us and the Federals either by land or water. The 
plantation of Mr. William Grimes, the older brother of Gen- 
eral Bryan Grimes, was selected for headquarters, and every 
effort was made to enforce the order, keeping pickets both on 
the creeks and river and on all the public roads and private 
landings leading across the river and into the town of Wash- 
ington. This was a hard order to fill, but no exemption was 
made except in one single instance, and that was in the case 
of the Rev. Mr. Kenerly, who was allowed to go every Sun- 
day to fill his engagement to his congregation. But we lost 
nothing by extending him this courtesy. 


The service just named was on the south side of the Tar 
river and extended down to Hill's Point, below Washington, 
IST. C, and often below Blount's Creek Mills. Also on the 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 75 

nortli side of the Tar and over to the Eoanoke at William- 
ston, a line was kept up, Captain Gray was in charge, a very 
vigorous and careful officer, and it may be added, one who 
was not easily frightened. Seeing our long lines of picket 
duty to be kept up and orders to stop all intercourse between 
the sections, the enemy conceived the idea that they would re- 
open communications and trespass on the adjacent country. 
Aware of their intent, we caused a large cypress seven feet at 
the stump, standing near the road in the swamp below the 
Red PTill, two and a half miles from Washington, to be felled 
across the road as a protection for us, and flattening the top 
so that a log one foot in diameter would lay easily on it, we 
then cut trenches for the guns to protrude under the small 
log. Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy selected good men in camp 
that were able for duty and got behind our work. 

Wo had double-barrel guns heavily charged with buck-shot 
and only twenty-five men behind the log. In this position 
we waited until the enemy made their appearance on the op- 
posite side of the swamp, about four hundred j'ards from us. 
A couple of guns were unlimbered and placed in position and 
two rounds from each were discharged at our work, making 
the splinters fly, but not affecting our log. They then got 
up their tools with which to move the obstruction and by 
fours took the march on the causeway. ISTot a man showed 
himself until the enemy's first four were in about twenty 
paces of us, wlien the command to rise and fire was given. 
One barrel only was discharged. Though this was the first 
time any of these men had been called on to show what they 
would do, the order was executed Avith great unanimity, and 
evidently many of the shot struck far down the line. This 
caused a halt in their column and just at that time the order 
to fire the other barrels was given and to mount oiir work with 
a yell. This last action completely demoralized them and of- 
ficers and men all seemed only too anxious to get out of the 
swamp and back to Washington, the most of our little force 
in pursuit to the bridge. The result, seven prisoners, two of 
whom were thought to be mortally woiinded, and the others 
onh- gun shot wounds. ISTo casualties to us nor any firing 
from the enemy save desultory pistol shots as they ran. 

76 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

About the time we were getting back from the pursuit and 
caring for the prisoners, General D. H. Hill arrived at the 
Red Hill to make a demonstration against Washington. 


Colonel Leventhorpe with others was sent down the river 
as far as the Blount's Creek Mill (then Ruff's Mill), our com- 
mand being familiar with the country leading thither. At the 
mill a considerable little iight occiirred, chiefly artillery, in 
which Colonel Leventhorpe did himself and regiment credit, 
as well as all the troops engaged with him. There was an 
old path at the head of the mill pond leading from the plan- 
tation of General Blount across the creek out to the New Bern 
road. KnoA^'ing of this pass Colonel Leventhorpe, was in- 
formed of it, and a part of our little command was sent over 
in order to strike them on the flank, but their videttes were on 
the lookout and when that movement was discovered they 
Imrriedly withdrew all their forces towards New Bern, and 
the Blount's creek affair ended, the enemy having been pur- 
sued several miles on their retreat. 

General Hill and most of his command went down to Rod- 
man's farm and did some handsome artillery practice at the 
block house and other objects of interest over in Washing- 
ton. The companies of Captain Pitts and Captain Barrett 
were with us doing their whole duty around Washington and 
afterwards until we went out to recuperate, when they were 
allowed to take their choice for a resting place. They were 
with us so much that we called them ours, though they were 
Colonel Claiborne's companies of the Seventh Confederate 

General liill left in a day or two after this and was frank 
enough to say he believed he had found a few cavalrymen 
who would fight if they got the opportunity. He left with- 
out giving us any orders except to do the best we could with 
opportunities presented. Not more than 48 hours after this 
General Wessell, from New Bern, came over to Washing- 
ton with about 5,000 men, it was said. We did not fight 
him much, but got one man killed and Captain John A. Rich- 
ardson captured. Captain Richardson, with a number of 

Seventy-Fifth Kegiment. 77 

others, was i^laced on board of some craft (name not re- 
membered) and started to Fortress Monroe. When off 
against Elizabeth City or Edenton, they managed to get con- 
trol of it and went into port. Kichardson was only gone 
from his company about a month, and died not long after his 
return, very suddenly of heart failure. He was a young 
man of splendid character and much esteemed not only by 
his men, but by all who knew him. He died in camp at 
Greenville, Pitt County, and an escort was sent with his re- 
mains to his home in Wayne Coiinty, where he was interred. 
We had had a busy winter and spring, having done duty 
steadily and without complaining. The horses had given 
way considerably and General Martin knew that a rest was 
needed both by men and horses and so ordered. 

We got pasturage from Mrs. Virginia Atkinson and moved 
headquarters to the place known as the Clark place, on the 
north side of the river. This section was selected because it 
was easy to secure supplies of anything necessary to our con- 
sumption and here Captains Edgerton, Thompson and Ellis 
were encamped from about the middle of May until after Pot- 
ter's raid on Eocky Mount. Captain Gray was encamped 
twelve miles below Greenville near Mr. Gray Little's, and 
kept pickets over near Williamston, as well as on the Tar. 
Gray's and Ellis' companies were Georgians, the other three 
companies were ISTorth Carolinians, and half of them from 
Wayne County. 

. » 


On the morning of 19 July, 1863, a courier from General 
Martin ordered Major Kennedy to take the gallop and report 
at once to Colonel Martin, of the Seventeenth ISTorth Carolina 
Troops, near Hamilton. Collecting every available man in 
camp, amounting to only eighty-four, including the wagoners, 
he proceeded as per order. Colonel Martin being sick, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Lamb was in command, and by him the order 
was given to take the gallop for Tarboro, where he expected we 
would meet the enemy on his return from Eocky Mount, and 
if so, hold them in check until he could get up with his regi- 
ment and artillery. The order was obeyed as promptly as 

78 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

could be done until we reached Daniels' school house, some 
three or four miles from town, when it was thought pru- 
dent to send videttes ahead and feel our way. Accordingly 
Captain J. B. Edgerton was detailed for the work and ordered 
to take such men with him as he chose and taking iive men 
with him, he went forward. He did not find the enemy 
until he arrived at the bridge. Their attention was directed 
to his posse by one of his men firing at them contrary to his 
orders. They mounted as soon as they could collect their 
scattered forces and started after him. He reported at once 
that their whole force had come over the bridge and were 
feeling their way and were then two miles from us. He was 
then instructed to go back and make a shoAV of fight and he 
could toll them on our way perhaps. This would give time 
to make arrangements to meet them. To our right and on 
the north side of the road was a little flat land, pretty well 
timbered, and on the south side of the road and between the 
school house and a field by which they were bound to come, if 
they continued to pursue our detachment, was another flat 
or pond wooded also. Two hundred yards to our rear was 
a nice old pine field where the horses could be concealed from 
sight. They were hurriedly carried around with the 
wagons, the men dismounted and two men beside the wag- 
oners left with the horses. We then hurried back to the school 
house and the men were placed three paces apart on each side 
of the road and about fifteen paces (or ste^js) from the road, 
forming a long triangle with legs nearly the same length. 
■We calmly awaited the report of Captain Edgerton. 


He soon appeared at the crook in the road up at the field ; 
then cautioning the men to be sure to hold their fire until or- 
dered and not to aim at any one above the stirrups, Edgerton 
and Major Kennedy with his detachment, took their stand in 
the road, there being only six or seven mounted men. The 
whole number engaged was 81, as follows: Captain Edger- 
ton, 34; Captain Ellis, 28; Captain Thompson, 19. Captain 
Edgerton was on the south side of the road with his men and 
Major Kennedy was on the north side with his. This was 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 79 

what we baited with, and the enemy very carelessly took the 

When they came to the corner of the fence in full view 
they unlimbered a small piece of cannon and give us a couple 
of rounds, but did not move us. They then thought perhaps 
it was the same little party that had been showing up before 
them all the way from Ta.rboro, jjrepared for a charge and 
made the movement handsomely until fired upon from the 
right and left, and seventeen of their horses were shot down 
at a single volley. The command to fire was not given until 
it was believed by firing at that time we would succeed in cut- 
ting off as much as we would be able to take care of, and this 
so proved for being only a few of us mounted, many that 
were dismounted ran off before us and we could not, help our- 
selves, our horses being two hundred yards from us back in 
the old field. In making the charge they could see none of 
the men in the woods and all whom they could see being 
mounted it emboldened them not to surrender when asked; 
and when their column was cut in two and their rear had 
gone tilting back for Tarboro these fellows in front kept 
right on fighting, using their sabers after their pistols and 
carbines had been discharged. 

Captain Edgerton and the moimted men, as well as Major 
Kennedy, had their hands full for a while in hand-to-hand en- 
counters. Captain Edgerton had the Yankee Major (Clark- 
son) on his side of the road, and right vigorously he gave him 
the saber as he went by him in the road. The Yankee Cap- 
tain (Church) was on the other side of the road, but did not 
have as good luck as the Major — not that any did his duty 
any better than Captain Edgerton, for he was just as good as 
a true soldier ought to be — but Major Kennedy had shot out 
all he had loaded and did not have time to draw saber before 
the Captain and others were pressing him, and having his 
rifle in his hand he raised himself in his stirrups and gave the 
Captain such a blow as sent him reeling off his horse. Those 
of us who were mounted then had some exciting races to catch 
those of them w^ho, seemingly, had gone completely wild since 
the little fight commenced. 

The dismounted men having done all they could in secur- 

80 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

ing prisoners and horses were ordered to procure their horses 
and mount preparatory to a pursuit, and while this prepara- 
tion was being made the six of us who were already mounted 
had some exciting races through the woods and paths adja- 
cent to the school house in running do-wn and catching a 
number who had got cut off from the Major in his rapid flight 
in the direction of Mr. John Daniels'. 

The enemy lost in this melee seventeen horses killed, forty- 
five captured, five prisoners left in the school house, two of 
whom were thought to be mortally wounded, and ten of the 
last captured sent back to Lieutenant-Colonel Lamb, who was 
only a few miles iu oiir rear ; also Captain Church, severely 
wounded, and sixty-two saddles and equipments.* The gallop 
was then taken to the bridge at Tarboro in the hope to cut off 
any who might not have had the fortune to pass the bridge be- 
fore our arrival. As we approached the bridge we found a 
small portion of it torn up and that portion next to town on 
fire. Dismounting and going as far as we could, for the fire 
on the bridge, we called on the town to aid us with all the help 
and buckets they could and we would save the bridge. The 
call met a hearty response from the citizens. The first bucket 
handed was from Governor Clark, who happened to be in 
town on that day. The bridge was saved and by 8 p. m., 
we could have been across, and why we were not allowed to 
continue the pursuit at once we never were able to under- 
stand. The next morning after the enemy had had a whole 
night to travel we were ordered to pursue them, but had not 
at that time any idea of overtaking them before they were 
captured. Claiborne with a part of his regiment and a bat- 
tery of artillery, was in his front and on the opposite side 
of the creeks which the enemy had to cross, and below him 
still were Colonel Martin's troops; but in some way the, bat- 
tery and troops at the bridge near Scuffleton were removed, 
giving the only gap whereby he could possibly have escaped 
and as the gap had been opened for him he accepted 
and went on his way rejoicing with many mules, horses, car- 

NoTB. — The Federal account of this raid will be found in 44 Off. Sec. 
Union and Confed. Armies 963—974- At p. 973 Major Clarkson 13 N. Y. 
Cav. admits 2 killed, 15 wounded and 16 prisoners, at this skirmish. — Ed. 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 81 

riages, wagons and a large quantity of bacon, to say nothing 
about negroes to eat it. Having safely crossed the creek he 
had smooth sailing until he could get to the neighborhood of 
Xew Bern imless some one could get in his front, which in 
that locality was bad to do, as nearly all parties you met down 
there were doubtful until you had time to understand them 
fully. Our command followed them on some miles after 
crossing the creek and finally commenced to press them, when 
perhaps a wagon load of meat and negroes would be dropped. 
We pursued the most of the day, occasionally capturing 
women and children and vehicles of various kinds with varied, 
supplies. About half an hour before sun down we came up 
with the main body on the road leading from Swift creek to 
Street's Ferry, across the Neuse river. 


By this time Colonel Jno. jST. Whitford (then Major Whit- 
ford) with a part of his battalion had come in from the river 
road and joined us; his command and our exhausted little 
force, made a dash or two at them until dark shut in iipon 
us. So we concluded to delay further operations until 
next morning and demand a surrender, and if refused, go 
at them determined to win. While we were arranging our 
plans of operation, the Fiftieth ITorth Carolina Infantry 
came up and struck camp near us. After supper (such as 
we had) Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, of the Fiftieth, 
came around to see us and while we were discussing the 
chances for an immediate surrender the next morning a cour- 
ier arrived instructing him, as the ranking officer, to at once 
move all troops from that locality and as hurriedly as possi- 

This was a bloAV entirely unexpected and well calculated to 
vex and perplex troops who had been doing faithful duty and 
cheerfully looking forward to the time when they could 
march the enemy jjroudly out to our own headquarters. The 
enemy, though only eight miles from itTew Bern, remained 
where we left them the whole of the next day. They were 
without rations and not a round of ammunition, and would 

82 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

not have made a demoTistration the next morning and were 
amazed to find us all decamped. These facts we knew then 
from accounts given by a few stragglers taken up on our 
march and since then we have seen parties who certify to the 
same thing, men who were eye witnesses and knew. 


After this transaction we were ordered back to our camp 
where we rested until about the last of August, when we went 
back to our work on the Tar river, doing only picket duty. 
Captain Gray in the meantime was keeping his pickets 
straight between the Roanoke as far down as Jamesville 
and Tranter's creek on the Tar. The companies were or- 
dered to the neighborhood of Kinston in October and directed 
to build winter quarters ; this work was soon finished and ex- 
cept regular picket duty nothing of importance transpired 
through the winter, so the next spring (1864) the command 
was ready for active and full work, and they got it. Gen- 
erals Barton and Ransom demonstrated as far as Evans' Mill, 
below New Bern. They sent us down to the mill (Evans') 
near the block hoiise where we surrounded the troops at the 
block house, making them leave and only getting two horses 
and one man and about fifty of as fine chickens as I ever saw. 
Coming back over to our old camp we only had a little time to 
rest before an order was sent from General Dearing to meet 
him at a specified time at Williamston. He was at that time 
Colonel of Artillery and was in command of Griffin's Regi- 
ment and the Seventh Confederate Regiment, and also of a 
battery (if not all the artillery carried on the field) at the bat- 
tle of Plymouth. He displayed in that engagement in the 
management of that branch of the service as much coolness 
and discretion as he could had he been 60 years old. 

Though a young Virginia officer, no one will ever be able to 
say more tlaan deserves to be said of his generous kindness, of 
hi3 stately and manly qualities of head and heart, and of his 
genuine and affectionate appreciation of the love and esteem 
of his friends and companions in arms. Much like General 
R. E. Lee, to see him one time was to always know and love 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 83 


Major Kennedy was not present at the disposition of the 
troops to make the assault on the town of Plymouth, but ar- 
rived in time to find where the command of Dearing was 
placed and went in. A portion of Griffin's Eegiment, also 
the Seventh Confederate, were occupying positions to the 
right and soon it became necessary to change and cross Cona- 
by creek in order to cut off any who might attempt to leave the 
town in the direction indicated, as many were already passing 
over in the hope to save themselves from being captured. 
Many were so badly frightened that when asked to halt 
and surrender they kept running and were fired upon and 
killed ; but I saw none killed who promptly obeyed the order 
to halt. The troops under Bearing's command, it is allowa- 
ble to say, contributed their full share in proportion to num- 
bers in the hasty reduction of the little town, and while there 
were quite a number killed and wounded we were truly glad 
to see it no worse, and to be convinced that victorious as we 
were, mercy had not been dethroned. 

The next day the march was taken up for Washington on 
the Tar river, and being familiar with the country. Major 
Kennedy was ordered to proceed at once with that portion of 
the Sixty-second Georgia present and the Seventh Confed- 
erate was sent with him and we were followed by Colonel 
Mayo's infantry regiment. We found no obstruction until 
we came to the works near the town. A few shots and a 
charge disposed of all forces in our front and we went quietly 
in and taking the gallop down to the river a few shots were 
fired at the transports as they made their way slowly down 
the river. The rejoicings of the inhabitants of the once 
lovely and beautiful little town can be better imagined than 
described. No people in the State nor any where else had 
more of the milk of human kindness in their hearts and could 
come nearer making a stranger feel like he was at home. We 
had seen and knew some of them before the war and also quite 
a number in the surrounding country, who were equal to the 
occasion at all times when generous kindness was in demand. 
A courier from Dearing ordered us off and the next morn- 
ing we breakfasted at Mr. Bradford Perry's, on the road to 

84 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Greenville. Before Ave got to Greenville Washington was 
burning we were informed. We can not believe that any 
Confederate soldier after having been as well treated as they 
were by the citizens wonld have applied the torch to that 


Plymouth and Washington having both fallen into Confed- 
erate hands in a few days a start was made by General Hoke 
for Kew Bern. After passing Kinston and Trenton, on the 
Trent river, Major Kennedy was ordered to take a guide 
whom he could trust and make through the swamp (or Dismal 
as designated by the settlers) to a crossing of the creek a short 
distance from Fort Croatan on the railroad, twelve miles be- 
low l^ew Bern. This was a very tiresome order to carry out. 
The road we had to travel was only a cattle path and used 
only by pedestrians as a hunting path, and I think that over 
half of the surface was from fetlock to knee-deep in water. 
We tried it by twos the first half mile and then concluded that 
single file would do better. This did better, but by no means 
well, for by the time 300 horses follow one another through 
mud and water the last that pass in the track are as muddy as 
coons and often they go up to stirrups and even to the saddle 
skirts, so that in this march through that Dismal it often 
happened that it was necessary to make a new track in order 
to get along at all for we had about 300 horses, and "get there" 
was the word of command. Finally we came to the creek 
about 100 yards from the county road leading by the fort. 
Where we struck it the banks were high for that country and 
the water deep. There was a large oak lying across it which 
had the appearance of having been used as a foot-log for 
years, so we concluded to use this log as a causeway for our 
horses by adding to its breadth a foot on each side ; so at it we 
went. Taking the measurement of the stream, we cut down 
two pines standing a little way off and hewing them as best 
we could at 3 o'clock in the night, we brought them \\p to our 
old oak and milling them on it until we could balance them 
round to the desired localities, we placed them by the side of 
the old oak. They were flattened on the top and sides, and 
then we went on top of our old oak and flattened it to corre- 

Seventy-Fifth REGiivfENT. 85 

epond to those just put by its side, and to complete the tem- 
porary striicture we hastily put on some railings extending 
from one bank to the other. All things being ready to re- 
sume the march the horses were led across and the order to 
mount given. 

As we mounted, and before the order to march was given. 
General Bearing and Colonel Folk rode up. The sun had 
just risen and as we got out to the road with Captain Edg- 
erton and Captain Pitts, a few of the enemy came in sight, a 
daph was made at them by about four men, catching only one. 
As soon after this as the troops could be .collected and proper 
dispositions made the attack on the fort was ordered. The 
advance on Ihe work was participated in by all the troops 
present and without any disposition to show the white feather 
anywhere along the line of attack. A few well directed vol- 
leys and the white flag appeared as we advanced. A few over 
200 well equip]7Gd soldiers were captured and what there was 
of supplies, of all kinds, in the camp. 


The city of New Bern was not well supplied with troops 
and was ready to capitiilate had an attack been made, with 
a ])roper demand, but an order from General Lee hurried 
General Hoke at once back to the Army of ISTorthern Vir- 
ginia and but a few days elapsed before all our cavalry were 
ordered there, arriving just in time to aid in what should 
have been the decimation or bottling \ip of the whole of But- 
ler's army. After Butler was disposed of then five compa- 
nies of our regiment, with two of Claiborne's (Pitts and Bar- 
rett) were ordered to dislodge the enemy from Dunn's farm. 
We went for them and they hastened to Bermuda Hundreds 
and Port Walthall, taking refuge in the boats and under 
cover of their guns. 

One whole night they shelled us without any casualty, for 
without knowing it at the time we had selected a position 
which gave us all the protection we needed. The next morn- 
ing a foAv ventured out but in a very short while they were 
glad to get back under tlie protection of their guns. We re- 
mained on this farm only a few days when General Bearing 

86 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

himself took us across the river and below Petersburg to the 
front of our last work on the City Point road. Here we en- 
camped and got a few hours rest for our men and horses ; and 
it was fully appreciated and much needed, for we had not 
had any solid, good rest in eight or ten days. An old .sol- 
dier knows how to appreciate such opportunities. 


Having rested here about two days, we were ordered to go 
down the river to an old church called Broadway, and dis- 
lodge any of the enemy we might find. When in about a 
half mile of the church one-half the command was halted and 
the front comipanies carried forward; when in plain view a 
considerable force made its appearance which was imme- 
diately attatiked with such determination as to demoralize 
and scatter them, driving them from their camp and its equip- 
age. It was here that Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy received 
wounds that partially disabled him from a full participation 
in the remainder of the struggle — one through his leg, one 
throiigh his arm and one through the body, entering the right 
side just above the kidney and passing by the other in a 
straight line. The enemy Avere moved and the command un- 
der General Dearing was brought back to camp and remained 
on the south side until Grant's grand move, on Petersburg, 
when it was called upon and did as much gallant service as it 
was possible for any troops to have done under the circum- 

When wounded Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy was carried 
to the hoiise of a friend who lived near and in full view of our 
first line of works which had to be carried before the enemy 
could proceed. This was a long line and the only troops en- 
gaged on our side were a part of Bearing's Brigade (cavalry), 
General Wise's Brigade (infantry), and Sturdivant's Bat- 
tery of artillery. Unable to be removed he was in their lines 
and near enough to the road to see every one of the enemy's 
detachments as they passed by to the attack, and there were 
so many that he could not believe, it possible for our small 
force to withstand them at all. As they marched up the 
hill he had his bed moved to a window that commanded 
a view of the whole situation and with his field glasses could 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 87 

see distinctly every charge made and the repulsed blue 
coats hurriedly retreating to their main body. On our line 
of works he could also see the brave Wise and the gal- 
lant Bearing leading and encouraging their little forces. 
Dearing seemed to be most in the work and most conspicuous 
in repulsing every charge made, but he was a cavalry officer, 
and naturally a leader, of great courage and ability. The 
writer saw during the day several lines of the enemy advance 
and retire, leaving their dead and wounded at times. The 
gallantry and determination of our officers, and men held them 
in check until the evening when they were reinforced by 20,- 
000. At this time Dearing and Wise retired in good order to 
our next line and continued the fight until General Hoke's 
Division came to their aid. The charges were very daringly 
executed and repulsed, almost hand-to-hand, and all the of- 
ficers of Dearing's Brigade who were in the engagement unite 
in the belief that Dearing's gallantry and the determined 
bravery of his men and officers saved Petersburg from then 
falling into the hands of the enemy. 


The next day Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy was cared for 
by Gen. Burnside's division surgeon, and to him and many of- 
ficers of this division he is thankful for many acts of gener- 
ous kindness. As soon as he was able to be moved he was 
sent down to Fortress Monroe and exchanged for an officer 
of his rank who had been captured at the Crater in Peters- 
h\iTg. "From this time he was not with the regiment nor bri- 
gade a great portion of his time, but was with it occasionally 
and some times on duty. What is said after this will be in 
part what he has learned from the officers and men as well as 
from personal knowledge. 


After the investment of Petersburg until the surrender 
there were many conflicts in which the brigade participated. 
At Blacks and Whites we had a heavy engagement, losing 
Major Claiborne and several men, and the brigade will always 
remember with pride and pleasure the timely aid of the First 

88 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

ISTorth Carolina Brigade in this conflict, for we had fully 
as much as we desired to handle. After the capture of many 
of the enemy and their supplies by our commanding General, 
W. H. F. Lee, and the return of the troops to their camps. 
General Bearing remarked if "Aunt ISTancy" (Gen. Barrin- 
ger) had not got there just at the time he did, that he would 
have had a much harder time, for, said he, they outnumbered 
us three to one. In all the fighting along the Wilmington & 
Weldon Railroad, the Davis House, Peebles' Farm, Burgess' 
Mill, Hatcher's Eun, and along the Squirrel Level Eoad, 
Five Forks and the Boisseau House, these troops under Gen- 
erals Eoberts and Bearing did their full share, leaving no 
stain on their shields. 

Soon after the fight of Burgess' Mill a reorganization of 
the cavalry was effected and General Eosser was made a 
Major-General and General Bearing was assigned to Eosser's 
Brigade, and General W. P. Eoberts, who had been the gal- 
lant young Colonel of the Second, was placed in command of 
our (Bearing's) Brigade. 


At the reorganization the Georgia material was placed to- 
gether in Georgia commands, and the North Carolina troops 
in North Carolina commands. When General Bearing left 
to take charge of the Virginia Brigade he brought Lieutenant- 
Colonel Kennedy official notice of promotion to Colonel and 
assignment to the Seventh North Carolina Cavalry, which 
was the Seventy-fifth North Carolina Eegiment. Being then 
on crutches he was assigned to duty as commandant of the 
post at Stoney Creek. 

As Colonel Kennedy was leaving for his post General 
Hampton started to City Point after 2,500 head of cattle, 
General Bearing being familiar with the country led the way, 
taking our regiment with him. The cattle were brought out 
as desired and the finest ever seen, there were 2,485 brought 
out, as stated in Major Bates' report. This was a hand- 
some and a very acceptable acquisition to General Lee's 
commissariat at that time, and that winter the beef ration 
was fine. About this time a raid was made on Belfield and 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 89 

the warehouse burned. A part of our regiment, especially 
Dees' company, did very fine work there in aid of the IS'orth 
Carolina Junior Reserves who acted very gallantly. When 
it was known the raiders had gone in the direction of Belfield, 
Colonel Kennedy was ordered to take every available man 
and join in the pursuit. When we got to Belfield they were 
a few hours ahead of us and having been very handsomely re- 
pulsed at the bridge they turned back for their own lines. 
We followed until it was considered useless to go further, 
when we were ordered back to Belfield. 

The weather was very cold, but we camped in a very finely 
timbered piece of woodland and soon had good fires made of 
just such logs as the men chose to tise. The writer went to 
sleep that night with a chunk of wood for his pillow, throwing 
a light oil-cloth over and covering him entirely. The next 
morning when he awoke there was at least four inches of snow 
on his oil-cloth, but our fire was not quite extinguished. His 
cnitches were also completely covered up with the snow and 
it took several minutes to locate and scratch them out. We 
remained in this camp near a week before orders to return to 
the lines. The weather was cold, good wood was plentiful, 
we had good rations and good fires to warm by and much of 
our beef was consumed. 


Soon after Teturning to our line the -gallant and -brave 
young General W. P. Koberts, took command of our brigade, 
and a Maryland officer, Major Edelin, was assigned as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel to the Sixteenth Battalion (for so we were 
still styled, though really a regiment). He did not succeed 
well and soon was captured and it was thought by those who 
ought to know that the capture was coveted by him — at any 
rate men and officers agree that his capture was no loss to us, 
as he was not a favorite of either men or officers. General 
Grant continued to push his numberless cohorts against Gen- 
eral Lee's constantly decreasing army until the bloody fight- 
ing at the Boisseau house and Five Forks demonstrated the 
necessity of giving up Richmond and Petersburg. On 2 
April the retreating army commenced to move. General 

90 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Sheridan's Cavalry, elated with recent victory, vigorously 
' piirsned, but they were so gallantly and defiantly held in 
check by Koberts' Brigade that they not only surprised their 
enemies, but attracted their admiration and esteem. Again 
on the 3d when every brigade of cavalry, including Bushrod 
Johnson's Division of infantry, became panic-stricken and 
gave way it was the Sixteenth Battalion (Seventy-fifth Regi- 
ment) more than any other that checked General Sheridan's 
impetuous onslaught, holding his whole corps of cavalry at 
bay for over two hours and until General W. H. F. Lee could 
rally his forces and restore confidence. 

This command was complimented by General Lee himself 
and many other prominent officers for its gallant conduct, and 
its ofiicers received the thanks of all for their Tar Heel pluck 
and fortitude which became known throughout the command ; 
and again at Jetersville the Seventy-fifth did good -work, not 
failing to charge time and again until General Roberts saw 
that it was useless to continue to throw his weak line against 
Sheridan's vast army in the vain endeavor to break through, 
so as to enable General Lee to retreat by Burkeville to Dan- 
ville. Then followed constant skirmishing to Appomattox 
Court House, in all of which the brigade acted a conspicuous 
part, and especially the Seventy-fifth, led by Lieutenant E. J. 
Holt, who gallantly helped to lead the last cavalry charge 
made by the Army of Northern Virginia. When first organ- 
ized its true worth was not known, but when placed, under 
command of General Dearing it soon became entitled to be 
classed among the best troops sent to the war from North 
Carolina. Not in a single action was it known to falter. 

At Blacks and Whites, at Battery 7, below Petersburg (the 
heaviest fight we ever had), at Plymouth, at Broadway, Bur- 
gess' Mill, the Davis House, Peebles' Farm, Hatcher's Run, 
Boisseau House, Newport, Croatan, Tarboro or Daniels' 
School House, Chinquepin, Evans' Mill, Red Hill, Blount's 
Creek, Ruff's Mill, and many other minor engagements, our 
companies exhibited the sticking qualities of a true soldier 
which did so much to immortalize that army. 
GoLDSBOEo, N. C, J. T. Kennedy^, 

Enfield, N. C, W. E. Paekee. 

9 April, 1901. 


By E. J. HOLT, First Lieutenant, Company A. 

In the spring of 1862, there were several companies of 
mounted troops raised, in North Carolina as independent com- 
panies, with the understanding that they were to remain in 
the State and were to be used only in its defense. 

Captain W. A. Thompson, sheriff of Wayne County, raised 
a company in February and March, 1862, in Wayne and 
Johnston. First Lieutenant, E. J. Holt; Second Lieuten- 
ants, W. P. Holland and H. B. Ham. This company had a 
sharp encounter with the enemy at Kenansville. Captain J. 
T. Kennedy raised in Wayne, Johnston and Wake Coimties 
in July another^company. On his promotion to Major this 
company, which had become very large, was divided into two, 
Captain Jno. A. Eichardson, with Jas. B. Edgerton First 
Lieutenant; M. Whitley, James H. Parker, and later Wil- 
liam Hooks, Second Lieutenants ; and Captain Geo. T. Dees, 
with A. M. G-. Wiggins First Lieutenant, and John M. Mil- 
ler Second Lieutenant. Captain T. R. Duvall raised a com- 
pany in Forsyth and Guilford, of which S. S. Lindsey was 
First Lieutenant, and S. C. Thornton Second Lieutenant. 
Captain E. A. Martin's company was from ^Northampton ; 
Jesse B. Boone was First Lieutenant, and Jesse T. Britton 
with Jas. G. Odom Second Lieutenants. Captain W. K. 
Lane, of Wayne, a company from Halifax County, of which 
Jno. H. Branch was First Lieutenant and Jno. A. Collins 
and W. Fletcher Parker were Second Lieutenants. Cap- 
tain J. J. Lawrence a company in Wilson and Johnston 
Counties, of which later L. J. Barrett became Captain, with 
First Lieutenants Moses T. Mays and then E. P. Edwards 
(promoted from Second Lieutenant), and Second Lieuten- 
ants Joseph B. Davis and Joseph W. Taylor. Captain F. G. 
Pitts a company in Edgecombe, with Van B. Sharpe First 
Lieutenant, and B. P. Jenkins and Mark B. Pitts Second 
Lieutenants. Captain B. C. Clement a company from Davie 

92 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

County, of Avhich S. M. Johnson was First Lieutenant, and 
S. L. Lander and John A. Welch were Second Lieutenants. 
Captain .J. A. Clement a company from Davie, with L. G. 
Gaither First Lieutenant, and B. F. Nichols and C. E. Har- 
per Second Lieutenants. 

In August, 18fi2, Thompson's, Kennedy's and Duvall's 
companies became a part of the Sixty-second Georgia Kegi- 
ment, in which they served through 1862, IS'CS and till 11 
July, 1864. T^Tien it was organized in 1862, Captain J. T. 
Kennedy was made Major, and Captain R. P. Howell Quar- 
termaster. These officers were all the recognition the North 
Carolina companies received at the hands of their Georgia 

The Sixty-second Georgia, during the fall of 1862 and 
the whole of 1863 till May, 1864, was on picket duty and fre- 
quently engaged with scouting and raiding parties of the en- 
emy who were in strong force in Plymouth, Washington, New 
Bern, N. C, and in Suffolk, Va., and from the Spring of 
1863 it and the Seventh Confederate Cavalry were all the 
cavalry between Petersburg, Ya., and Wilmington, N. C. 
They were broken up into companies and squadrons and for 
months at a time the men were on picket every other day. 
They were forced to depend for forage for their horses and 
food for themselves on the co\mtry in which they happened 
to be. 

They were present and borei their full share in the capture 
of Plymouth and the investment of Washington and New 
Bern. Near Tarboro the three North Carolina companies 
imder the command of Major Kennedy, engaged a largely 
.superior force of tbe enemy in Potter's raid, and in an open, 
square fight, killed, wounded, captured or put to flight every 
Yankee in the party. We pursued the raiders to the banks 
of Neuse river, near New Bern, N. C, and if the infantry 
Colonel who was in command at that point had yielded to 
Major Kennedy's request to push them, the whole force 
would have been captured. The whole of 1863 and till May, 
1864, was spent in guarding the eastern part of the State and 
the southern part of Virginia. 

In May, 1864, we marched to Petersburg, Ya., and were a 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 93 

part of General Beauregard's forces that met and successfully 
drove back the first assault on Petersburg, and were on hand 
ou the north side of the Appomattox when Butler was bottled 
up at Bermuda Himdreds. In June Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kennedy was severely wounded in a hot fight near City Point, 
below Petersburg, Va. We were then in Brigadier-General 
James Bearing's Brigade. We were kept busy all through 
the summer of 1864 in g^iarding General Lee's right and in 
June we followed the Wilson raiders from the time they 
crossed the Weldon Railroad to near Danville, Va., and back 
to Reams Station. On that raid we were hotly engaged at 
Blacks and Whites, on the Richmond & Danville Railroad, 
and had several running fights. It was a sorry lot of Yan- 
kees we let go back. A few, however, did go through. 

There was more or less fighting almost every day on our 
part of General Lee's line in that awful summer of 1864. 
General Grant was moving south and stretching General 
Lee's line continuously and our brigade was always expected 
to meet them on every move, and we did, at Jones' farm, 
Reams Station, the Davis farm. Burgess' Mill, Armstrong's 
Mill, Poplar Spring Church and several other points which 
have passed from the writer's memory. In July, 1864, the 
North Carolina companies were taken out of the Sixty-sec- 
ond Georgia Regiment and Captain E. A. Martin's company 
from the Twelfth Battalion, and added to the Sixteenth 
ISTorth Carolina Battalion, which had been formed by the 
North Carolina companies of Captain W. K. Lane, Captain 
B; C. Clement, Captain J. A. Clement, Captain L. J. Bar- 
rett, and Captain F. G. Pitts, which had been taken from the 
Seventh Confederate Cavalry. 

During Colonel Kennedy's absence Lieutenant-Colonel J. 
B. Edelin, of Maryland, was in command of the Seventy- 
fifth Regiment, Avhich was thus formed, though it was still 
styled usually the Sixteenth Battalion. Captain F. G. Pitts 
was promoted to Major, John R. Moore Adjutant, W. H. 
Call, of Company G, Ordnance Sergeant. 

In February, 1865, General Dearing was transferred 
to a Virginia command. He was a splendid officer and 
his whole brigade regretted his change of command. 

94 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Brigadier-General Roberts, of Worth Carolina, was assigned 
to a new brigade composed of our regiment and the Fifty- 
ninth JSTorth Carolina in February, and commanded us till 
the end. In December, 1864, we were moved from General 
Lee's right, near Dinwiddie Cotirt House, and went into win- 
ter quarters at Belfield, Va. We built nice, cozy quarters 
and hoped to pass the winter in resting our tired and run- 
down horses, but there was hardly a week we did not have to 
meet a raiding or scouting party of Grant's cavalry. In 
February we hurriedly marched to Dinwiddie Court House 
and for -five days we were in the worst snow and sleet of the 
winter and what was worse, were absolutely without food of 
any kind for men or horses. Some of the men found some 
spoiled corn where artillery horses had been fed and eat that. 
For four days the Avriter never tasted even corn. It was fear- 
ful, but the men did not complain. 

The brigade returned to Belfield for only a short time. We 
went back to General Lee's right flank and were there 28 
March when Grant began his flank movement which forced 
the Confederates back till we were on the White Oak road. 
The Seventy-fifth was engaged every day from the 28th till 
Richmond and Petersburg were evacuated and the retreat to 
Appomattox was begun, and on 31 March in a charge made 
on a portion of Sheridan's cavalry, captured a beautiful silk 
flag, which is now in the possession of a member of my 
old company. On 1 April Captain B. C. Clement, a ser- 
geant, and thirteen men, were captured by a small squad of 
the enemy who had gotten in our rear. 96 {Serial') Yol. 
Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 827. 

About the 30th our commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Edelin 
charged a solid line of battle by himself. We were drawn up 
in line of battle expecting to either make an assault or receive 
one when Colonel Edelin drew his sabre and charged alone 
directly upon a large body of cavalry. The Yankees quietly 
opened ranks and oiir brave Lieutenant-Colonel rode through, 
waving his sabre a,nd yelling like a maniac. That was the last 
we saw or heard of him. 

Major Pitts took command and held it till about 2 April, 
when he literally broke down from exhaiistion and was sup- 

Seventy-Fifth Regiment. 95 

posed to be captured. On the morning of 28 March the Sev- 
enty-fifth had about 315, rank and file, but the constant fight- 
ing, marching and the want of rations and sleep had caused 
all but the strongest to give out, and by 5 April I am sure 
there was not over one hundred men for duty. The losses con- 
tinued till at the surrender we numbered only 51. On 3 
April General Roberts with our regiment, stopped a stampede 
which, if allowed to have gone further, would have ruined 
General Lee's chance of ever getting his army beyond Amelia 
Court House. 

Our brigade was the rear guard on the covmty road just 
south of the Appomattox river, and another regiment had 
been posted with orders to hold the Yankees in cheek while 
ours fell back to another position. We had not gone a mile 
when a cavalry regiment hastily pursiied by a squadron of 
cavalry came at a dead run and in wild disorder upon us. 
Our regiment got panic-stricken and joined in the race, but 
General Roberts placed himself in the road in their front and 
managed to halt about fifty men; he had us to aboiit face and 
in a hurry we sent the pursuing force back on their main 
column. If General Roberts had not halted us when he did 
there is no telling what the result would have been — disas- 
trous certainly. That day General Roberts placed the writer 
in command of the regiment and he held it till 9 April. 

There was not a mile that we did not fight over from the 
time the retreat begun till we reached Appomattox Ooui't 
House. The losses from wounds were not very heavy, but 
the constant fighting and marching day and night just wore 
men and horses completely out. On the 5th the writer was 
shot from his horse, but -was not severely wounded, and did 
not leave the command. 

On the night of 8 April the brigade halted about half a 
mile east of the Court Hotise, at daybreak on the 9th we were 
mounted and marched to the west side of the village, and at 
sunrise were in line of battle. Shortly after a battery in 
our front opened on us and General Roberts promptly 
ordered a drawn sabre charge. We as promptly made it and 
captured the battery (four brass guns) and about fifty of Sher- 
idan's dismounted cavalry. We took the guns and prisoners 

96 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

back to the point where we had formed a line that morning 
and while there the writer saw about fifty dismounted en- 
emy in a piece of woods about half a mile in our front and a 
little to the right of where we had captured the battery. I 
informed General Roberts and he ordered us to charge 
them, which we did with drawn sabres. We had an open 
field to cross, cut up by ditches. We passed the ditches 
safely and reached a point not over fifty yards from the en- 
emy, who had taken shelter behind a rail fence built on the 
bank of a five or six foot canal. Of course we knew nothing 
of the canal till we were nearly at it. We saw that we could 
not reach the boys in blue with cold steel and we returned 
sabres, unslung carbines and fired a volley at them, and then 
fell back; just as the men fired my horse was killed, so I had 
to go out on foot. Two or three of my men were wounded, 
but kept their seats. 

That was the last charge ever made by our command, and 
was as gallant as any it ever made, and was certainly the last 
made by any part of General Lee's army. I think I had 
ample opportunity to know that it was the last charge made, 
for I went back alone and on foot and I noticed there was no 
firing any where along the lines. 

When I got back where I had left the brigade. General Rob- 
erts and a few others had got news of the surrender and had 
made their escape. I might have done so too, but I was with- 
out a horse and was too tired to walk. General Roberts' ab- 
sence left the writer in command of the brigade, and we were 
soon camped in a field near the Court House where we made 
out a roll of men and officers present, drove our guns into the 
hard earth to tie our horses to, made a fire, burned our flag to 
keep the Yankees from getting it, and waited for further or- 
ders and something to eat. 

The next day we lay and rested. On Tuesday evening we 
got our paroles ready and left for our homes in North Car- 
olina. The writer signed all the paroles (95) for Roberts' 
Brigade and Barringer's Brigade (23) — in all 118 men. A 
copy of my own parole is hereto appended. 

E. J. Holt. 

Smithfibld, N. C, 

9 April, 1901. 


(sixth reserves.) 

By the editor. 

This regiment was organized in October or E^ovember, 
1864, at Wilmington, by electing the following Field Officers: 

A. A. Moss, Colonel. ' 

James V. Symons, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Tebrell BeookSj Major. 

The companies composing the regiment seem to have been 
in continuous service since July and were all ordered to 
Wilmington 22 October. They were commanded as fol- 
lows : 

Captain John M. Beawley, Kowan. 
Captain Levi Carrot,l, Rowan. 
Captain T. W. Geiffin, Union. 
Captain J. M. Stewaet, Union. 
Captain Joshua Rouse, Lenoir. 
Captain J. Powell, Columbus. 
Captain J. L. Cobb, Robeson. 
Captain Geoege E. Knox, Brunswick. 
Captain John W. Tuenee, . 

Captain Duncan Kelly, Bladen. 

LeRoy Jones is also mentioned as Captain in this regiment 
in General Holmes' Order book. The above were Captains 
in the Senior Reserves, but it is not certain that they were all 
in this regiment. 

Dr. G. H. Cox was Assistant Surgeon, and J. M. Williams 
was transferred to the regiment as Surgeon from the Sev- 

The Seventy-sixth was sent to Salisbury 24 I^Tovember 

probably to relieve the Sixty-eighth JSTorth Carolina, which 

was soon thereafter ordered tO' the Roanoke section. It was 

placed with the Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth in John F. 


98 North Caeolina Troops, 1861 -'65. 

Hoke^s Biigade and seems to have performed the sam.e duties 
as those regiments of guarding the prisoners at Salisbury, 
with details for bridge guards and arresting deserters and 
keeping order in neighborhoods disturbed by them. 

On 4 March, 1865, being no longer needed to guard the 
prisoners at Salisbury, the regiment was ordered to High 
Point and then was placed in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict to arrest deseorters with regimental headquarters at Ash- 
boro. On 16 March it was ordered to Greensboro. At John- 
ston's surrender, they were either paroled or went home with- 
out that ceremony. 


(seventh reserves.) 

By JOHN G. ALBRIGHT, First Lieutenant Company A. 

This regiment was organized at Greensboro in July, 1864, 
by tlie temporary appointment of Chas. E. Shober, Colonel; 
J. A. Barrett, Lieutenant-Colonel; J. C. Dobbin, Major. 

These last two were disabled officers on light duty and were 
released in November when their successors were selected. 

From Lieutenant Albright's sketch and from General 
Holmes' order book also, it appears that their successors were 
elected at Camp Davis, on Masonboro Sound, in November, 
when Lieutenant-Colonel Barrett and Major Dobbin were 
ordered to other duties, upon the regiment being sent south. 

In Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, p. 345-358, where it is errone^ 
ously given as the Seventy-third, we find the muster rolls of 
seven companies, the names of whose officers were given below, 
and on pages 333-335 we find the muster roll of what is given 
there as Company A, Seventy-third Regiment, but which we 
know from Lieutenant Albright's narrative, printed in "Our 
Living and Our Dead," October, 1874, pp. 134-137, was 
Company A, of this regiment. The roster of officers, if those 
given in Moore's Roster (amended by adding Company A) is 
correct is as follows : 

Company A — Alamiance — Captain, W. S. Bradshaw; 
First Lieutenant, Jno. G. Albright; Second Ijieutenants, Al- 
fred Sharp and James Gilliam. This company was organ- 
ized 13 June, 1864. 

CoMPAisrY B — Guilford — Captain, Jacob Boon; First 
Lieutenant, George Kirkman; Second Lieutenants, T. M. 
Woodbum and John Soots. This company was organized 
18 June, 1864. 

Company C — Guilford — Captain, W. B. Johnston; First 
Lieutenant, W. R. Pearson ; Second Lieutenants, John Blay- 

100 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

lock and Frederick Smith. This company was organized. 13 
June, 1864. 

Company 1) — Person — Captain, R. S. Davis; First Lieu- 
tenant, T. H. Brooks; Second Lieutenants, Chesley Hicks 
and Alfred Blalock. This company was organized 21 June. 

CoMPA2vY E — Stohes—Cajptam, W. H. Watts; First Lieu- 
tenant, W. G. Haynes; Second Lieutenants, Dempsey Bailey 
and ilatthew Phillips. This company was organized 28 
June, 1864. 

CoMPAKY F — Caswell — Captain, A. A. Mitchell; First 
Lieutenant, J. S. Glass; Second Lieutenants, A. M. Fuller 
and J. J. Chandler. This company was organized 23 June, 

Company G — Forsyih — Captain, E. E. TTolland; First 
Lieutenant, Jno. H. Shore: Second Lieutenants, David 
Shouse and Solomon Tice. 

Company H — Stolces — Captain, William Clinard; First 
Lieutenant, IST. S. TVIcGee; Second Lieutenants, E. B. Cook 
and Israel Moser. 

The muster rolls of the other two companies are not 
given in Moore's Boster. 

This' regiment was ordered to Raleigh 27 October, 1864, 
and on 1 November General Holmes telegraphed General 
Bragg at Wilmington that he had sent him this regiment to- 
gether with Erwin's Battalion (Seniors) ; three companies of 
Millafd's Battalion (Juniors) and thirteen other companies 
of Seniors, and that there were no others except those guard- 
ing prisoners at Salisbury. The thirteen companies of Sen- 
iors were probably the ten soon after organized intO' the 
Eighth Reserves and the three companies that formed Little- 
john's Battalion. On 10 November it was reported at Wil- 
mington with nine other companies of Seniors, 89 Off. Rec. 
Union and Oonfed. Armies, 1207, at Masonboro Sound. On 
28 November the regiment elected 

Chas. E. Shobee, Colonel. 

EzEKiEi, W. Hancock, Lieutenant-Colonel, who was pro- 
moted Colonel 26 January, 1865, upon the resignation of Col- 
onel Shober. 

Seventy-Seventh Regiment. 101 

James R. McLean, Major. 

It was soon sent south and as appears from the above Of- 
ficial Records it left Charleston for Savannah 7 December and 
on 9 December was in the battle of Coosawhatchie under the 
command of General Beverly H. Robinson, 92 Off. Bee. 
Union and Confed. Armies, 4-Jf6, and on 26 December it was 
in the skirmish at Tiillifinny Iron Works, 130 of the regi- 
ment being present. Another detachment of 263 were in 
Harrison's Brigade at Coosawhatchie, same Vol., pp. 992, 
999. From January to March, 1865, inclusive, it was in a 
brigade commanded by Colonel Wash. M. Hardy, of the Six- 
teenth North Carolina, composed of this regiment, the 
Fiftieth ISTorth Carolina and Tenth E"orth Carolina Battal- 
ion, Avhich brigade belonged to McLaw's Division. 

So far this sketch has been taken fromx General Holmes' 
Order Books and the above Official Records published by the 
United States Government. What follows is the above cited 
sketch of Lieutenant Albright, of Company A. It probably 
gives a fair idea of the scope of duties imposed upon the Sen- 
ior Reserves. To read it causes us to regret that the histories 
of the other regiments of Senior Reserves were not obtained 
from members of those commands, while it was possible to 
do so. Lieutenant Albright's interesting sketch is as fol- 
lows : 


The Senior Reserves of Alamance County, having been 
conscripted, met in Graham in June, 1864, and elected the 
following officers: W. S. Bradshaw, Captain; John G. Al- 
bright, First Lieutenant; Alfred Sharp, Second Lieutenant; 
James Gilliam, Junior Second Lieutenant. These officers 
were never commissioned, but were ordered into the service. 
Fifteen men were selected out of the company and were sent 
to Greensboro as a guard at that place. In a short time the 
remainder were ordered into the southern part of the county to 
catch deserters from the army. A detachment under the 
First Lieutenant was sent to scour the Cane Creek Mountains, 
where they caught a deserter and found five caves, dug for 
the purpose of hiding provisions, etc., in which was found one 
quilt, one large jug, tin cups, eitc, which had just been de- 

102 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

serted by the proprietors. Tlie detaclinient went on to Cane 
Creek factory. The officer in command sent to* a man's 
house to see if he was at home, when two men leaped out of 
the back door and started through a com field at the top of 
their speed. One of them was a large man and the other a 
small one. At first the superior strength of the large one 
gave him the advantage, but before they got to the end of the 
field the small one was before. It was the most ludicrous 
foot race ever witnessed by the writer. Each one ran, not as 
riinning from danger, but as if for a thousand dollar wager. 
The large man was at first supposed tO' be a deserter, but was 
not, for he had once been taken to Camp Holmes and pre- 
sented for service, but not accepted. The small one was the 
one to whom the house belonged. After the race was over 
the officer went in and told the good woman that the running 
would be of no service to her husband, and told her to tell 
him that the company had to go to Greensboro, and that he 
must come on immediately, which, be it told tO' his credit, he 
did. He belonged to our company. 

From C.ane Creek Factory we went to Greensboro, where 
we were put in a regiment of other reserves, and a set of field 
officers placed over the company. Our next move was to Ash- 
boro. Here our small man who ran so at the factory came up 
and delivered himself to the authorities. He had gone to 
Greensboro just in time to be too late, and had followed us to 
this place. At Greensboro he was furnished with gun and 
cartridge box. On his way to Asheboro he came across one, 
like himself who was a deserter and Senior Reserve, and on 
whom he prevailed to go with him to camp. 

We drove over the mountains in Eandolph County, scaring 
up wild turkeys, foxes and owls in great abundance, but no 
deserters. The turkeys were scared so terribly that they 
could not get out of the way. One of the men wanted to 
shoot, and when the officer would not let him, tried to- bayo- 
net it. 

About this time we received orders to forage- on those who 
had sons in the bushes, which was done to some extent. This 
rigid system brought up a great many who were sent off as 
conscripts, and not deserters. 

Seventy-Seventh Regiment. 103 

We were sent from Ashboro to Wilmington. From Wil- 
mington we were ordered to Camp Whiting, thence to Ply- 
mouth, thence back to Wilmington, thence to Camp Davis, on 
Masonboro Sound, where our young field officers disappeared. 

There we had an election for the officers of Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Major. Wheeler Hancock, of Eookingham, was 
elected to the former and J. Robert McLean, of Guilford, to 
the latter office. We had no fight there but could see the en- 
emy frequently in their vessels. 

From Camp Davis we were ordered to Savannah, from 
thence to Coosawhatchie river. The next day after our ar- 
rival we got in a fight with General Foster's forces, which 
numbered about seven thousand men, while ours were only 
about three thousand. We held the fort (at Savannah) for 37 
day? and nights they shelling us nearly all the time from a 
fort near by. We had nothing but rifle pits to protect us from 
their fire. After the fall of Savannah, Sherman being about 
to surround us, we evacuated our position, setting fire to' the 
bridge across the Tullifinny river, which, not burning rapidly, 
was cut down by a detachment which had been felling trees 
across the road. When we reached ISTew Pocataligo the en- 
emy were within a quarter of a mile of us. We would have 
been captitred had it not been for the Fiftieth North Carolina 
Regiment, which kept the enemy at bay until we got by. 
We retreated across the Salltehatchie river, about a mile above 
the railroad crossing, where we remained some time. There 
our commanding CVdonel (Shober) left us, and the command 
devolved upon Wheeler Hancock, the Lieutenant-Colonel, 
but the brigade was commanded by Colonel (Wash.) Hardy, 
(Sixtieth IsTorth Carolina), for we were brigaded with the 
Fiftieth Regiment and T'enth Battalion, otirs being called 
the Seventh Regiment of Reserves. We were marched 
up the Salkehatchie river to Buford's bridge to prevent Sher- 
man's crossing. While we were there he succeeded in cross- 
ing at Rivers' bridge, after having a pretty lively time with a 
Georgia regiment, who captured some of his advance guard. 
We were next marched to Branchville and stationed on the 
Edisto river, while Sherman passed on towards Columbia. 
We next went to a place called Ridgeville, where a great many 

104 North Carolina Tkoops, 1861-65. 

wounded and sick men were relieved from duty by Dr. Oher^ 
ry, the only man who seemed to have any mercy or humanity. 
Several of those relieved died soon after getting home. 

From Eidgeville we were marched to Florence, where we 
got on the train and went to Gheraw, and from Cher aw to 
Wall's Ferry. While there the men got completely dishearlr 
ened, went to the officers and asked them what thef must do 
for something to eat, who told them that they could do noth- 
ing for them. Upon this some of the men went ho'me. 

From there we were marched fifteen miles west of Fayette- 
ville, where General Wade Hampton charged Kilpatrick, cap- 
turing some of his men, and from there to Averashoro, where 
we halted for a day or two. We were marched back a mile 
or SO', where we threw up breastworks by cutting down pine 
trees and chinking underneath with pine knots. There we 
were attacked by Sherman's forces. The line of battle ex- 
tended from the Capo Fear to a small stream eastwards. If 
two brigades next to the river had not given way, we could 
have held oiir own, but as they did Sherman proved too hard 
for us. Under cover of the darkness we retreated from the 
place in good order and marched on to Bentonville, where we 
engaged iSherman on one Sunday morning (19 March). In 
the evening our brigade was double-quicked from the left to 
the right of the line, where Colonel Hardy rushed us up 
within twenty feet of the enemy's breastworks, telling the of- 
ficers it was to relieve our men. We received a terrible vol- 
ley, upon which one of the officers called O'Ut to cease firing, 
that they were shooting their own men. Still the firing went 
on. We took shelter the best we could behind the pine trees, 
except some of us who were in a pond about sixty or seventy 
yards wide. These retreated across the pond, the officers 
shouting all the time, "Yoii are shooting your own men." 
There we lost about _fifty-one men in about half a minute, 
out of about four hundred. When the firing ceased .Captain 
Eradshaw ordered Lieutenant Blalock to go forward and see 
if they were our own men who fired intO' us. When he got 
within fifteen or twenty feet of their works, two videttes 
leaped out, took him by the ai-ms and led. him across the 

Seventy-Seventh Regiment. 105 

breastworks. Then, knowing who they were, we fired into 
and drove them from their works. 

After the firing ceased two of the officers gathered up all 
the men they could find, marched out about three hundred 
yards and built small fires of pine rails — one for Colonel 
Wortham's Ii(^iment (Fiftieth North Carolina) and one for 
the Senior Keserves. 

The men being ordered to look after the wounded, split 
lightwood rails, and, having lighted them, went back to the 
breastworks and brought them out to the fires, where they 
were placed into ambulances and carried away. We marched 
back about half a mile, where we encamped for the night. 
At daylight the firing was renewed, and continued until Tues- 
day night at 12 o'clock. The enemy never broke our lines 
during the whole fight. 

After the battle we were marched four miles out towards 
Smitlifield, when we were ordered into line of battle again. 
Sherman's forces ceased to pursue us, and we went on to 
within about two miles of Smithfield, where we rested two or 
three days. Here, to the gratification of all. Hardy was re- 
lieved, the Tenth Battalion and Fiftieth Eegiment being or- 
dered into Haygood's and Kirkland's Brigades. Here, also, 
we were joined by those who had left us at Wall's Ferry. 
From Smithfield we went to Ealeigh (27 March) when Gen- 
eral Holmes gave our regiment a furlough for twenty days. 
Two days before this had expired Johnson had surrendered. 

Thus ended the connection of the Senior Reserves, of Ala- 
mance County, with "The Lost Cause." 

Jno. G. Albright. 

Graham, N. C, 

37 March, 1874. 


(eighth reserves. ) 

By the editor. 

This regiment is erroneously given in Vol, 4 of Moore's 
Roster at pp. 333-344-, as the Seventy-third. The muster 
rolls of only six of the ten companies are there given, of which 
we know that Company A belonged to the Seventy-seventh 
(Shober's Seventh Reserves). 

The officers of the remaining five companies there given 

Company B- — Eobeson and Richmond — Captain, l^athan- 
iel McLean (afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel of the regi- 
ment) ; First Lieutenant, Kenneth McXenzie ; Second Lieix- 
tenants, William McRae and J. B. McRae. This company 
was organized 5 July, 1S64. 

Company C — New Hanover and Brunswick — Captain, 
Benj. J. Jacobs; First Lieutenant, Edwin W. Grissett; Sec- 
ond Lieutenants, Eichai'd L. Bordeaux and Boney Souther- 
land. From the dates of the commissions of the officers and 
enlistments of the men, this company was raised 22 April, 

Company D — Bladen — Captain, David Callahan; First 
Lieutenant, James LI. Tyson ; Second Lieutenants, Joseph 
Hester and R. A. Williamson. This company was raised 
early in May. 

Company E — Cvmberland and Harnett — Captain, James 
Hockaday; First Lieutenant, W. H. Senter; Second Lieu- 
tenants, E. Adams and W. Johnson. This company was em- 
bodied early in August. 

CoMPA:5rY F — Cumberland — Captain, W. J. Kelly, First 
Lieutenant, Randall McDaniel; Second Lieutenants, Jno. T. 
Wright and John Shaw. This company was organized 11 
April, 1864. 

The order book of General Holmes mentions as also belong- 
ing to this regiment Captain F. A. Hart. 

108 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

The oiKcers of the other companies and the counties where 
raised can not now be ascertained until the copies of the 
rolls can be had from Washington. Indeed it is not certain 
that Moore's Eoster has correctly placed the above, for the 
dates of the organization of the companies do not correspond 
with the letters given them, which were usually bestowed ac- 
cording to seniority. 

Three of the companies- were organized at Goldsboro in 
May into a battalion commanded by Major B. F. Hooks, who 
did service in guarding the bridges along the line of the Wil- 
mington & Weldon Eailroad, relieving other troops to go to 
the front. On 1 June, 1864, 160 men of Hook's Battalion 
were guarding the bridge over the ISTeuse just south of Golds- 
boro, which had once been destroyed by the enemy. 

On 22 December, 1864, at Wilmington, it was organized 
with other companies into the Eighth Regiment of Reserves 
by the election of — 

Allmand a. McKoy, Colonel. 

Nathaniel A. MgLeaw^ Lieutenant-Colonel. 

BoAz F. Hooks, Major. 

— . — . McAlister was appointed Adjutant, David Berry 
Assistant Surgeon. 

Colonel McKoy was elected Judge of the Superior Court 
in' 1874, and served as such till his death in 1885. 

This regiment was in garrison in the forts below Wilming- 
ton and in December was brigaded with the Fourth (Beece), 
Seventh (French), Eighth (Ellington) Battalions of Junior 
Reserves. This brigade commanded by Colonel J. K. Con- 
ally, of the Fifty-fifth JSTorth Carolina, mustered 1,200 men 
present for duty and assisted in the defence of Fort Fisher 
24 and 25 December, 1864. Off. Rec. Union and Confed. 
Armies, Serial Vol. 87, p. 1021. 

The regiment was also in the vicinity of Wilmington 
during the second assault of Fort Fisher. 

Whether it was at Bentonville or in reserve, does not posi- 
tively appear, but it was at Goldsboro 9 March and was proba- 
bly in the brigade commanded at Bentonville by Colonel 
George Jackson. It was ordered to Raleigh 2Y April and 
disappeared from view with Johnston's surrender. 


1. RobertLColerrian, Colonel. g. George Tait, Colonel. 

John W. Woodfln, Major, on his horse " Prince Hal " 
from whose back he was killed. ' 


(eighth CA.VALKY. ) 

By S. V. PICKENS, Adjutant. 

This regiment had its nucleus in three companies known 
as 11' oodfin's Battalion. Afterwards it was raised to six com- 
panies and Avas then knovm and reported officially as the 
Fourteenth Battalion. It was only in the Spring of 1865 
that it was raised to a regiment by the addition of four more 
companies. It is therefore proper to give some account of 
these battalions. 

wooufin's battalion of cavalry. 

In order to give a connected history of this command it is 
not amiss to write something of a sketch, at the outset of 
Company G of the First North Carolina Cavalry, for this 
was, in a sense, and to a limited degree, the nucleus of said 
battalion. It was one of the earliest organizations in the 
State for the Confederate service, made up of men and boys 
from Buncombe, Henderson and Rutherford, with a few from 
other western counties, aggregating in numbers one hundred 
and twenty. Many of them were from the very best fami- 
lies of the country, some of them attaining distinction in the 
long and bloody war which followed. The commander, Jno. 
W. Woodfin, a born horseman and as chivalrous as any knight 
of the olden time and full of patriotism and devotion to the 
dear Southland, was an inspiration to this gallant band he had 
gathered around him, and it is not surprising that they were 

110 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

ond Lieutenant. Leven Edney, Orderly Sergeant, siicceeded 
very soon by Henry Coleman. 

The company was quartered for a short time at the Jesse 
Smith house, corner of West College and Hay^vood streets 
(now the "villa" property), it then went into camp of instruc- 
tion north of Asheville, about one and a half miles out, near 
the foot of Woodfin Mountain (now called "Lookout"), 
the horses being temporarily stabled in the barns at the negro 
quarters of Captain Woodfin. This camp, the first in West-- 
ern ISTorth Carolina, was named in honor of the commanding 
ofiicer and his elder brother Nicholas, a true and most 
thorough Southerner, giving liberally of his ample means 
to the advancement of the Soiith's interests. After the 
lapse of a month or two "Camp Woodfin" was vacated, the 
company removing to Ridgeway, JST. C, leaving Asheville 9 

At Kidgeway the company was assigned to Colonel Bob. 
Ransom's Ninth North Carolina (First Cavalry), and the men 
were engaged in perfecting their drill \mtil late in the fall, 
vvhen they were ordered to Manassas, Va. Here they wore put 
on outpost duty, scouting and skirmishing almost daily, 
eventually going into winter quarters and remaining until 
Spring, when, about March, they were returned to North 
Carolina, first stopping at Groldsboro, thence to PoUocks- 
ville, near New Bern, and there put on picket duty, remain- 
ing in that locality until some time in May, when they 
were again sent back to Virginia, this time to Richmond, 
thence to Culpepper and Brandy Station, doing picket duty 
and scouting on both the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers. 
On 9 June was engaged in the heavy cavalry fight at Brandy 

On 23 September, 1861, Captain Woodfin was pro- 
moted to Major and transferred to the Nineteenth Regiment 
(Second Cavalry), commanded at the time by Colonel M. L. 
Davis, Jr., of Rutherford County, and later by James L. 
Gaines, of Asheville, who lost an arm at Five Forks in April, 
IS 65. Henry Coleman, also a Bimcombe man, having suc- 
ceeded to the Captaincy of Company G, of which as I have 
noted, he was orderly, was killed at same time and place. 

Seventy-Ninth Regiment. Ill 

Although kit little more than a boy, he had established a rep- 
utation for cool courage and daring. Lieutenant West and 
others mentioned as leaving Company G, returned to West- 
ern North Carolina and set to work to organize another com- 
mand and very soon the former had a company and with two 
others, Captains Harris and Fortune, formed a battalion, the 
composition of which was as follows : 

FiEST CoMPATSTT — Buncombe — Wm. E. West, Captain; 
William Henry, First Lieutenant ; A. E. Posey, Second Lieu- 
tenant; F. M. Corn, Junior Second Lieutenant. 

Second Company' — Transylvania — I. A. Harris, Captain ; 
Ben Erittain, First Lieutenant; Branch Johnston, Second 
Lieutenant ; Thomas Harkins, Junior Second Lieutenant. 

TiiiBD Company — Buncombe — Wm. P. Fortune, Captain; 
Wm. Gilliam, First Lieutenant ; James Wilson, Second Lieu- 
tenant; B. F. Fortune, John Step, Junior Second Lieuten- 

On account of ill health Major Woodfin had resigned his 
position in the Nineteenth Regiment and on returning to 
Ashev'ille, impelled by that same spirit that prompted him to 
offer himself as a sacrifice upon his country's altar in the 
early days of 1861, he accepted the leadership of this bat- 

The Federal army having taken possession of Knoxville 
and occupying other sections of East Tennessee, it became 
necessary for Western North Oaxolina, and more especially 
the town of Asheville, having taken so early and active a part 
in furnishing troops and giving aid in every possible Avay 
to the Confederate forces as tO' embitter all in sympathy with 
the other side, to defend its own borders from invasion, pil- 
lage and robbery. Hence this newly organized battalion 
was the nucleus of a small, "defensive army" and was ac- 
tively engaged in repelling demonstrations made along the 
border lines of North Carolina and Tennessee principally by 
a band of marauders under the command of the notorious 
George W. Kirk, made rnore bold and aggressive by the near- 
ness of the regular army at Knoxville and less distant points. 
Ever on the alert and guarding with zealous care all inva- 

112 North Carolina Troops, 186l-'65. 

sioiis of this territory, when his scouts on or about 20 JSTovem- 
ber, 18 G3, reported a small force as having crossed the Tennes- 
see line into jSTorth Carolina and advancing in the direction of 
Warm Springs, M'ajor Woodiin, with a hastily gotten together 
detachment of his battalion, then at Marshall, sixteen miles 
from the Springs, dashed with that impetuosity characteristic 
of the man, down the French Broad river, hoping to roach 
that point before the invaders. But in this he failed, and in 
turning an abrupt angle in the road not far from "Lover's 
Leap" and in close proximity to the bridge across the river 
leading to the hotel, he found himself confronted by a larger 
force than he expected. Being several paces in advance of 
his "troop," he waved it to hold up, presumably with 
the purpose of alloAving him to take in more fully the situa- 
tion, so as to intelligently direct further movements, but 
unfortunately he had gotten into the outer circle of an am- 
buscade, and was ruthlessly shot from his horse by a party 
hidden under a small building near the road side. A 
young man of Captain West's company named Jake Davis 
was at the same time woiinded, and afterwards died. J. J. 

Ramsay, of same company, and Smith, of Harris' 

comjjany, were also wounded. The detachment being out- 
numbered and having lost its leader, fell back to Marshall. 
A committee of citizens, headed by Esquire Albert T. Sum- 
mey, of Asheville, went down under flag of truce to recover 
the body of the much lamented citizen and soldier. They 
found it stripped of all valuables, but glad to get the life- 
less remains tliey brought it to his bereaved family and 
friends, and with all the honors that could be paid a martyred 
hero, he was laid to rest in the Methodist cemetery on Church 
street and later removed to Eiverside. In the funeral cortege 
was his favorite charger "Prince Hal," upon which he was 
killed, fully caparisoned, being led by his trusted camp ser- 


The battalion, after the death of Major Woodfin, continued 
in this defensive work for a time, acting rather independently 
as companies ; not a great while elapsed however, until there 
united with these three companies three others, making what 

Seventy-Ninth Regiment. 113 

was afterwards known as the Tourteentli Battalion. The 
additional companies were as follows: 

Wiley F. Parker, Captain, of Buncombe; Joe Hale 
Smith, First Lieutenant, of Buncombe, killed in 1865 by a 
band of marauders; Wm. Eilcr, Second Lieutenant, of Bun- 

E. Russell, Captain, of Haywood. 

Jim Ray, Captain, of Madison; Whitfield Morgan, Lieu- 
tenant, killed in 1865, by band of marauders; and — . • — . 
Boone, Lieutenant. 

Of this battalion, James L. Henry was made Lieutenan1>- 
Colone] and Charles M. Roberts Major. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Henry had been Adjutant of the Ninth North Carolina 
(First Cavalry) under Colonel Robert Ransom, and when 
the latter had been promoted Brigadier-General, had became 
Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General of his brigade. After 
the war he was judge of the Superior Courts from 1868-18Y4. 
Major C. M. Roberts had also seen previoiis service. The 
staff were A. M. Alexander, Quartermaster; Robert Farns- 
worth. Commissary; Washington Morrison, Surgeon; Wil- 
liam Murdock, Assistant Surgeon ; S. V. Pickens, Acting Ad- 
jutant; Aaron Wright, Quartermaster Sergeant, and W. L. 
Norwood, Sergeant Major. The last has since been judge of 
the Superior Court. 

The writer, who had from 20 May, 1861, served as a pri- 
vate in Company G, Ninth North Carolina (First Cavalry), 
about 1 March, 1864, transferred to this battalion and be- 
came its Adjutant. He found the command, officered as above 
stated, encamped at Webster, Jackson County. The services 
of Woodfin's Battalion and of this larger battalion had been 
manifold in guarding this section, picketing roads, fighting 
bushwhackers, with occasional brushes with the enemy, but 
the details are now irrevocably lost. 

Major Roberts- was fatally wounded in September, 1864, in 
an engagement on Laurel, in Madison County, with Kirk's 
men, and other bushwhackers. He was a true and brave sol- 
dier, beloved while living by the entire command, and 
lamented when dead. His remains were taken by a military 
escort, in command of the writer, and buried in his own yard 

114 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

T^'ith military honors. All his assailants were slain on the 
spot and houses burned from which they fired. Captain 
Harris then became Major, and Lieutenant James P. Deaver 
became Captain of Company A. 

Lieutenant Morgan and Sergeant Robert Wells, of Com- 
pany T>, were shot down in cold blood near Asheville by some 
of Kirk's men, pending the armistice agreed upon by Gen- 
erals Sherman and Johnston. Lieutenant PTale Smith died 
or was killed, near the same date. 

This command had much good material among the men 
and officers, many of whom had been long in active service 
in Virginia, or the Army of Tennessee, and had been sent 
here to defend their immediate homes against the ravages 
and outrages of men who were true to neither side. 

The Fourteenth Battalion was kept in that part of North 
Carolina near to, and west of the Blue Ridge, with frequent 
raids intO' East Tennessee. 

The service was a peculiar service and a particularly hard 
and dangerous one. Men who had grown fat in General 
Lee's army wasted away tO' skin and bones amidst the hard- 
ships of these mountain campaigns, having no assurance of 
safety in the day or night, in camp or on the march, these 
mountain gorges serving as cities of refuge for deserters and 
bushwhackers. Truly the men of this command needed to 
be always on the alert and wide awake. 

If time, space and memory would allow, it woaild be a 
great pleasure for me to enroll the names of more than five 
hundred of the noble men who served in the ranks of the 
rourteenth (sometimes called the "One Eyed Battalion" 
from the fact that LieutenantrColonel Henry had lost one 
of his eyes) who marched over these mountains through heat 
and cold, and fearlessly met and fought foes whO' forced guer- 
rilla war upon them in and around their homes and firesides- ; 
and foes, too, who had lived in this section and were familiar 
with the roads, rivers and locations of houses, and very many 
of them deserters from the Confederate army and of the 
cause they had sworn to support. In April, 1864, the battal- 
ion was at the mouth of Ivy and reported 221 present out of 
a total of 510. 59 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 865. 

Seventy-Ninth Regiment. 115 

This command had several engagements with the enemy 
on Laurel in Madison County, on Indian creek, Red Banks 
and other points in Tennessee during the years 1864 and 
1865. It was in its last line of battle in thfe city of Asheville, 
about four hundred yards to the north of the female college, 
about 15 April, 1865. 

This battalion was with Colonel Palmer, who commanded 
the Western District of ISTorth Carolina, at Greenville, Tenn., 
on the day after that brave soldier. General John H. Morgan, 
was betrayed and killed in Mrs. Williams' garden, or vine- 
yard; the writer saw the spot, marked by two rude stakes, 
placed at his head and feet where he died, and it was shown 
me by Mrs. Williams. 

In the Fall of 1864, J. E. Rankin v/as made Ad]\itant. 
He was for many years, since the war, chainuan of the 
Board of County Commissioners for Buncombe and is now a 
prominent banker of Asheville. 


In the spring of 1865 four companies were added as fol- 
lows : 

Job Barnard, Captain, of Buncombe; Hezekiah E. Bar- 
nard, Eirst Lieutenant of Buncombe; Taylor Buckner, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, of Buncombe. 

A. E. Posey, Captain, of Henderson; Ben. Brittain, Lieu- 
tenant, of Henderson ; F. M. Corn, Lieutenant, of Henderson. 

William Gilliam, Captain, of Buncombe; John Step, Lieu- 
tenant, of Buncombe. 

— . — . Galloway, Captain, of Transylvania; William 
Ducker, Lieutenant, of Transylvania; Dick Owens, Lieuten- 
ant, of Transylvania. 

This made us a full regiment, being the Eighth Cavalry, or 
Seventy-ninth TSTorth Carolina Regiment. Of this regiment 
Lieutenant-Colonel George Tait, of the Fortieth JSTorth Car- 
olina (Third Artillery) was first appointed Colonel, but not 
liking the service for some reason, resigned and Robert L. 
Coleman, who had been Captain A. C. S. in the Sixtieth 
IvTorth Carolina, and later the Chief Commissary of the De- 
partment of Western JSTorth Carolina, was made Colonel. He 
was a splendid soldier and a most excellent man. 

116 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

In one of the darkest hours towards the last,Captain "Jim" 
Eay, with part of his company ajid part of another, deserted 
to the enemy. 

The last service of the command was around Asheville. On 
6 April, 1865, the regiment aided to repel Colonel Kirby's 
raid coming in from Greenville, Tenn., and as news travelled 
slowly then, there being no railroad or telegraph station 
nearer than the then terminus of the Western N'orth Carolina 
Railroad, six miles below Morganton, a part of the command 
was in a skirmish as late as 10 May. On being made certain 
of Johnston's surrender the regiment quietly dissolved and 
the men went home without being paroled. 

I am much indebted to Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Eay, of 
the Sixtieth Regiment, for aid in preparing this sketch of 
the Eighth Cavalry. 

Incidentally it may here be noted that the eight cavalry 
regiments from this State were all odd numbers, i. e., Ninth, 
Mneteenth, Forty-first, Fifty-ninth, Sixty-third, Sixty-fifth, 
Seventy-fifth and Seventy-ninth, while the three artillery 
regiments were all even numbers — Tenth, Thirty-sixth and 

Though in no great battles the experience of the command 
was, in many respects, perhaps more trying and it performed 
faithfully and well the duties assigned to it. It well merits 
its place in the Military History of North Carolina in the 
Great War of 1861-'65. 

S. V. Pickens. 
Hbndeesonvillb, N. C, 

30 May, 1901. 

A. L. "Welch, Sergeant, Co. A. 


(walker's regiment op THOMAS' LEGION.) 

By captain R. A. AIKEN, Company H. 

This command was organized as a battalion on 1 October, 
1862, in the city of Knoxville, Tenn., under orders from 
Major-General E. Kirby Smith, commander of East Tennes- 
see and Western North Carolina, and was a part of Thomas' 
Legion. The separate companies had been mustered into 
service a few months prior to this, and had been guarding the 
bridges between Bristol and Chattanooga, Tenn. 

The organization was effected by the election of the fol- 
lowing field officers. 

W. C. Walkee, Lieutenant-Colonel, Cherokee County, 
N. C. 

James A. McKamy, Major, Blount County, Tenn. 

Thomas D. Johnson, A. Q. M., Asheville, 'N. C. 

Perey C. Gaston, Adjutant, Franklin, IST. C. 

De. Benj. Mayfiei^d, Surgeon, Murphy, N". C. 

De. Chas. H. Geeen, Assistant Surgeon, Tennessee. 

De. Chas. F. Walkee, Sergeant Major, Murphy, N. C. 

Wm. M. ISTelson, Quartermaster Sergeant, Cherokee 
County, IST. C. 

En. P. McGehee, Ordnance Sergeant, Cherokee County, 
N. C. 

For the greater part' of its service it was known as Walk- 
er's Battalion. When it was raised to ten companies in the 
spring of 18(54, W. C. Walker became Colonel, J. A. Mc- 
Kamy Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain Stephen Whitaker, 
of Company E, became Major. 


Company A — From Cherokee — C. C. Berry, Captain, 18 
July, 1862 ; J. IST. Bryson, First Lieutenant, 18 July, 1862 ; 

118 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Elisha Burgin, Second Lieutenant, 18 July, 1862 ; Andrew 
C. Berry, Junior Second Lieutenant, 18 July, 1862. Officers 
and men, 125. 

Company B — From Cherokee — ^W. C. Walker, Captain, 
19 July, 1862 ; W. B. ISTelson, Captain, 1 October, 1862 ; W. 
J. McGehee, First Lieutenant; G. E". Loudermilk, IL. C. 
Fowler, D. C. F. Walker, Wm. H. Phillips and Jno. H. Kirk- 
land, Second Lieutenants. Officers and men, 113. 

Company C — J. A. McKamy, Captain, 10 September, 
1862, promoted Major 1 October, 1862, and Lieutenanl^Colo- 
nel 4 January, 1864, Blount County, Tenn. ; James M. Sin- 
gleton, First Lieutenant, 10 September; Captain 4 January, 
1864, Blount County, Tenn. ; Wm. Ashley, First Lieutenant, 
10 September; James A. Paul, Second Lieutenant, 10 Sep- 
tember; John W. McKamy, Second Lieutenant, September, 
1862; Lenoir R. Young, Junior Second Lieutenant, Septem- 
ber, 1862. Officers and men, 105. 

Company D — Ccwalry — W. C. Wallace, Captain, 1 Sep- 
tember, 1862, Knoxvillei, Tenn. ; James Carnes, First Lieu- 
tenant, 28 September, 1862, Blount County, Tenn.; F. 
M. Lauter, Second Lieutenant, 28 September, 1862, Blount 
County, Tenn. ; Jos. Harden, 28 September, 1862, Blount 
County, Tenn. Officers and men, 83. 

Company E — Cherokee County — Stephen Whitaker, Cap- 
tain, 8 September, 1862, promoted Major 4 January, 1864; 
John A. Robinson, First Lieutenant and Captain ; W. C. Ta- 
tum. First Lieutenant; W. A. Wiggins, Second Lieutenant. 
Officers and men, 129. 

Company F — Graham County, Cavalry — D. C. Ghormley, 
Captain, 24 September, 1862 ; John G-rant, First Lieutenant; 
E. E. ISTelson and D. S. Kurkholder, Second Lieutenants. 
Officers and men, 75. 

Company G — Camalry — David ISTeff, Captain, 24 Septem- 
ber, 1862 ; Jas. F. Cawsey, First Lieutenant, 24 September, 
1862; Benj. F. Ward, Stecond Lieutenant, 24 September, 
1862 ; W. W. Cowan, Junior Second Lieutenant, 24 Septem- 
ber, 1862. Officers and men. 111. 

Company H — Cherokee County — G. IST. Loudermilk, Cap- 
tain, 19 July, 1862 ; Robert A. Aiken, First Lieutenant and 

Eightieth Regiment. 119 

Captain; Hiram Ledford, First Lieutenant; John Habbitt, 
Second Lieutenant. Officers and men, 90. 

Company I — Indian Company from CheroTcee County — 
James Welch, Captain; Cam. H. Taylor, First Lieutenant; 
Indian Second Lieutenant; Indian Junior Second Lieuten- 
ant. Officers and men, 90. 

Company K — Indian Company from Jackson County — 
'■'Black Fox," Captain ; Indian First Lieutenant ; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. Officers and men, 90. 

Company L — Artillery Battery ^ Four Guns — J. T. Levi, 
Captain, "Louisiana Tigers;" Jno. W. Barr, First Lieuten- 
ant, Abingdon, Va. ; J. M. Shipp, Second Lieutenant, Abing- 
don, Va. ; R. P. Searcy, Junior Second Lieutenant, Tennes- 
see. Officers and men — Louisiana, Tennessee, Virginia and 
North Carolina — 104. 

Total officers and men in above companies, eleven hundred 
and fifteen. About 200 of these were Tennesseeans and 50 
from Virginia and Louisiana, in battery. For the roster 
while a battalion see Moore, Vol. IV, pp. 196-216. 

Immediately after its organization, these companies com- 
posing the battalion, were scattered along the Bristol and 
Chattanooga Railroad, guarding bridges, towns, block houses, 
etc., also arresting conscripts, deserters, and doing other pro- 
vost duties. In April, 1863, the battalion, commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel W. C. Walkear, was in A. E. Jackson's 
Brigade at Jonesboro, Tenn., 35 (Serial Vol.) Off. Bee. 
Union arid Confed. Armies, 792. On 31 July it was at Zol- 
licoffer, Tenn, same volume, page 946. 

After the occupation of East Tennessee by General Burn- 
side, 5 September, 1863, Companies C, E and H were in up- 
per East Tennessee, with Colonels Love and Stringfield and 
most of the Sixty-ninth Regiment of Thomas' Legion, and 
were then cut off from the battalion under Colonel Walker. 

There were alsc three or fo'ur companies of "sappers and 
miners," masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, salt 
and salt petre and alum makers. Captain R. C McCalla, a 
Scotchman, and a most excellent gentleman, is the only officer 
whose name I can recall. 

120 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Nearly half of these were from North Carolina, and in 
their line did faithful service. They were detached from us 
and taken to Bragg's and Johnston's army, at and below Chat- 

Having no names or data, or reports of any kind, I can say 
nothing about them, only that in a general way they were 
good men. Captain McCalla was made Major later on. 

In Lindsey's History of the Civil War in East Tennessee, 
there is an account of the court-martial and shooting of 
twenty North Carolina soldiers as deserters. I have been 
unable to trace those men to any regiment unless perchance 
they belonged to these companies of sappers and miners, and 
were the East Tennessee recruits to those companies, and I 
really fear they were, and though Tennesseeans, belonged to 
"Thomas' Legion." I fear they were unjustly and cruelly 
treated — for, to my personal knowledge, many of them joined 
with the promise that they were not to be taken out of the 
State except in the North Carolina 'mountain line of defense. 
The records show that General Bragg had a dislike for Ten- 
nessee, and North Carolina troops, yet without them he and 
his army would have been crushed as an empty egg shell by 
General Sherman. 

The history of all Countries and of all States in Civil 
War shows that when the army of its defense falls back and 
leaves them to a merciless foe, many good soldiers under other 
circumstances, will leave for their homes. If any of these 
men joined the enemy, of course they forfeited their lives, 
otherwise they were cruelly treated. 

As elsewhere stated, all these were mountain people from 
North Carolina and Tennessee who are as a rule, high strung 
and independent. They will brook no insult in or out of an 

They were not as ignorant, nor were their forefathers, as 
newspaper scribblers and sensation loving writers like 
"Charles Egbert Craddock," et id omne genus, would make 

These slanders have been ably refuted by Professor Eben 
Alexander, of our own University, by Rev. D. Atkins, D. D. 
and by Hon. Wm. Rule, of the Knoxville Journal Tribune. 

Eightieth Regiment. 121 

Mr. Rule says: "Such writers are either fools or liars. 
There is more ignorance, vice, loathsome men and women, 
under the shadow of Trinity Spire, 'New York, than in all 
the mountains of ISTorth Carolina, T'eimessee, Kentucky, Al- 
abama and GreoTgia combined." 

Colonel Wm H. Tho^mas, commanding Legion, mentioned 
quite fully in the sketch of the Sixty-ninth Regiment here- 
tofore, is really entitled to a larger notice than can be given 
to any individual officer, although quite a number of officers 
and men will have to be more fully noticed herein than in 
ordinary regimental historiesi, for the reason that the work or 
service done was largely by individuals, squads and compa- 

During the latter part of 1862 and first eight months of 

1863, most of the duty performed by these men was tiresome, 
thankless, disagreeable, galling and verging on the unmanly. 
Enforcing conscription was always a disagreeable duty to a 
soldier and gentleman. Colonel Thomas took the Indian 
companies and fell back across the Smoky Mountains towards 
Waynesville and Webster, and practically remained in that 
locality during the balance of the war. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Walker, witli several companies, foot and horse, reported to 
and obeyed the orders of Generals Bragg and John C. 

On 8 September, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel Walker with his 
battalion, 300 strong, are reported at the battle of Limestone 
Bridge, East Tennessee, where they charged gallantly and 
aided in capturing 350 prisoners, 51 (Serial Vol.) Off. Bee. 
Union and Confed. Armies, dJfS. From October to Decem- 
ber, 1863, the battalion commanded by Major McKamy, was 
in A. E. Jackson's Brigade, Robert Ransom's Division. On 
6 November it reported 399 total present for duty. In April, 

1864, it was still in Jackson's Brigade and at Carter's Depot, 
but was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy, 59 Off. 
Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 802, having been raised to 
a regiment. At the same date the three Indian companies are 
officially recorded as being at the mouth of Tuckaseege, 206 
present out of 283 total, same volume, p. 865. 

There was much hard and dangerous service done, both in 

122 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Tennessee and Wortli Carolina. The four counties of Cheiro- 
kee, Clay, Grraham and Swain were disputed territory all this 
time. While large bodies of Federals seldom came out, yet 
small scouts were constantly depredating upon and killing tlie 
citizens and taking off many tO' prison. Colonel Walker was 
murdered at his home near Murphy on the night of 3 Janu- 
ary, 1864, while there on sick leave. 

In order to properly realize and appreciate the work done, 
the reader should bear in mind how these Worth Carolina 
conntics before named, are situated. Cherokee, in the eix- 
treme west, is wedged in bet^s'een Tennessee and Georgia, 
its east end between Graham and Clay Counties, the former 
with a long, rugged and tortuO'US, but not impassable mo'un- 
tain line, bordering on East Tennessee and reaching from 
Tennessee river and the gi-eat butt end of the "Great Smoky 
Mountains" out towards "Hanging Dog" westward, while the 
latter — Clay County — borders on Georgia and crosses the 
Blue Eidge, or embraces its western limit. 

It should be said of Colonel AValker that he was a man of 
more than ordinary ability and influence. He was a member 
of the Legislature in 1857-'58, and when the "call to arms" 
resounded in his State, he raised the first company from Cher- 
okee, was soon made Lieutenant Colonel of the Regiment 
(Twenty-ninth ISTorth Carolina), but failing health compelled 
him to resign. Recovering somewhat his health, he promptly 
assisted his old friend. Colonel W. H. Thomas, in forming the 
"Legion," where he was always regarded as a prompt and 
faithful officer and loyal soldier of the South. After his 
death, LieutenantrColonel McKamy was entitled to the com- 
mand of the Eightieth, but he was with Colonel Love in Vir- 
ginia, doing valiant service till his capture at Winchester, 
Ya., 19 September, 1864, where he lost most of his men by 
wounds, 'capture and death. 

Let the reader still beiar in mind the geography and topog- 
raphy of this region. The eastern botmdaries of these three 
counties practically jut up against the great ISTantahala Moun- 
tains, connecting the Smoky and Blue Ridge — the culminat- 
ing points of both — for really, both do disappear from the 
maps hereabouts. 

Eightieth Regiment. 123 

Tlie Smoky Mountains and Tennessee line "round up" a 
few miles east of Tennessee river, at an altitude of about 
6,700 feet on "Clingman's Dome." This great and grand 
mountain, terrible to view from a distance, yet beautiful 
and useful in reality on its great broad top, was most of 
the time inhabited during the war or occupied by the soldiers 
of this regiment, especially the Indians. 

The cavalry companies of JSTeff and Wallace did mvich ac- 
tive service for Generals Bragg and Johnston, and were per- 
manently out off from the battalion as well as the regiment. 
After the murder of Colonel Walker and during almost all 
the year 1864, the remaining companies of this battalion 
were on duty along the mountain gaps and passes, making 
and repelling attacks upon and from the enemy similar work 
to that heretofore delineated in the sketch of the Sixty-ninth 

The cavalry companies of the regiment, especially Wal- 
lace's and Neff's, did no service in ISTorth Carolina at all after 
Btimside's occupancy of East Tennessee, but were attached 
to General J. O. Vaughn's East Tennessee cavalry brigade un- 
der orders of General Bragg. They did good service, and 
like all soldiers in this East Tennessee and Western North 
Carolina Department, were always on the move, and as subse- 
quent events have proven, were of invaluable service to the 

"\\'lien Longstreet failed to capture Knoxville, and fell back 
up eastwards towards Virginia, he was soon followed by 
Bumside, Sherman, and as far as Strawberry Plains by Gen- 
eral Grant, with an army of 50,000 men. At this tim.c ar,d 
place a "council of war" was held by these three great Union 
Generals in the house and at the then home of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Stringfield, of the Sixty-ninth North Carolina, of 
our Legion, and in a house built by his father for his great 
grandfather. Colonel James King, a King's Mountain hero. 

In this council of war the idea was advanced and pressed 
almost to a certainty tO' cut the army intO' four divisions and 
send 10,000 each ixp Little Tennessee toward Macon County ; 
10,000 to Waynesville, and 10,000 up French Broad, towards 
Asheville and Burnsville, IST. C, and 20,000 towards Bristol 

124 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

and Lynchburg. TMs matteir was held in abeyance till Gen- 
eral Grant could personally inspect the line, or base of oper- 
ations. So he mounted his horse and rode 175 miles through 
Tennessee and Kentucky and finding the roads so' terrible, he 
abandoned the idea. But the project was not a bad one, 
with Chattanooga and Knoxville as bases for operations. 

Colonel Thomas often contended that that would be done. 
Such being possible it will be seen that upper Georgia and 
South Carolina would have been threatened and also South- 
west Virginia with the salt works and all that fine region ex- 

It is no secret that General Lee seeing he could not hold 
Richmond much longer began to look towards the mountains 
of Tennessee, Kentucky and North Carolina to fall back to. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Stringfield was consulted by General 
Breckinridge about East Tennessee and ISTorth Carolina while 
we were together in the Valley Campaign. Colonel Thomas 
doubtless had been consulted also, hence his tenacity to hold 
every mountain pass towards Tennessee. The men were often 
detailed to build roads across Smoky Mountains and to ac- 
quaint themselves with all the mountain trails, etc. 

At that time the Cherokee Indians, 400 of whom were in 
the two regiments of Thomas' Legion (Sixty-ninth and Eigh- 
tieth JSTorth Carolina), occupied almost the center of this vast 
mountain country along the Tennessee line, and there is no 
doubt that their presence here was a great protection to the 
people. They were loyal to us to an intense degree. Colonel 
Thomas, as has been stated in the sketch of the Sixty-ninth, 
had been their friend, patron, chief and agent for twenty-five 
years prior to the. war. 

But of the whites we must say that these mountain people 
were rather unique in their individuality. Their stern inde- 
pendence of speech and action sometimes cast a doubt upon 
strangers as to what they would do next, as sometimes they 
would talk strangely to a loyal Southron, but when fighting 
was needed history shows that they "fought as never man 
fought before." 

Judge 0. P. Temple, of Knoxville, Tenn., in his history 
of "Civil War in East Tennessee," has much to say in defence 

Eightieth Regiment. 125 

of all of them, especially the Union element. President Lin- 
coln early in 1862 began to inaugurate measures to relieve 
the "loyal" East Tennessee people, and in his December mes- 
sage to Congress, 1861, he strongly recommended their re- 
lief, and in January, 1862, a strong army started thither, 
which met, defeated and killed General ZoUicoff er at Eishing 
Creek. This defeat thrilled the entire populace. Southern 
and Union. This failure of General Thomas to follow up hia 
advantage soon disheartened his people, and all the Southern 
people flew to arms. 

The conscript law was now passed and the bitterness and 
the "uncivil" war began in earnest. 

Counties were arrayed against counties, townships, com- 
munities and families were divided — split up, estranged, em- 
bittered and finally out in open arms against each other. Un- 
der such surroundings our men lived, camped, marched, 
drilled and some few deserted us. It was a very unsatisfac- 
txjry state of affairs, and the sterling manhood of our men 
was often brought to the test. It was painful and hu- 
miliating to have to arrest any one, but after living among 
and associating with people for weeks and months it was a 
very disagreeable duty to arrest them or impress or confiscate 
anything of theirs. 

After East Tennessee was overrun by Bumside's army, the 
Eightieth as before stated, guarded the mountain paths 
from Tennessee. Quite a number of our people refused to 
go in Hie army as conscripts, but went over to Knoxville, 
Burnside in meanwhile telling them it was his intention tO' go 
up through ISTorth Carolina and over into Georgia and South 

Cherokee County was sorely infested with a lot of "bum- 
mers" from both armies daily almost, stealing horses, cattle, 
provisions, clothing, etc., and so'me small negroes. Colonel 
"Walker tried to suppress this, but was murdered early in 
January, 1864. Eor some time prior to this Colonel Walker 
was kept constantly on the alert with his men, on ]N"antahala, 
Little Tennessee, Valley, Notley and Hiwassee rivers. Spies, 
scouts, recruiting officers, etc., being always on the move. 

Sergeant Steve Porter, of Company F (Andrews), can tell 

126 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

of many hair-breadth escapes and blood-curdling stories of 
his cavalry company in East Tennessee in Sevier, Blount, Mc- 
Minn and Polk Counties 

Sergeant A. Lon. Welch, of Company A (Anderson, S. C. ) 
can also relate many thrilling adventiires of those dark days. 
Mr. Welch is now a prosperous man in his South Carolina 

Captain Cam. Taylor, of Company I, is a leading lavs^yer 
among the Cherokee Indians in the West at Tah-le-quah fcap- 
ital of the nation), where quite a number of his Indian ijreth- 
ren followed him (he is part Cherokee). Captain Sou-ate- 
Owle, of Company A, now of Cherokee, IST. C, and com- 
mander of ''Saw-noo-kee" Camp l^o. 1268, is still living at his 
Swain County home near Cherokee P. 0. He was a brave 
warrior. He and twenty of his command attended the Loiiis- 
ville reunion and attracted a good deal of notice. He is a 
Baptist preacher. 

In the midst of these stormy days Colonel Walker finally 
went home, near Murphy, sick. He was called to the door 
and shot down like a dog. Following this tragedy there was 
much apprehension among officers and men. Burnside's 
army having all lower East Tennessee in its iron grasp, there 
was little that this regiment, divided tip as it was, could 
do but stand sentinel and defend their homes and the holmes 
of their comrades of the Twenty-ninth, Thirty-ninth, Twenty- 
fifth and Sixty-ninth Pegiments, and they did their duty well 
and faithfully under great danger and privation. The win- 
ter of 1863-'64 was unusually severe, the snows were deep and 
numerous, but wood was plenty. 

Another great service performed by these men was the re- 
capture of 250 Federal prisoners who escaped from down 
South in squads of five to fifteen. This was largely done by 
the Cherokee Indians, who were familiar with every footpath 
in the mountains and coiild follow the trial of a man or party 
when all signs had failed to others. 

Many Yankee soldiers, after escaping from Columbia, 
etc., were picked up and sent back. These Indians were 
never cruel to prisoners or any one else, but were faithful 
"sentinels" on the "watch tower." One faithful fellow on an 

Eightieth Kegiment. 127 

outpost low down on the Tennessee river towards Tennessee, 
was placed on guard and well cautioned and admonished, 
he stood at his post all night, or near fourteen hours, in one 
of the iiercest and most terrific snow storms in the history of 
the country. 

When his absence was noted next morning and relief guard 
sent out he was found bravely walking his post. The Indians 
were splendid for such service, but they could not face can- 
nons — "big guns on wheels." 

In the Fall of 1864 some effort was made by some Union 
men to re-establish the old government and reinstate the "old 
flag" in Cherokee. The writer is not in possession of suf- 
ficient facts bearing on the case to give au intelligent state- 
ment of it. As a further evidence of the bad elements, dan- 
gerous and perilous incidents of the times the life of Major 
Whitaker, an old and valued citizen of the county and a fear- 
less officer, was frequently threatened. 

Lieutenant-Colonel String-field, of the Sixty-ninth, com- 
manding the six companies west of the Balsam Mountains, 
often had to travel from Asheville and Waynesville tO' Mur- 
phy entirely unattended, fording and swimming the creeks 
and rivers, at the imminent peril of his life. He narrowly 
escaped assassination several times. On one occasion, at the 
house of Mrs. Walker, on Valley river, now Andrews, a 
would-be assassin approached within ten feet of him while sit- 
ting near an open window, a plank broke, the dog barked, and 
at the alarm the window and curtain were shut down and his 
life was saved, thanks to an overruling Providence. 

On 10 March, 1865, General Martin reports the Sixty- 
ninth and Eightieth, including their Indian companies, as 
having 1,055 present for duty. lOS Off. Rec. Union and 
Confed. Armies, 104-8. 

The writer deeply regrets that he is unable tO' give the 
names of numerous officers and men who died in battle in 
Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Kentucky and ISTorth Carolina, 
and of many heroic deeds of all in lower East Tennessee and 
North Carolina. 

Major Whitaker died in December, 1900, giving no de- 
tails. Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy, in 1898. Captain iN'eff 

128 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

was captured at Somerset, Kj., in 1864. The fate or subse- 
quent career of many others is unknown. 

Captain Ghormley is also living in North G-eorgia. After 
the capture of Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy, Winchester, Va,, 
19 September, 1864, Major Stephen Whitakeo-, of Cherokee 
County, assumed command of the r^ment and was ever 
faithful to his trust. He was the last field officer of the "Le- 
gion" to lay down his arms, and in this he had a rather unique 
and remarkable experieoice. When Lieutenant-Colonel W. 
W. Stringfield was sent with a flag of truce to Knoxville to 
General Stoneman, the notorious Colonel Kirk violated a 
truce made at Asheville and moved rapidly west, to Franklin, 
Macon County, there he actually treated the people kindly 
and gave most of them their horses. 

Major Whitaker, hearing of the surrender of Lee and John- 
ston in April, and of Colonels Thomas and James R. Love at 
Waynesville on 9 and 10 May, went to Franklin and surren- 
dered himself and son on the 14th. His men — like those of 
Colonel Thomas — were allowed to keep their guns, in self de- 
fense. Thus closed the service of some as good men as ever 
fought for the South. Much more should be said concerning 
numbers of officers and private soldiers, but the information 
cannot be gotten. Captain T. D. Johnston, Quartermaster, 
is an invalid now living at Asheville. He has twice repre- 
sented us in Congress. P. C Gaston, Adjutant, lived and 
died in Macon County — a highly respected citizen. Dr. B. 
Mayfield recently died at Murphy, N. C, a loved and respect- 
ed physician. Dr. Walker, Sergeant-Ma j or, is a highly re- 
spected citizen of Cherokee County. 

In the preparation of this sketch I am greatly indebted to 
Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Stringfield, of the Sixty-ninth 
North Carolina, a most gallant and efficient officer of our Le- 
gion, whose memory will always be dear to them as long as 
a member of the command survives. 

R. A. Aiken, 
muhphy, n. c, 

30 May, 1901. 


(first eegiment op detailed men.) 

By the editor. 

At this late date it is difficult to get data as to this regi- 
ment. Its history is substantially that related of the Eighty- 
second Regiment. 

In November, 1864, the Confederate authorities directed 
that the detailed men in this State should be at once organized 
into regiments and battalions. General Holmes reported 
their number in this State to be 3,117. 

On 13 January, 186.5, he directs that the First Regiment 
Detailed men under Colonel (or Lieutenant-Colonel) L. M. 
McCorkle, the Second under Colonel A. G. Brenizer, and 
the Third under Colonel Bouchell, should constitute a bri- 
gade under the command of Colonel W. J. Hoke, and they 
were all ordered to Salisbury. There was also a battalion of 
them under Major Rancher, which was ordered to Raleigh. 

On 21 February, 1865, General Holmes telegraphed Gen- 
eral Bragg that he had organized two regiments of detailed 
men and could turn them over to him. They were probably 
utilized to guard prisoners and public property. It can not 
be certainly known — -until we can get copies of the rolls from 
Washington — even who the field officers were. It seems 
pi'obable that the Colonel was W. J. Hoke, formerly Colonel 
of the Thirty-eighth ISTorth Carolina and just then command- 
ing at Charlotte, and that Lock McCorkle was Lieutenant- 

The artisans in the ISTavy Department works at Charlotte 
were in September, 1864, organized into two companies and 
were doubtless placed in this regiment. 


(second ebgiment of detailed men,) 

By a. G. BRENIZER, Colonel. 

In the latter part of 1864 the Confederate Congress or- 
dered the organizing of all detailed men into companies and 
regiinents, which in North Carolina was done under the su- 
pervision of Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes. These men 
were artisans, mechanics, laborers, clerks, etc., employed in 
the various departmennts of the Confederacy, and in the em- 
ploy of contractors with the government to supply iron, coal, 
equipments, rifles, saltpetre, etc., etc., detailed from the army 
to perform these duties. Some of these men were "light duty 
men," unable to do full duty in the field, but capable of en- 
gaging in some work at home, to carry on the war. 

Three regiments of detailed men of ten companies each 
and a battalion were organized in this State. At that time I 
was in command of the arsenal at Salisbury, being Major of 
Artillery, C. S. A., on ordnance duty. 

The second regiment was organized by electing: 

A. G. BeenizeEj Colonel. 

Jaspee Stowb^ of Gaston, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

— . — . , Major. 

— . — . MclSTeely, of Salisbury, was appointed Adjutant. 

In this regiment were the following companies: 

Company A^ — Captain, Philip S. Whisnant, of Anson; 
First Lieiitenant, B. F. Glenn ; Second Lieutenants, J. M. W. 
Flow, S. C. Hunter. 

CoMPATsrr B — Captain, W. P. BrO'Wn, of Mecklenburg; 
First Lieutenant, James Earnhardt ; Second Lieutenants, A. 
McCoy and J. E. Caldwell. 

Company C — Captain, W. H. Houston, of Union. 

Company D — Captain, William Paisley; First Lieuten- 
ant, J. R. Fisher ; Second Lieutenant, B. R. Mayer. 

132 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Company E — Captain, P. H. Montague, of Rowan. There 
were five other companies whose captains I do not recall, 
to-wit: one from Gaston, one from Stanly, one from David" 
son, one from Cabarrus and one from Randolph. 

The only field service rendered by this regiment was when 
Sherman was making his famous (or infamous) march 
through South Carolina and threatening Western JSTorth 
Carolina. It was expected that his route would be through 
Charlotte and Salisbury. 

These three regiments of detailed men were ordered out and 
encamped at Salisbury where we did picket duty until Sher- 
man turned to the right, towards Fayetteville, and all dan' 
ger of invasion towards Charlotte was over. We were then 
ordered home. 

When Stoneman came on his raid in April, 1865, and took 
possession of Salisbury, destroying all government buildings, 
and railroad property and all government stores that had Hot 
been removed, his appearance was so sudden that there was 
no time to get these regiments together. One company, that 
from Rowan, commanded by Captain P. H. Montague, 
was at Salisbury'-, the men being engaged all night long in 
loading ordnance stores on the train under orders front the 
general in command. At daybreak Stoneman attacked the 
town, which was easily captured, there being only a few con- 
valescents and a battery of artillery, which was passing 
through, and the above company of my regiment. 

At the last moment an order came for that company to re- 
port at headquarters and they were sent out of town to join 
the small force which stood before Stoneman, endeavoring 
to cheek his advance. They reached there just in time to 
be surrendered and were carried to Camp Chase, Ohio, where 
they remained about three months after the close of the war. 

A. G. BEE^riziiE, 

Chaklottb, N. C, 

36 April, 1901. 


(third rbgimbnt of detailed men.) 

By the editor. 

This regiment was commaiided by Colonel Bouchell and 
was in the brigade composed of the three regiments of de- 
tailed men which by order of Lieutenant-General T. H. 
Holmes 12 January, 1863, were brigaded and placed under 
command of Colonel W. J. Hoke. 

We have no information as to its services nor as to its of- 
ficers. The muster rolls of these three regiments are doubt- 
less among those captured at Charlotte, to which point they 
were removed after the fall of Richmond, and which are now 
in the Record and Pension Bureau at Washington. Some 
day. Congress will doubtless order all these rolls printed. 
But until that is done the names of the ofl&cers and men of 
this regiment will be lost save the name of its Colonel, which 
alone has been preserved. 

Supplemental Histories. 


By GEORGE H. MILLS, Fihst Lieutenant, Company G. 

The Sixteenth Eegimeojt of 'North Carolina Troops (Sixth 
Vohmteers) was composed originally of twelve companies, 
as follows : 

Company A — Jackson — Captain, A. W. Coleman. 
CoMPA^^Y B — ifadison.' — Captain, John Peake. 
Company C — J^ftyice^/— Captain, J. S. McElroy. 
Company D — Rutherford — Captain, H. D. Lee. 
Company E — Burhe — Captain, E. J. Kirksey. 
Company F — Buncomhe — Captain, P. H. Thrash. 
Company G — Rutherford — Captain, C. T. N. Davis. 
Company H — Macon — Captain, Thomas M. Angel. 
Company I — Henderson — Captain, Wm. M. Shipp. 
CoMX'ANY K — Polk — Captain, J. C. Camp. 
Company L — Haywood- — Captain, K. G. A. Love. 
Company M — Gaston — ^Captain, B. F. Briggs. 

Tn April, ]862, Company JST, Captain J. W. Kilpatrick, 
from Rutherford, was added, making thirteen companies, but 
after the battle of Seven Pines, it was transferred and be- 
came Company I, Fifty-sixth North Carolina. After Sharps- 
bvirg Company A was transferred to the Thirty-ninth, and 
Company L to the Sixty-ninth North Carolina, both these 
last in the Army of the West. 

The regiment was organized at Raleigh on 16 June, 1861, 
electing — 

Stephen D. Lue, of Buncombe, Colonel. 

CAPTAIN R. G. A. TjOve, of Haywood, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Captain B. F. Beiggs^ 'of Gaston, Major. 

WooDBUiiY WiTEELEK, Adjutant. 

Note. — A sketch of this Regiment will be found in Vol. 1 of this 
work, pp. 751-773. The writer of this very interesting additional sketch 
died 10 January, 1901. He was a gallant soldier. — Ed. 

138 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Coi.uMBiTs Mills, of Polk, Surgeon. 

W. D. Whitted, of Henderson, Assistant Surgeon. 

D. F. Stjmmey, of Buncombe, A. Q. M. 

J. M. IsKAEL, of Buncombe, A. C. S. 

The regiment remained in Raleigh under command of 
Major Henry K. Burgwyn, commandant of the camp, until 
Colonel Lee and staff arrived about 1 July. On 3 July the 
first six companies under command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Love left for Richmond, foUo-vved the next day by Colonel 
Lee, with the balance of the command, arriving about mid- 
night in Petersburg, where we spent a most uncomfortable 
night sleeping on the bare brick floors of the market house. 
At daylight we were aroused, crossed the Appomattox and 
had breakfast, then taking the train for Richmond, arriving 
about 12 M. Sunday, 5 July, joining the regiment in the old 
fair grounds. 

Remaining two days in Richmond, we were ordered to 
Staunton, Va., and taking the Virginia Central, we passed 
Gordonville, Charlottesville, and crossed the mountains to 
Waynesboro, where the citizens turned out en masse and gave 
us a most royal feast. And it will never be forgotten — the 
first rebel yell ever given by the Sixteenth. When we came 
suddenly in full view of the Blue Ridge, the counterpart 
of the homes of twelve hundred patriotic men who had scarce 
ever been out of sight of the mountains, there rose an im- 
promptu shout and yell that (often after repeated on bloody 
fields) seemed to rend the very heavens. 

Reaching Staunton at a late hour, we spent the night in 
the depot yard, and next morning moved into very pleasant 
quarters in the valley near the headwaters of the Shenandoah, 
\'S'here we remained two days. Teams M'ere purchased — one 
for each company and more for the regiment besides, making 
about thirty teams, the largest and finest horses we had ever 
seen, and wagons sufficient to transport baggage and supplies 
for an army, all of which we then had in abundance. 


We were ordered to the relief of General Garnett, at Cheat 
Movintain. Marching out from Staunton on the Parkersburg 

Sixteenth Regiment. 139 

pike, with brass band in front, the streets lined with citizens, 
eoidiers, and ladies, and our colors gaily floating in the breeze, 
we began to think we were soldiers. We made ten miles, 
camping at Buft'alo Gap, and that night Colonel Lee received 
orders to take 500 men with arms and ammunition and witb- 
oxit baggage, and make a forced march to reach General Gar- 
nett, but in the morning, for some reason, be decided to take 
the whole regiment and push on witbout delay. So at din- 
ner we passed the place where we expected to camp that night, 
eleven miles, where we found the citizens had turned out with 
wagoii loads of provisions, ofE which we made a hearty dinner, 
then promptly falling into ranks we marched ten miles farther 
toward tbe top of the moitntain, making twenty-one miles in 
the day. The men were all pretty much worn out with the 
bard march, and as soon as supper was over, dropped into 
their blankets, hoping to have a good night's sleep and rest. 
The Adjutant came to the Orderly of Company G and told 
him if anything should happen during the night tO' form tbe 
company as quickly as possible and march down to the road, 
which gave tlie men quite a scare, feeling like they were get- 
ting on dangerous ground, as we bad already met several 
wounded men and wagons with dead officers, but as no car- 
tridges bad been issued, the men, of course, could not see tbe 
point, and nothing occurring during the night except that 
Captain Davis alarmed the camp with an attack of night 
mare. Early in the morning we were on tbe march crossing 
the moimtain and Calf Pasture river. Reaching McDowell 
we met Governor Jjctcber with a big demijohn of buttermilk 
in his buggy. He told Colonel Lee that General Garnett had 
been killed and his command routed was falling back, advis- 
ing Colonel Lee to push forward to Monterey and there to 
stop all troops and got things into better shape. We reached 
Monterey, a small village in a narrow valley between two 
mountains, and went int-o camp, and soon the stragglers came 
flocking in, in squads from one to twenty, the most forlorn 
looking set of men ever seen, ragged, barefoot and hungry, 
having lost everything. Our men having an extra supply 
of clothing, divided with them and made them as comforta- 
ble as possible. 

140 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

We remained at Monterey for ten days, and a few days 
after we reached there we were aroused in the night by the 
long roll being sounded, and Colonel Lee tearing through 
camp yelling at the top of his voice, "Rouse up, men, fall in, 
the enemy is upon you !" Everything was in confusion for 
a time, but order soon prevailed, the men were up, dressed 
with all their accoutrements on, the companies formed and 
marched to the parade ground. After waiting and listening 
for the enemy a short time, it being very dark so we could 
see nothing, we heard Colonel Lee's voice in front: "Well, 
men, I am glad to say if there is no other enemy present, 
we have at least conquered one enemy — that is the enemy 
sleep," and complimenting us for promptness, he said it was 
just five minutes from the time the alarm was sounded till 
the regiment was formed. "Captains, have your rolls called 
and report all men not in line." 

You can imagine what a relief it was when we found it 
was a false alarm, and we then understood what was meant 
at the camp on the mountain when the Orderly was told to 
form company and march down to the road. You can guess 
that we would have made a poor fight, as the men did not have 
a round of ammunition in their boxes. All that was left of 
Gamett's men had been gathered in, and re-shod and clothed 
as well as could be done, General H. E. Jackson, of Georgia, 
taking command. 

After ten days' stay at Monterey, the Sixteenth Regiment 
was ordered forw^ard, taking a westerly direction, and after 
three days' march arrived at Huntersville, Pocahontas Coun- 
ty. One of our camps will long be remembered by our survi- 
vors as one of the most eligible camping places they had ever 
mot. A sugar maple orchard on a clear stream of cold water, 
whose banks were fringed with spear mint, induced our com- 
pany commander to suggest that here was the water, here is 
the mint; if anyone can furnish the sugar ("here it is" said 
the writer) and some one the spirits, we'll have the best mint 
ji^lep you ever tasted. At this juncture our best forager, W. 
T. Wilkins, made his appearance, and had secured the brandy, 
and then and there, in the fence comer by the stream, and out 
of sight of our strict disciplinarian. Colonel I^ee, there was a 

Sixteenth Regiment. 141 

jolly time over the jolly, jolly grog such as makes the mouth 
of an old soldier water to think of. 

Leaving Iluntersville next day, we crossed Greenbrier river 
on a fine bridge, camping three miles beyond at Edray, where 
we spent ten days picketing ten miles distant in the direction 
of Cheat Moimtain, at Clover Lick. The first detachment 
going without rations, the Lieutenant in command sent to the 
proprietor, Mr. Warrick, who was then looking after his 
stock, to know if he could get supplies of food for the com- 
mand. He replied that he did not stay there himself, only 
had an old man there to look after and take care of the stock, 
but if the men could milk, .there were fifty cows in the 
meadow, 600 sheep in the pasture, and we could supply our- 
selves with niilk and lamb, while the old man furnished us a 
quantity of buckwheat flour, from all which we had a most 
royal feast, sweetened with maple sugar which we found in 

While camped at Edray we were aroused by a terrible 
commotion; the sentinels on post commenced hollowing and 
kept it up all night — that Generals Beauregard and John- 
ston had fought the Yankees at Manassas — killing 20,000 
and capturing twice as many more. Washington Avould be 
taken in another day and the war would end ! Alas, how 
badly were we mistaken. 

Remaining at Edray ten days, we broke camp on 30 July, 
going west, crossed a high mountain, marched till dark and 
camped in a cow pasture, and early next day reached Big 
Spring and went into camp. Thinking to spend some time, 
wagons were unloaded, tents pitched, and everything made 
ready for camp, but alas for the hope of rest for a soldier. 
At 3 p. m., a courier dashed into camp with the report iliai 
Captain Camp, Company K (who had been sent to establish 
a post on Valley Mountain), was then fighting a large body 
of Yankees, and needed reinforcements at once. We Avere 
ordered to fall in, leaving our baggage train, and push for- 
ward to his relief. We marched forward over the fine moun- 
tain tiirnpike, reached the top of tlie mountain at dark, 
found Captain Camp, but no fight and no Yankees, and per- 
haps none in twenty miles. 

142 North Carolina Troop's, 1861-'65. 

We bivouacked without baggage, tents or rations, which 
did not arrive until 10 a. m. next day. This was our first 
exporience (often later repeated) in camping without sup- 

On the arrival of our wagon train the boys were soon busy, 
cooking and putting up shelter, the mountain side soon being 
covered with our white tents, making a most picturesque 
scene, where before was a wilderness of lofty sugar maple and 
h'nn, with undergrowth as high as your head, rhododendron 
and May apple, blackberries in abundance, then perfectly 
green. (1 August). We found snow birds building nests, 
hatching and rearing their young — something we had never 
before seen. At Valley Mountain we were joined by two 
Tennessee Brigades, Generals Anderson and Donaldson and 
two Virginia Regiments. The Fourteenth Georgia and our 
regiment were brigaded with the last under Colonel William 
Gilham, of Virginia. A squadron of cavalry, under com- 
mand of W. H. F. Lee, and two batteries of artillery were 
added to the force, and an Irish battalion under Colonel 
Muniford, from Lynchburg. There was also a company of 
Baltimoreans, tinder command of Captain Clate Clark, and 
General William Loring coming up took immediate com- 
mand of the force. General Eobert E. Lee also came, he 
being in command of that department. 


Very soon after reaching Valley Mountain, it commenced 
raining, and it being a rich loam and limestone soil, the roads 
became almost impassable, the whole earth seemed full of 
water with springs bubbling up in our tents. The measles 
broke out in camp, and transportation being short, the moun- 
tain was converted into a sick camp. Typhoid fever made 
its appearance, and one morning there was more than 500 
sick reported in the regiment. The men began to die, and 
soon Valley Mountain had a large graveyard. Charles Green, 
Company G, was the first man we lost, dying 26 August. 
TT. C. Green, of same company, in attempting to cross Valley 
river after a rain when swollen into a torrent, was drowned, 
his body being washed down into the Yankee lines where it 

Sixteenth Regiment. 143 

was found and bnried by a citizen whose name was Ford. 
About this time death began to get in his work, many men 
dying from the exposure and the hard duty they were com- 
pelled to undergo, the rains continuing through August and 
September, causing a great deal of sickness and many deaths. 
The bones of many of the brare boys of the Sixteenth still 
lie buried all along the road from Valley Mountain to Staun- 

Early in September blackberries began to ripen, and the 
men were sent out on the mountain to gather them, a most ac- 
ceptable service, and furnishing a splendid diet which was an 
agreeable change and did us much good. Blackberry pies 
and pudding with maple sugar or molasses were our favorite 
bill of fare, lasting until we left the mountain 1 October. 
Our camp was on top of the mountain, the dividing line be- 
tween Pocahontas and Randolph, until 20 September, when 
General Lee ordered a forward movement down the road to- 
ward the enemy, and our first camp was made just outside 
our former picket lines. 'Next morning at an early hour we 
were again on the advance, and soon struck the Federal picket, 
and we had our first experience in fighting. 


We were at it all day, and only made five miles march, 
passing the grave of our comrade, Henry Green, who was 
drowned a month before. Just after halting. Companies E 
and G were ordered on picket in the mountains. Misunder- 
standing the orders, Captain Kirksey, who was leading, was 
marching us directly into the lines of the enemy, when we met 
Colonel Gilham, who told him there m\ist be a mistake, and 
ordered him to stop where we were, as we were nearly on the 
pickets of the enemy. Galloping to headquarters, Colonel 
Gilham soon sent a courier ordering our return, another de- 
tachment was sent in our stead, and much relieved we re- 
turned to camp. On our way out in passing the sharpshoot- 
ers of the Irish battalion, we saw the first dead Federal sol- 
dier. He had given his life in the performance of his duty, 
and perhaps was then and there forgotten forever. 

We hoped to have a good night's rest, but the most fearful 

144 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'6n. 

rain storm we had ever witnessed came on us, drenching us 
tO' the skin, and being near the river our camp was submerged ; 
we either had to stand up or lie down in the water. At day- 
light the rain ceased, and soon the sun came oiit and warmed 
us up, but we were a most forlorn-looking set, everything 
being completely soaked. Making our breakfast from boiled 
beef and soaked bad bread, we were again ordered to advance. 
Driving in the Federal pickets, whom we found every few 
hundred yards, our progress was slow, and it was late in the 
afternoon before, we came in sight of the enemy, in a strong 
position, at the lower end of a wide valley between two high 
mountains, strongly fortified with heavy batteries of artillery, 
infantry, etc. 

The 23d September, 1861, was made memorable by an oc- 
currence that cast a gloom over the whole command and sad- 
dened the Southern heart all through the Confederacy. Col- 
onel John A. Washington, the last owner of Mt. Vernon, act- 
ing as Aid to General K. E. Lee, while on a reconnoissance on 
a mountain road with Major W. H. F. Lee (later Major-Gen- 
eral) was killed by a shot from the enemy's picket. Major 
Lee, whose horse was killed, making his escape by mounting 
Colonel Washington's horse. 

Up to this time, we had been pushing our way down the 
:']ver through a narrow gorge between the mountains, but on 
the afternoon of the third day the scene opened out intO' a 
wide valley, at the lower end of Avhich we could see the en- 
emy's works, a strong position admirably selected, and tlior- 
oughly manned with artillery and infantry, the pickets well 
out across the valley from hill to hill. The river running 
down at the foot of the mountain on the north side of the val- 
ley, changed its course about the middle and cutting directly 
across to the south side, divided the valley into two farms. 
Just where the river crossed were posted a lot of sharpshoot- 
ers, with long range rifles, who' were making it lively for Gen- 
erals Lee, Loring and others at a house where they had estab- 
lished headquarters. The Sixteenth always being in front, 
Company G was ordered to go down and drive them away. 
A Major was put in command of the expedition, who marched 
us acro.^s a field of high grass, until we reached the river at 

Sixteenth Regimpjnt. 145 

the foot of the mountain, then down under cover of the moun- 
tain as far as we could go without being discovered by the 
Federals. We then climbed a steep mountain, pulling up by 
tlie bushes until we reached the top, where we could see all 
the way down the river to the breastworks covered with bat- 
teries of artillery and bristling with muskets. We were or- 
dered to lie down and keep perfectly quiet, the sharpshooters 
being just below us and in easy gunshot of us. Some of the 
men became impatient, threatening to' shoot. The Major 
arose saying he would kill the man that made any noise. We 
lay there for half an hour, watching tiem shoot at our officers. 
All at once they started back to their works, some of them 
stopping to knock apples from an apple tree. Then our gal- 
lant commandei" raised up with a long drawn sigh, said: 
"Well, boys, if we must, we must, so come on," and like the 
King of France, we marched down the hill again. On get- 
ting to the foot and coming up out of a deep ravine, we found 
oui-selves directly in front and in full view of the whole force 
ready to fire. The Major, taking in the situation at once 
promptly jumped down a bank about ten feet into the river, 
and ordered everybody to do the same, which order we all 
promptly obeyed. Retiring then in good order, we kept our- 
selves well under the bank of the river for about a hundred 
yards, coming out on a sand bank, protected by a high fence. 
The Major ordered us to stop where we were, and he would 
go \ip and make report of onr success and for further orders, 
taking one man with him. When about the middle of the 
grass field, a gun was fired from one of the batteries, the shot 
passing high over our heads. The Major and his bodyguard 
fell flat in the grass, saying he knew they were firing at him, 
as with their glasses they knew that he was a field officer by 
his sword and other decorations. He soon proceeded to head- 
quarters, made his report, and asked to be relieved as he was 
very sick. Orders were sent to us to remain at our post, and 
to send a strong picket to the ford and hold it imtil morning. 
The night was quietly passed with nothing to do except re- 
lieving tlie pickets every two hours — we were all wet to the 
waist, having but one blanket to the man, the night being 
very cold, the men suffered considerably. 

146 North Carolina Troops, ]861-'65. 

The sun rose beautifully next morning, but was late in 
reaching us down under the shadow of the mountain. We 
were lying on a sand bank enjoying a sun bath, drying our 
blankets and clothing, when a volley of musketry was heard 
at the ford. Our picket had discovered a squad of about 
twenty Federals coming up under cover of the woods on the 
bank of the river and fired on them, they returning the fire, 
and at once withdrew. Two of our men, John Dowdle and 
John Y. Logan were wounded. We were then moved back, 
taking position behind a large raft of logs, and later across the 
river on the side of the mountain, another Major being put 
in command and a surgeon sent to stay with us. About noon 
we saw two men riding down the road toward the enemy's 
lines with a white flag. They passed out of sight but re- 
turned shortly, the flag stopping opposite us while the other 
man galloped to headquarters, and soon returned with an 
ambulance, and all then crossed the river going in the direc- 
tion of the Federals. In less than an hour they returned, 
driving very slowly, a.nd we afterwards learned that they had 
the body of Colonel Washington, who was killed the day be- 
fore. His watch, money, and all his papers were returned 
with his body. 

We remained in our position for two days and nights, and 
on the morning of the third day, at 4 a. m.. Captain Champ 
Davis came down to the writer and told him he must get the 
pickets uj-) as soon as possible. It was very dark and cloudy, 
the sound of the water running over the rocks the only thing 
to guide us. The first post was found and notified, but the 
second was. by some means passed imnoticed, soon finding 
myself at the third, which I knew was the last. Knowing the 
danger in coining back with a party in tlie dark, the men were 
instructed to wait for a signal and then to come up. Ad- 
vancing very slowly and calling the name of one of the men 
in a low voice, I soon came to the post, but it was all I coiild 
do to keep them from killing me^ — they were so badly fright- 
ened. We soon got all right and reached headquarters, where 
we found the regiment awaiting us. 

Daylight having appeared, Colonel Lee came to the front 
and read a general order from General Lee, that on account 

yiXTEENTH Regiment. 147 

of his i>lans miscarrying he had determined not tO' make any 
further demonstration on that line, but tliat we were to march' 
back to Valley Mountain for the present. We marched back 
about one mile, halting in a field where we waited until near 
dark for some troops to pass from another road, then marched 
several miles to the camp, where we had stopped the first 
night coming down. There we rested until morning, and 
then marched tx> Valley Mountain, where we remained a 
few days. Almost half our men were sick at this time from 
fever and measles, and all the teams that could be used for 
that purpose were put tO' work hauling off sick men to the 
camp established at Edray on the south side of Middle Moun- 
tain, and they were from there transferred to Warm Springs, 
Hot Springs, and other pointai in the direction of Staunton 
and Richmond as fast as transportation could be procured. 
This was, on account of the rain and bad roads, slow and 
hurtful to the sick, several dying on the way. Remaining 
on Valley Mountain a few days, we moved camp to Big 
Springs, and on the last day of September the writer gath- 
ered a bucket full of large, fine blackberries on the side of 
the mountain. 

On 1 October we had one of the heaviest rain storms I 
ever saw fall — a fire could not be made during the whole day 
and nearly all our tents were blown down. The dry ford of 
Elk, perfectly dry when we passed up on 1 August, was now 
H raging torrent, sweeping down trees and everything else it 
came in contact with. During the day we were called out 
and stood in the rain for an hour, the report being circulated 
that the Federals were following us and were then on Valley 
Mountain. We were dismissed, but ordered tO' hold ourselves 
in readiness to move at a moment's notice. 

Just before night a wagon was driven up, having orders to 
carry off the sick men of Compajay G. Eleven very sick men 
with typhoid fever, the vsrriter ordered to accompany them, 
were put in the wagon and started with two other wagons, 
and soon we reached the crossing of this dry run of Elk, the 
road being the bed of the stream. There was an old man 
who lived on both sides of the run, his house on one, his 
kitchen on the other side, and he was caught on the kitchen 

148 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

side and could not get to his house. When we arrived he 
asked what we were going to do. We told him our orders 
were not to stop until we crossed Elk Mountain. He begged 
us "for God-s sake not to attempt to cross, as the last team 
that had attempted to cross, with all the men, had been 
drowned." As it was very dark and raining hard, we camped 
for the night. Before morning the rain ceased, and the sun 
rose bright and clear. Hooking up our teams were soon on 
the road. Getting into the ford, the front mules became 
frightened and turned for the bank. The driver got them 
stopped and called to the writer, who was hanging on to the 
feed box, for help. T had to give up my hold on the box and 
wade round holding to the saddle mule until I could get to 
the lead, and jumping on to his back I took the bridle of the 
off one and finally got them straightened. Looking across I 
found the ford filled with logs. I turned them down the 
stream and got out fifty yards below on a lo'W bank, the mules 
sometimes on the big rocks, at others swimming. Of course, 
the water filled the wagon and the sick men were thoroughly 
soaked. We pushed on, and soon came to a wagon turned 
over in the water, and the mules drowning. A little lower 
down -^ve found Captain Kirksey, of the Burke Tigers, on a 
big rock in the middle of the stream, the men with him having 
all got out safe. 

Crossing Elk river five or six times, oft^n having to swim 
it, just before night we came to a large farm with lots of hay 
stacks near the road, and here I determined to camp. We 
made a shelter of rails, covering it with hay, making good 
beds on the groimd, collected wood for fires and made the men 
as comfortable as possible. Having had no rations for two 
days and nothing to cook, we went to bed hungry but warm 
and comfortable. Early next morning we were on the road 
Avith other wagons that had arrived during the night. Cross- 
ing Elk Mountain we reached Edray aboiit nooai, where the 
sick were turned over to the Surgeons in charge of the camp, 
and after a rest of one day they were sent to Hot Springs, 
where several of them died and othecrs came out cripples for 
life. The regiment came up in a day or so. Having camped 
a short time on Elk Mountain, we moved on to Green Brier 

Sixteenth Regiment. 149 

bridge, where \ve remained for some time doing picket duty, 
drilling and other like work. 


Here General Lee divided his forces, taking part and going 
to the help of Generals i'loyd and Wise in the Kanawha Val- 
ley, leaving General Donaldson, of Tennessee, in command 
at Green Brier. A f ter ten days the force returned, and a few 
days later we took up our march, moving south, leaving the 
mountains covered with snow. Passing Huntersville, the 
thii'd day we reached Warm Springs, now called Bath Court 
House. The fourth, we passed near Hot Springs, where a 
great many of our sick men were in hospital, then by Bath 
Alum to Millboro, on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, 
Dear Rock Bridge Alum Springs. We took the train at 4 
o'clock a. m. for Staunton, which we were to reach by 9 
o'clock and where we were told we would stop for some time, 
80 we made no preparation for breakfast, all our rations being 
packed up in mess chests and loaded on the cars with the bag- 
gage. We did not reach Staunton until 5 p. m., and there 
orders were waiting us not to disembark but to push on at once 
for Manassas, as a battle was expected at any moment. 


We moved out, crossing the mountain after dark, passing 
Gordonsville late in the night and Culpepper at sunrise, ar- 
riving at Manassas about 5 p. m., hungry and tired, having 
been two days and nights on board without food or drink. 
We were soon unloaded, had fires lighted, the pots on, and 
in short order a two days' meal was cooked and eaten. We 
remained at Manassas about two weeks, under command of 
Colonel George B. Anderson, of the Fourth North Carolina, 
and on 21 November were ordered to join Colonel Wade 
Hampton at Bacon Race Church, about twelve miles in the 
direction of the Potomac, reaching there next day, and a day 
later Colonel Hampton with his brigade, composed of the 
Hampton Legion, Fourteenth and Nineteenth Georgia, and 
Sixteenth ISTorth Carolina and an Arkansas Battalion, moved 
about eight miles near the mouth of the Occoquan, on the Po- 

150 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

tomac, where we were engaged in drilling, picketing and 
working on breastworks at Colchester, the point at which Gen- 
eral Washington crossed on his famous visit to his mother. 

We were frequently shelled from the gunboats on the river, 
which we could see plainly from the hill top. 

The officers commanding the Legion were Colonel Griffin, 
the infantry; Major M. C. Butler, the cavalry; Major 
Stephen D. Lee, the artillery ; Colonel Wade Hampton, Com- 
mander-in-Chief ; Nineteenth Georgia, Colonel Boyd; Four- 
teenth Georgia, Colonel's name forgotten; Sixteenth North 
(Carolina, Colonel Stephen Lee. 

wiNTisE of 1861-2. 

We remained here until Christmas day, and moved back 
to Bacon Race, did picket duty, threw up entrenchments and 
fortiii cations at Wolf Bun Shoals during the winter, which, 
with several deep snows, was a very severe one. The river 
was often frozen over, and on one occasion when Company G 
had spent the night at the ford, two of our men crossed on 
the ice to a house beyond, on neutral ground, bought apple 
brandy, sugar and eggs, and we had an elegant nogg, before 
the relief company arrived. 

On 15 Marcli, 1862, we broke camp, starting for the Rap- 
pahannock, reaching Falmouth, a small manufacturing town 
on the river above Fredericksburg, on the fourth day. We 
crossed the river here and went intO' camp on the heights above 
the city, spending the balance of the month drilling until 15 
April, broke camp and again took the line of march, through 
the city and OA^er the afterwards famous battleground below, 
and on the third day reached Bowling Green, in Caroline 
County, the place where John Wilkes Booth was killed three 
years later and others of his party were captured. Leaving 
this place after dark, we marched toi Milford, a station on 
the Potomac Railroad, where we embarked for Ashland, ar- 
riving there about midnight, where we spent the next day. 


The day after, we started for Yorktown, which point we 
reached after a hard march of five days, passing some noted 

Sixteenth Regiment. 151 

places on the way : Hanover Court House, Old Church, Yel- 
low Tavern, New Kent Court House, Williamsburg and oth- 
ers of note, going into camp on the Williamsburg road just 
above Torktown. We fared well here, having nothing else 
to do, and living on the finest fisih and oysters. On 26 April 
the companies of the regiment were reorganized by the elec- 
tion of company officers, and on the following day the newly- 
elected company officers met and elected Captain Champ 
Davis, of Company G, Colonel of the regiment; Captain J. 
S. McElroy, of Company G, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain 
W. A. Stowe, of Company M, Major. I had forgotten to 
mention earlier, that in consequence of infirmity, caused by 
exposure, old age, etc., that on 22 February, 1862, Colonel 
Stephen Lee had resigned, leaving Lieiitenant-Colonel E,. G. 
A. Love in command of the regiment. 

On -i May before daylight, we were again in motion and 
in line of battle, the troops all leaving and everything on the 
move. Yorktown was being evacuated. All through the 
night trains of artillery had been passing. Colonel Hampton 
was to act as rear guard, and after all had passed we marched 
out in line of battle, taking the road and holding the Feder- 
als back, skirmishing with their cavalry until we reached 
Williamsburg, where we found a large part of Johnston's 
aiTny entrenched in the forts and fortifications in front of 
the to\\Ti. Marching through, we went into camp on the 
hill above town, in the same spot where we had camped as we 
went down. Late in the afternoon we were called out and 
expected to go back into town, where heavy firing was heard 
below, but after a short time it ceased, and while we were in 
line the Commissai-y came round with buckets of mean whis- 
key and tin cups and gave every man a stiff drink. Orders 
were issued to cook rations and be ready to march at 3 o'clock 
next morning. Before that time we were up and ready and 
soon on the road. The rain falling heavy and the mud deep, 
we had a hard march, arriving at Barhamsville late in the 
afternoon, near West Point, wet, cold, muddy and hungry. 
It cleared up about sunset, and building big fires we cooked 
supper and spent a comfortable night. 

During the night the wagons and artillery trains were pass- 

152 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

ing, and early in the day the troops from Williamsburg were 
to pass, after fighting pretty much all day. We were put into 
line of battle that evening and slept on our armsi. At night 
the Federals had sent boats up York river with troops and 
were landing them near West Point and White House. About 
4 p. m., they advanced, but were handsomely repulsed by 
General Hood's Texans, Greneral Hampton and others. We 
were in General G. W. Smith's Division, commanded by 
General Whiting. That night the Sixteenth was sent out on 
the battlefield tO' watch the I^'ederals, and just at 12 o'clock 
a coiirier came with orders to return to headquarters. On 
reaching Barharasville, everything was in motion, and we 
fell into line and marched until sunrise, when I found myself 
and a comrade standing by the identical fence corner that 
we had left at 12 o'clock. 

Continviing our march Ave reached New Kent about 10 
o'clcck, finding the main army resting there. After resting 
a short AA'hile and getting breakfast, we were moved back in 
front of a creek, with the Legion just in our rear, and formed 
line of battle. Company G being in a garden. We soon found 
the enemy's cavalry were following us. A battery of the 
Legion artillery was placed in our rear and opened on them, 
when in some confusion they retired. At dark we moved 
forward, crossing the creek and went intoi camp on the hill in 
rear of it. ISfext morning resumed our march, but stopped 
within less than two miles. There we spent two days still 
holding the rear until dark of the second day, when we took 
the line of march, and in the rain and storm passed White 
House and Savage Station and crossed the Chickahominy at 
Bottom's Bridge and stopped for the rest of the night. 


Next day Ave moved up near Richmond, went intO' camp, 
Avhere we remained doing picket duty before Richmond until 
29 May. Then we broke camp about dark and moved up to 
Meadow Bridge, where we spent the next day and night. On 
the 31st about noon, were ordered to fall in and started for 
Seven Pines, going part of the way at double-quick. Reach- 
ing the battlefield about 5 p. m., we were assigned a place on 

Sixteenth Regiment. 153 

the left. Advancing through a swamp with all the large 
trees cut down and all the obstacles that could possibly be 
placed in our way, we were greeted with a terrible hail of 
shot and shell, mostly passing over our heads, but occasionally 
some brave hero would fall, while the rest were pushing for- 
ward until we came directly in front of a heavy fortification 
defended by infantry and artillery, and which it was impos- 
sible to carry with our small force. Just then some one gave 
the order to lie down, which was promptly obeyed, protecting 
ourselves behind the obstructions, but that did not prevent our 
men from getting hit. We soon made the discovery that 
Company Gr was the only force in sight. Its Captain, L. P. 
Erwin, ordered the First Sergeant, A. B. Long, to go to the 
right to see where the right wing -was, but he did not return, 
and the Captain, ordering the company back a short distance 
under cover, called to the writer to stay vsdth it and he would 
go and see. Lieutenant Lee Hemphill got up and said he 
would go with him. Lieutenant McEntire had just been 
wounded and gone to the rear. After waiting some time and 
hearing nothing from them, and being under a shower of bul- 
lets, the men being often hit, an officer came riding down in 
rear and called out: -"What are you doing in here? Get 
out ! Get out !" ISTot knowing anything better to do, I ordered 
the company up and we moved back in good order until we 
came to the edge of the swamp, where we found a regiment of 
Federals marching across our front, firing at everything they 
saw crossing the field. Stopping the company and falling 
back into cover, and satisfied we had not been seen, we moved 
very cautiously to the right, until we could take advantage of 
a piece of woods, and in that way made our escape. We could 
see a number of Confederate flags across a wheat field and 
near York River Railroad. On reaching the road we found 
Colonel Pender witli the Sixth North Carolina, and Company 
G was attached to it for a short time, until the Sixteenth 
made its appearance. I then learned that our Colonel Davis 
had been slain. 

Everybody knew Uncle Jack Wilkins, our company Com- 
missary, and that he was a strict temperance man, but that 
Sunday morning after the fight the old man hobbled down 

154 JS'oBTi-i Carolina Troops, ISGl-'eS-. 

with several canteens of "fire water" and gave each of the 
men a dram. He knew we needed it, and the good angels 
only smiled. 

There was a great deal of bluster and bragging among the 
Tiampton Legion men, and one company proposed to go back 
into that f3^vamp and demolish the Yankee army, but I noticed 
that nobody held them. Dark coming on about this time, we 
moved back a short distance, cold, wet and hungry, without 
blankets, overcoats or any kind of covering, having left every- 
thing back on tJie road ; but what was our surprise on waking 
up in tlie morning to find that we were lying in a few yards of 
a depot of supplies filled with overcoats, blankets, all kinds of 
clothing, with barrels of crackers, sugar, coffee, meat of all 
kinds, and army supplies, in addition to the knapsacks, 
blankets, etc., belonging to a Pennsylvania and a New York 
Hegiment driven out the day before, affording a great treat 
for our famished, worn out men. Unfortunately for the 
writer, just as he was lying down between two men to keep 
warm, the Adjutant came and said he wanted me to take 
charge of a party and go back into the swamp. This spoiled 
all my prospects for a good night^s rest. Going back cau- 
tiously, we established a picket line as near the entrance as 
we thought prudent. Everything passed off quietly during 
the night, except we could hear wounded men calling for help, 
and about daylight we had the pleasure of helping several of 
our friends to get back into our own line. 

Still keeping careful watch, about 9 a. m., I was notified 
that the army would retire in the direction of Richmond and 
we must hold the line for three-fourths of an hour, and then 
get out and join the command if we could. Remaining the 
required length of time, the men were withdrawn and 
marched back to the road, where, looking back across the 
river, we saw three balloons making observations. Very soon 
a gun was fired and a shell came whistling along near us. 
Thinking we were being fired at and in great danger, the men 
were ordered to leave the road and march in the woods. Fol- 
lowing up the road about two miles, we came up with the 
army and were relieved from further duty for the time, and 
thus ended our part in the battle of Seven Pines. We had 

Sixteenth Regiment. 155 

lost our Colonel and many brave men, but bow many killed 
and wounded, at this late day, thirty-seven years after, it is 
impossible to tell. 


Remained at this place about ten days doing picket duty, 
when under general orders Hampton's Brigade was broken 
up and the troops sent to their several State organizations. 
The Sixteenth was brigaded with the Twenty-second North 
Carolina; Thirty-fourth, Colonel R. H. Riddick; Thirty- 
eighth, Colonel W. J. Hoke; and the Thirteenth, Colonel 
A. M. Scales, and General W. Y). Pender as commander. The 
Twenty-second was reorganized and Major Conner, of the 
Legion, was appointed Colonel. The brigade was attached 
to General A. 'P. Hill's Light Division. 

General J. £. Johnston being wounded at Seven Pines, 
General R. E. Lee, our old Valley Mountain commander, was 
put in command of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

When General Pender took charge of the brigade, he made 
a requisition on the 16th for an officer to take charge of the 
Ordnance Department of the brigade, and the writer was de^ 
tached for that purpose, was given a horse and permission to 
go into Richmond at will, a privilege which was used to the 
fullest extent 

We remained in camp on the Nine Mile road, getting into 
good shape, until 25 June, when we moved out in the direc- 
tion of Meadow Bridge, reaching that point at 10 o'clock at 
night. I have always thought that General Lee formed his 
plan of campaign from General Johnston's, which was not 
carried out, as circumstances changed all of the latter's oper- 

SEVEN days' IfTGHT. 

At 4 p. m. on the 26th the Light Division was put in mo- 
tion. Pender's Brigade was the fourth to cross the Chicka- 
hoininy at this point; General Branch, who was ordered not 
to cross until he heard from General Jackson, crossing above, 
and Hill was ordered to move when Branch gave him notice 
that Jackson was in position, but not hearing from either he 
became impatient and ordered a forward movement. 

156 .TSToRTH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

General Pender says in his official report: "After cross- 
ing I was ordered to cross the fields direct for Mechanicsville. 
Soon after leaving the Meadow Bridge road, one or two pieces 
of artillery opened upon us from a road above Mechanicsville. 
liere, owing to my imperfect knowledge of the roads and par- 
tial misleading of the guide, my left regiment went too far to 
the left, and consequently did not join the brigade until late 
at night, for while it was coming up after being sent for, it 
was ordered by some one to support another brigade, and I 
would here mention it Avas reported to me as behaving well 
under a very murderous fire to which it was soon exposed, 
losing about 200 men." This "left regiment" was the Six- 
teenth ISTorth Carolina Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel J. S. M:cElroy. 

The men lay on their arms that night, and were in line and 
ready for action' before daylight. During the night I re- 
ceived an order from General Pender to bring up the ord- 
nance train at once. I started immediately, but on reaching 
Mechanicsville, the streets were so blocked with ambulances, 
wagons, and litter-bearers bringing off the wounded, that it 
was impossible to proceed for soane time. General Pender 
becoming impatient, mounted his horse and came to meet and 
hurry up the train, saying it was important to have the train 
up before daylight. On seeing the condition of affairs, he or- 
dered me to use all dispatch, and left a courier with me direct- 
ing me where to go. On reaching the designated point, I 
left the train and rode forward to look up the brigade. Hid- 
ing near a tliick pine old field on the right and wheat field on 
the left, I was soon ordered to "halt! advance and give the 
countersigTi," but as I could not see the party I was in doubt 
to which army he belonged, and after some parleying on both 
sides, he said he belonged io a Georgia regiment. I then 
advanced and found a mere boy hid in a thicket of plum 
bushes. On telling him who I was looking for, he said he 
did not know where they were, but that he was on the outpost 
and was expecting to be fired on at every moment, but there 
was a regiment just below him, as he had heard them halt and 
stack arms there during the night and had not moved since. 

Kiding through the pines about fifty yards, I found Colo- 

Sixteenth Regiment. 157 

nel Riddick with tihe Thirty-fourth Regiment, the men just 
getting up and rolling up their blankets. I told the Colonel 
to send for ammunition at once. Then firing commenced 
just where 1 had left, the balls flying among the men and 
causing some confusion, one ball striking my horse, slightly 
wounding him. Telling Colonel Riddick where to find the 
ordnance train, I galloped back to find my train in great dan- 
ger from shell and shot flying over and about it. I soon re- 
ceived orders from General Pender to move behind the hill, 
which was promptly obeyed. In a very short time the flring 
ceased and a forward movement was ordered. 

Taking the road to Cold Harbor, we came on the ground 
fought over the evening before, and found it covered with 
Confederate dead. Crossing the creek on a bridge below El- 
lyson's Mills, we soon came to' the works of the enemy and 
could see how impregnable they were, and but for Jackson's 
coming in the rear, it would have been impossible to carry 
them. In rear of the works we found their abandoned camp, 
strewn with blankets, oil cloths, knapsacks and everything per- 
taining to camp life. 

Reaching Gaines' Mill about 2 o'clock p. m., we crossed 
the creek on a bridge and moved rapidly to Cold Harbor, 
where we were soon engaged in one of the hardest fights of the 
war, losing many men killed and woimded. General Hill 
says in his report: "The Sixteenth North Carolina, Colonel 
McElroy, and Twenty-second, Colonel Gray, at one time 
crossed the crest of the hill and were in the enemy's camp, 
but were driven back by overwhelming numbers, holding our 
position. The loss of the regiment was very heavy, the fight- 
ing was kept up until 9 o'clock p. m., and we then lay down 
to rest on our arms." 

Saturday morning early tlie men were up, but found the 
enemy had crossed the river, leaving the dead and wounded to 
be cared for by the rebels, with an immense amount of army 
stores in our hands. We spent the day in burying the dead 
and caring for the wounded. We had to-day our first sight 
of the celebrated Stonewall Jackson, as he and General Lee 
met near where we were lying and had a long conference. 
From his appearance no one would have suspected that he was 

158 NoETH Caeomna Teoops, 1861-'65. 

more than a Corporal in a cavalry company. The writer had 
a fine opportunity o^f riding over and viewing the battlefield, 
and it was a sight not to be desired a second time. The field 
where the JSTew York Zouaves fought was literally red with 
them, and a large majority of them were shot through the 
head ; himdreds of horses were lying around, some not dead, 
some with legs shot O'ff, trying to get up, moaning and crying 
like children begging for help, or as if begging some one to 
shoot them and end their pain. 

Sunday, the 29th, we crossed the river and followed the 
enemy in the direction of James river. On Monday there 
was a serious battle at Frazier's Farm, in which the Sixteenth 
was engaged and lost many men killed and wounded. Cap- 
tain Coleman, of Company A, was killed, a shot taking ofE his 

Tuesday, 1 July, the great battle of Malvern Hill was 
fought. A. P. Hill's Division, althoiigh under fire all day, 
did not go into the fight, being kept in reserve. 

The next day, 2 July, finding the enemy had gone, we were 
ordered to follow as fast as possible. We found the roads, 
fields and woods full of all kinds of army supplies, wagons, 
ambulances, pontoon trains, and everything pertaining to a 
well-equipped army, showing that, the enemy had retreated in 
great haste and much confusion. Following down through 
Charles City County, we foimd them camped and at bay on 
James river, near Harrison's landing, under cover of a large 
fleet of all manner of war vessels, in which position they were 
safe from the ragged rebels who had for seven days driven 
them from field to field. After several days we moved back, 
at night, by the river road towards Richmond and camped for 
some titne on the farm of Secretary of War Randolph, below 


About 20 July, A. P. Hill's Division was ordered to join 
General Jackson at Gordonsville, where we remained until 6 
August, -^^'hen we marched in the direction of Orange Court 
House, camping on the side of a mountain. On the 7th, we 
marched only a few miles, camping near a hig spring near the 

Sixteenth Regiment. 159 

town. Next day, the 8th, marched intO' town, lay around on 
the streets all day, cq^ping at night at the foot of the hill be- 
yond town. TTiere was some fighting that daj' about the river 
and several prisoners were brought in. 

Early on the 9th we were on the march in the direction of 
Culpepper Court House. Owing to the extreme heat many 
of the mem gave out, some with sunstroke. Late in tbe after- 
noon we came in hearing of the artillery at Cedar Mountain, 
and crossing Eapidan river, we were soon in sight of the bair 


Pender's Brigade was put in on the left of the main road, 
and advancing soon met troops falling back in confusion. 
We speedily advanced and reaching a wood were greeted with 
a volley of musketry. We did not stop, but drove the enemy 
across the Culpepper road and off the field. We were here 
joined by Archer's Brigade, which lapped over a part of our 
right. Pegram's Battery then came into action, and for half 
an hour shelled the woods in our front, and we were then or- 
dered forward on the Culpepper road. Just after reaching 
the woods some batteries in our front commenced shelling the 
field, the shot passing through the tops of the trees over our 
heads. As soon as tlie gTins ceased firing, we faced to tbe 
front, marching in line through the woods until we came to 
a high rail fence, where we were halted and the men ordered 
to rest on their arms. 

Everytliing being quiet in our front, Major Cole, of the 
Twenty-second ; Lieutenant-Colonel Miller, of the Thirty- 
fourth, and the writer, were ordered to make a reconnoissance 
through the woods in front. Being informed that some Vir- 
ginians Avere on our right, we crossed the fence and moA^ed 
forward some distance, but found no one until we had gone 
about two hundred yards, when we discovered a lot of men 
sitting under the shade of some trees, and hailed them several 
times but could get no answer. I then went up to them and 
demanded who they Avere, and they said they belonged to a 
Virginia regiment and were afraid we were Yankees and 
would shoot them. The Colonel and Major then went back 

ICO K'oETH Cakomna Troops, 1861-'65. 

to report, leaving me to hold the fort. Greneral Pemder sent 
me about thirty men, with orders to f o^rm a line on the left of 
the Virginians and to stay there until morning. Everything 
was qiiiet during the night, and about 9 a. m. I was sent or- 
ders to hold on about an hour and then withdraw quietly and 
join him at the side of the mountain. About this time we 
got up a lively skirmish with the enemy's pickets in front, but 
held our ground until time to leave, when we drew off gradu- 
ally, and after a hot and hard march over the battlefield we 
reached the mountain almost exhausted with heat and hunger. 
On going out the night before I found a bag of ground coffee, 
sugar, cakes and other nice things left by the enemy in their 
hasty retreat, and sent it back to be taken caxe of, and on 
reaching headquarters I called for breakfast, which was soon 
furnished with co-ffee, crackers, mutton chops, Irish pota- 
toes, etc. 

After an hour or so rest, we again marched back, on the 
battlefield and manoiuvered around on it all day Sunday. 
General Pope says that General Jackson sent in a flag of truce 
asking for the privilege of burying his dead, but as we passed 
over the field after 10 o'clock and saw no dead or wounded 
except Federals, and as we had possession of the field until 
Monday night, I think this must be one of General Pope's 
many mistakes. I know that he sent one, and General Ewell 
says that while the armistice was in existence. General Early 
took a detachment from his brigade and gathered up six 
wagon loads of arms. All day Monday we manceuvored on 
the field and offered him battle, but he refused to accept the 

On Monday night we built up camp fires as if we were 
going to spend the night, but about midnight we fell into line 
and marched in the direction of Orange Court House, and 
passing that place next day went into camp near the Brick 
Church on the railroad, where we remained imtil 18 Augrist, 
when we broke camp and moved forward on the Manassas 
campaign. We stopped two days on the Crenshaw Farm. 
On the 20th we moved again, crossing the Eapidan at Som- 
merville Ford, and passed Stephensburg, camping near Pran- 
dy Station. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 161 

On the 21st we moved up the Rappahannock, crossing 
Hazel river at a mill, and moved in the direction of Warren- 
ton Springs, where we spent Sunday under a heavy shelling, 
having several men wounded. About 4 p. m. Longstreet's 
Corps relieved us, and we marched back about one mile to 
Jefferson and cooked three days' rations, and on Monday 
morning started on our long march tO' Manassas, passing 
through Orleans and stopping that night a short time to rest 
near Salem. On Tuesday we passed through Thoroughfare 
Gap ; marching all day and all night we reached Bristoe Sta- 
tion at sunrise on Wednesday morning, 27th. Following the 
railroad, about 9 a. m. we reached Manassas, where we found 
a brigade of J^Tew Jersey troops to oppose our progress. Pen- 
der's Brigade was halted for a short time behind a hill on 
which there were some works, forts that the writer assisted in 
building in November, 1861. Captain Crenshaw was or- 
dered to put his guns there and open on the enemy as they ap- 
proached from the direction of the bridge on Bull Run, and 
soon had them in full retreat. We were then ordered to ad- 
vance, and passing by a large house that was used as a hospi- 
tal, the writer was ordered to stop Company G and talce charge 
of the place, while the brigade followed on. We found in the 
yard and around the hospital a good many wounded and dead 
Federals and a lot of sick in the hospital in the care of two 
Philadelphia surgeons, and after having the wounded brought 
in and put in charge of the surgeons, we had the dead buried. 
Wo were very highly complimented and thanked by the doc- 
tors for our care and protection of their hospital and prop- 


We found all the depots and storehouses full of army sup- 
plies of all kinds ; quartermaster, company and hospital stores 
of every description that could be desired, and you may be as- 
sured that we feasted that day after starving for three. About 
sunset the brigade returned, after having quite a severe en- 
gagement at the bridge across Bull Run. On reporting to 
General Pendei', I was ordered to join my regiment, which I 
found near by, and going to my "room" I retired as I then 


162 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

thought for the night, but alas, the soldier who' followed 
Stonewall Jackson had no assurance when down, wlien he 
would be called up. About 1 o'clock a. m., we were aroused 
by a terrible explosion, and getting up we found all the depots 
and stores at tlie station O'n fire and millions of property 
being destroyed. How we poor rebels felt can better be im- 
agined than described, to stand and see hundreds of bags of 
coJfee with sugar, flour, meat,, and all kinds of provisioiis and 
delicacies destroyed with all manner of stores that we would 
have liked to have, but as there was no way of saving them 
and no wagons to transport them, it was necessary to burn 
them to prevent them again falling into the hands of Pope's 
army that was just behind us. It was Jackson's business to 
cripple him until Lee could come up, so they had to be de- 
stroyed. There was 50,000 barrels of bacon, 1,000 barrels of 
corned beef, 50,000 barrels of pork, 20,000 barrels of flour, 
two trains loaded with clothing and other stores, four sutlers' 
stores, 2,000 new tents and various other valuable equip- 

The order then came to fall in, and A. P. Hill's Division 
moved towards Centreville, which we reached about daylight 
Thiirsday morning, 28 August, where we got breakfast and 
rest until about 10 a. m., when we took the road for Man- 
assas, going by Sudley's Pord, and as we marched could see 
thousands of Yankees moving around the station and on the 
road to Centreville. Crossing the run we saw a pile of rocks 
with a cedar post in the center, marking the spot where Bee 
fell on 21 July, 1861, and where he gave the old man his im- 
mortal name — "Stonewall" Jackson. 

Crossing the ford we stopped for a short time near the old 
stone house, and the men looking for water found an old 
well in the yard without bucket or rope. They secured a 
long pole, tied their canteens to it and filled them, and after 
drinking all they wanted and filling for future use, an old 
man came from the house, saying : "I don't think that water 
is very good — when the battle was fought here last summer 
some dead men were thrown into it, and it has not been 
cleaned out since." You can imagine that those canteens 
were soon emptied, and some of the men also. In a short 

Sixteenth Rkgiment. 163 

time we -were marched into the woods, and quite a lively ac- 
tion began between Ewell's Division and Hooker. 

This engagement between Generals Ewell and Hooker was 
in the direction of Grovetown, and night coming on put a 
stop to the firing. Troops were moving all night taking posi- 
tion for the expected affray of the 29th, which came all too 
soon for many of our wornout men. 


About 10 o'clock a. m., Hill's Division was moved into 
town near the old railroad which has been so much written 
about, and soon we were assaulted by a large force and had 
all we could do to hold our ground. Pender's Brigade was 
in front, and received the assaults of an army corps for a 
whole day, at one time giving way and falling back on the 
reserve, but the gallant Pender soon rallied them and with a 
gallant dash soon routed the enemy and recaptured the lost 
ground. In this charge Company G, Sixteenth, lost two men 
killed with the flag and many wounded ; one man, A. B. Long, 
was struck in the left eye, the ball passing through liis head 
and coming out behind his right ear. All thought he would 
die, but he is still alive and is one of the best citizens of Ruth- 
erford County. In all this struggle the Sixteenth held its 
own until dark, when we lay down on our arms, feeling that 
the morrow would bring more hard fighting and wounds and 
death to many. 

Early on Saturday, the 30th, the whole command was 
ready and under arms, but all quiet until about 4 p. m., when 
we were startled by the roar of artillery, and looking to the 
front we found the whole Federal army rushing on us, and 
we were hard pressed until daxk, sustaining at least six 
charges, but we held the line until just before dark a general 
charge was ordered along the whole line, and with one mad 
rush the whole of Pope's grand army was driven from the 
field and across Bull Eun, and ends the second battle of Man- 

ox HILL. 

On Sunday, 31 August, we were again in motion, and cross- 
ing at Sudley's Ford we struck the little river turnpike, and 

164 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

about dark bivouacked near Chantilly, and continuing down 
that road we soon came in contact with the rear guard of 
Pope's army, in charge of General Phil. Kearney, at Ox 
Hill, and engaging them at once in a severe thunder storm we 
soon put them to flight, and in this affair the brave Generals 
Phil. Kearney and Stephens were killed. We also lost many 
killed and wounded; the Thirty-fourth, of our brigade, lost 
two gallant field officers, Colonel R. H. Eiddick and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Miller. 

Leaving Ox HiU on the 3d, we passed Leesburg on the 4th 
and camped near the Big Spring, and on the morning of the 
6th, General Pender sent for the officers of the brigade to re- 
port at his headquarters. He made them a speech, telling 
them that we were now going to crO'SS the Potomac and going 
into the enemy's country, and that they must act as officers 
and gentlemen, keeping a firm hand on the men of their com- 
mands, and that he would hold them responsible for their 


About 10 a. m., we fell in and reached the ford at 2 p. m., 
and crossing we at once started on the way tO' Frederick City ; 
marching until midnight, we stopped near a corn field, where 
we got some green corn, roasted it and eat supper. We gath- 
ered a supply for morning. We were soon on the march and 
reached Frederick about 12 m., where we spent several days 
near the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, blowing up iron bridges 
and doing all the damage we could to public property. The 
men were not allowed to leave the camps tO' enter the city or 
to forage on the country. The writer remembers sending up 
a pass for a man to go out tO' get some milk for a sick man, 
and it was returned : "Let the sick man eat a little beef." 
Leaving Frederick 10 September, we passed South Mountain, 
Boonesboro and Middletown, on the third day crossing the 
Potomac to Williamsport and spending the night near Fall- 
ing Waters, next day entering Martinsburg, driving General 
White in the direction of Harper's Ferry, which place we 
reached on the 13th. On leaving Ox Hill, for some cause 
unknown to the writer, General A. P. Hill was put under ar- 

Sixteenth Regiment. 165 

rest by General Jackson, General Branch commanding the 
division. General Hill marched on foot with the rear guard 
all the day through Maryland, an old white hat slouched down 
over his eyes, his coat off and wearing an old flannel shirt, 
looking as mad as a bull, but just before reaching Harper's 
Ferry he was released, and donning his coat and sword he 
mounted his horse and dashed to the front of his troops, and 
looking like a young eagle in search of his prey, he took com- 
mand of his division to the delight of all his men. 


It was late in the day of the 14th when Jackson had his ar- 
rangements completed for the attack on the enemy. Hill's 
Division was ordered toi storm the position, and moving for- 
ward with a rush, Pender's Brigade in front, they gained the 
crest of the hill, the enemy retrejating within their works with 
little resistance. During the night the crest gained by Pender 
was crowned with artillery, and all the available points within 
reach were taken possession of by Colonel Crutchfield, Jack- 
eon's chief of artillery. 

At dawn on the 15th, Jackson opened his artillery on Har- 
per's Ferry, and after an artillery duel of one hour the firing 
ceased and Pender, with the Sixteenth in advance, commenced 
to move on the place, when a white flag was seen to flutter 
from the Federal works, and Harper's Ferry had fallen. The 
result of this victory was 11,000 prisoners, 13,000 stand of 
small arms, 73 pieces of artillery, 200 wagons, with a'large 
amount of commissary and army stores of every description. 


A. P. Hill's Division was left to take charge of the property 
and provisions captured, and Jackson left at once to join Lee 
at Sharpsburg. Hill remained until all the captured prop- 
erty, etc., was removed on the 16th, and on the morning of 
the 17th left to join Jackson and Lee, reaching Sharpsburg 
at 4 p. ra., and was immediately assigned a position on the 
right, just in time to meet and repulse the grand charge of 
Burnside's Corps and assist in driving them back across An- 
tietam creek. In this last assault the Sixteenth and Pender's 

166 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Brigade lost a large number of mem killed and wounded. The 
whole of the 18th we lay in front of McClellan, expecting 
every moment to be attacked, the sharpshooters with their 
long range rifles making it dangerous for a man to show his 
head from behind the stone wall where we were lying. Well 
does the writer remember having been sent out before daylight 
on some slight duty, and on coming back under cover of the 
stone wall, I found that Branch's Brigade where I was then, 
was separated from Pender's which I wished tO' reach, by a 
deep ravine, and about a dozen sharpshooters in rifle pits were 
shooting at every man who attempted to^ cross. The officer 
then in command told me not to attempt to cross, for I cer-- 
tainly would be killed, and advised me to lie down by him 
and wait until dark. I found him to be Lieutenant- Colonel 
Robert F. Hoke, of the Thirty-third, afterward Major-Gen- 
eral Hoke, of Plymouth fame. When the time came I crossed 
in a huri;js' and was soon with my company, posted behind a 
heavy rail fence. About 10 p. m., a cavalry charge was made 
upon us, I suppose to find out whether -we had left, but a well 
directed flre soon sent them back wiser if not better soldiers. 
Tt was a rainy day, and abotit 12 o'cl(Dck at night orders came 
down the line for e\'ery man at a certain signal 1o rise up and 
without a word or noise march back to the road on top of 
the hill, which movement was executed perfectly, and after 
some delay we moved toward the river which we crossed about 
8 a. m., and climbing the steep hill below Shepherdstown, 
went into camp in the woods near by. The Federals followed 
up with artillery and shelled the town and woods for some 
time with little damage. 


On the 20th, McClellan crossed a large force over the river.- 
A. P. Hill and Early were sent out to drive them back, which 
was splendidly done. We formed on top of the high bluff, 
and the Federals having to charge up over the steep bluff were 
soon repulsed and driven into the river and slaughtered like 
hogs, the river being blue with their bodies. After they had 
retired, tlie artillery on the Sharpsburg hills and the sharp- 
shooters posted in the canal commenced shooting at the boys 

Sixteenth Regiment. 167 

and every man had to take care of himself until dark so we 
could leave. Pender's Brigade lost many men in this affair. 
We moved back a mile or so and camped for the night. ISText 
morning we marched up near Martinsburg where we re- 
mained two- weeks, when we again moved up to Bunker Hill, 
where we remained a month or more resting and getting ready 
for the next campaign, and where the boys had lots of fun 
yelling at "Old Jack" and the rabbits.* 

About 20 October the writer was sent to Winchester on sick 
list, and after two days was transfe-rred to Staunton and then 
to Richmond, where after a week in the hospital T was sent 
home, which I reached just in time to get down with a long 
spell of typhoid fever, not returning to the regiment until 
March following, and this gap in our history I filled in from 

After General Lee's return from the campaign in Mary- 
land, there was two months comparative quiet, the two armies 
on cither side of the Potomac watching, resting and reorgan- 
izing after the hard fought battles and arduous service each 
had undergone. 

Around Martinsburg and Winchester General Lee's forces 
remained quiet, the infantry and artillery drilling, and the 
cavalry keeping watch on the enemy's movements, ready to 
strike or receive a blow whenever opportunity offered. The 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad received General Jackson's at- 
tention, and in one day it was torn up, crossties burned and 
rails destroyed for twenty-five miles, but before we had gotr 
ten entirely out of hearing distance, the Federals had rebuilt 
and equipped it. On this raid our brigade distinguished 
itself by running down and capturing a red fox, General 
Pender coming in a close second for the brush, the Sixteenth 
adding to its former reputation for tackling and capturing 
every sort of wild animal from a woodchuck to wildcat. The 
lower Yalley was then a most excellent foraging ground, and 
our chef in his eleinent bringing to the larder chickens, honey, 

* " Old Jack " was Stonewall's sobriquet and whenever vociferous yell- 
ing was heard down the line, our boys would say "That's old Jack or a 
rabbit." — Ed. 

168 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

butter and sometimes whole hogs, sorghum, and a very palat- 
able extract of cane seed or com juice, adding much to the 
r^ulation ration, Chiefs of Divisions and Brigades were 
very lenient, allowing much latitude to the diversions and 
amusement of the veterans. 


With the advance of General McClellan on 26 October, 
crossing the Potomac at Harper's Ferry and moving east 
of the Blue Ridge intO' Virginia, General Lee promptly 
broke camp and moving in parallel lines confronted him at 
every point. Jackson was left in the Valley and our 
forces moved toAvard the Shenandoah, camping near Berrj'- 
ville, with cavalry picket in the direction of Charleston, Har- 
per's Ferry and Snicker's Gap. Stuart's main body of cav- 
alry had gone through Snicker's and Ashby's Gap, and as Mc- 
Clellan moved south he hung on his flanl?, moving towards the 
Rappahannock, leaving the Gaps open to the Federals. A 
large body made their appearance, drove in our pickets from 
the top of the mountain and approached the river, where we 
hurriedly double-quicked to meet them, the Sixteenth hold- 
ing the ford. Two Federal regiments soon made their ap- 
pearance in the open field beyond the river in musket range, 
but a few rounds of shell fro'in Crenshaw's Battery on the 
hill behind us completely demoralized them, and they hur- 
riedly sought shelter in the woods, leaving quite a number 
lying on the field. A field officer raised a white flag, rode 
directly down in front and asked us not to fire on them while 
they removed their wounded, and no further demonstration 
was made. 

The Sixteenth Regiment was on an open sward not more 
than two rods from the river bank, and lying flat on the 
gTOund were prepared to give the enemy a hot reception, but 
did not get a chance to fire a gun. One casualty only, from 
carelessness or excitement on the part of a member of Com- 
pany G, which resulted in badly woimding a comrade, J. R. 
3^e Priest, in the knee, causing the loss by amputation of his 
leg. The Federals retired across the mountain, followed by 
our cavalry, and our troops retired to their camps. Bum- 

Sixteenth Regiment. 169 

side had moved to Fredericksburg, finding General Lee on 
the south bank of the Rappaliannook, and about the first of 
December General Jackson quietly moved the main part of 
his corps up the valley, crossing the Blue Ridge at a gap near 
New Market, thence to Orange Court House. In crossing 
the mountain, from the top could be seen the long lines of the 
infantry with their bristling bayonets gleaming in the sun- 
shine, and on the Alleghany Mountains across the valley a 
heavy storm of snow was falling. The artillery and wagon 
trains could be seen for miles, and from the course of the 
roads the whole army seemed to be manoeuvering as if on 
parade. Reaching Fredericksburg, or Hamilton's Crossing, 
about 8 December, we rested a day or two, had new clothing 
and shoes sent fro'm jSTorth Carolina issued to the men, and 
were then ready for the fray we knew would soon come. 


On the 12 th we were msirched by the crossing, and here 
General Jackson, with that famous new suit, passed our bri- 
gade witliout recognition, save to a few who knew him too well 
to be deceived. Our brigade was assigned a position adjoin- 
ing General Longstreet's Co'rps, in the open field opposite the 
center, commanded by Hooker, camping in the edge of the 
woods. At sunset a detail was ordered on the picket line, 
relieving Colonel McDowell. It was a bitter cold night, the 
lines running across the open field from Hazel Run on our 
left to Hamilton's Crossing, a bare open field without rock or 
brush save the cedars which skirted the road leading into our 
lines from Fredericksburg. A pistol shot by a scared picket 
caused a rally by fours to the rear just as we were relieving 
the old picket. Waiting for a few moments for the expected 
advance, the line was soon re-established. In a short time 
Major Cole, with a detachment, came to the line and passed 
through to set fire to some buildings which had sheltered 
sharpshooters that evening, and obstructed the fire of our ar- 
tillery. This was successfully accomplished without acci- 
dent. At daylight our picket was relieved and went back to 
camp for breakfast. As the fog raised on Saturday, 13 De- 
cember, the columns of Franklin and Hooker were seen ad- 

170 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

vancing across the open field, their sharpshooters and skir- 
mishers in front. General Lee had just ridden along in front 
of our lines, and discovering a body of horse coming from the 
left across Hazel Run, waited until he discovered it v?as Gen- 
eral Stuart and staff. General Jackson soon appeared, and 
after a short consultation all went off to the right. Soon we 
were ordered into line and sent to the center of the field about 
two hundred yards in front of the elongation of Longstreet's 
line on our left, and a battery of artillery was unlimbered to 
our right and rear, which at once commenced firing and re- 
ceiving the fire of numerous batteries from both sides of the 
river. It was most gallantly served and suffered in men and 
horses, a caisson being blown up with a terrific explosion by 
the batteries of the enemy, whose aim was perfect. The bat- 
tery also suffered from the sharpshooters, and a brave officer 
of the battery rode down to O'ur regiment and asked Colonel 
McElroy to drive off the skirmishers and they would take 
care of the main body. Colonel McElroy immediately or- 
dered Company G to the front, which deployed as skirmish- 
ers, but the fire of the Federal sharpshooters concentrated on 
us, and one-half otir men were shot down without accomplish- 
ing anything. Jos. C. Mills and one or two others were 
soon wounded and carried off the field, then another company 
A^'fis sent and with like result and still another, when Colonel 
McElroy, with some very strong and earnest expressions, or- 
dered the regiment fonvard, and with a double-qtiick occu- 
pied the ground immediately on the railroad confronting at 
least three brigades and holding his ground, falling back 
only a few yards to a small ditch about four feet in depth, 
from which the regiment poured a murderous fire into and 
held in check a vastly superior force. General Pender had 
that morning expressed his full confidence in the gallantry oi 
the Sixteenth and said he looked for a good report from it in 
the battle. Late in the evening; he sent in the Fifty-seventh 
North Carolina, Colonel A. C. Godwin, a new regiment, to 
the help of the Sixteenth. This regiment charged across the 
field fully a mile, with the rebel yell, and on they came, not 
seeming to know that there Avas anybody but Yankees in their 
fTont. Thev discovered our men just in time, and were 

Sixteenth Regiment. 171 

directed to distribute their favors among the blue coats just a 
little way ahead. A charge was made and the Federals 
driven from the field and into the swamp on our left, where 
large numbers were captured and sent to the rear, two men of 
Company Gr capturing fifty and marching them off the field 
in one body. The battle raged fearfully on our right, and 
often the tide of victory seemed to be with the Federals as 
they swept by our right flank and appeared to be getting to 
our rear, but soon a rebel yell was heard, and as it advanced 
swept back the solid columns of the Federal lines. In this 
battle our regiment lost many brave men, good and true, and 
quite a number wounded. 

The complete repulse and disastrous defeat of Bumside 
bad been accomplished on this first day before one-half of our 
troops had the opportunity of trying their metal, and back to 
Falmouth under cover of night the enemy retired.* 

wiisrTTCH OF 18G2-'63. 

A short time after the battle of Fredericksburg, Jackson's 
Corps was moved about twelve miles down the river tO' Camp 
Gregg, named in honor of General Gregg, who was killed at 
Fredericksburg, where the winter was spent in picketing at 
Moss ISTeck, on the Rappahannock, about three miles above 
Port Royal. There the writer found them on his return to 
camp in March, after five months' absence, and soon after 
reaching camp was ordered to hold myself in readiness for 
picket, but before night the order was countermanded and 
the Sixte«'nth was ordered to go as an escort to the station 
with the body of Colonel Gray, of the Twenty-second, who 
had died during the day, and tO' go on picket the day after. 
In the meantime it had become very cloudy and during the 
night commenced snowing, and when we left camp the snow 
was several inches deep. The river being about two miles 
from the hills and all cleared lands between, we could get 
very little wood for fires, and in consequence we had to walk 
up and down the river all day and night to keep from freezing. 

*In his address to the army after this battle General Lee used this 
expression, "Escape from utter destruction has now become the boast 
of those who advanced in full confidence of victory." — Ed. 

172 NoETH Caeolii^a Teoops, 1861-'65. 

We could occasionally see a Yankee cavalryman across the 
river through the snow, and the boys were continiiously talk- 
ing to them and joking with them. The snow continued fall- 
ing and by the time we were relieved next day at 10 o'clock 
and started back, we found it nearly three feet deep and the 
hardest walking I ever had. The weather soon turned warm 
and we had a lot of fun, fishing in the Rappahannock and a 
mill pond at Moss Neck church. 

General Jackson had his headquarters near oiir camp in an 
office in the yard of Colonel Corbin, on whose place we were 
camped, but as he claimed to be one of the F. F. Vs., and was 
inclined to get full sometimes, and then would try to be very 
loving with the general, he soon moved out in the direction of 
Hamilton's Crossing and we saw no more of him for some 

We spent March and April drilling and getting ready for 
the summer campaign, which we expected would open soon, 
as we had heard "Fighting Joe" Hooker had been made com- 
mander of the Federals, and of course we expected some hard 
work. About 38 April, a detail of men with two wagons was 
sent from the Brigade to Port Eoyal with seines to catch shad 
for the camp. The Sixteenth was on picket that night, and 
of course were anticipating a fine time eating fish, but like 
many others on many other occasions we were again to be 
disappointed. Just at daybreak we heard the pickete firing 
at Fredericksburg, and Fighting Joe had commenced his "On 
to Richmond" to find a strong "Stonewall" in his way. Very 
soon a courier came with orders to go back to camp at once, 
which we did, finding all in confusion, wagons loading and 
everybody preparing for a move. Soon the order came to 
"fall in," and just as we were marching ant of camp the two 
wagons sent out retumed with two full loads of shad. They 
were thrO'Wn out in the middle of the street, and many of the 
boys as they passed took one in their hands with the hope that 
they might get a chance to- cook them that night for supper, 
which I know some did. 


Passing Fredericksburg Friday morning, 1 May, we came 

Sixteenth Regiment. 173 

to Chancellorsville, where we found Hooker already estab- 
lished and ready for the fray, but-poor fellow, he was doomed 
to the same fate as some of Jackson's pets. A.11 day we lay 
in his front with artillery and musketry firing, but with lit- 
tle effect on either side that we could see. 

On Saturday, 2 May, Jackson's Corps was put in motion 
and marching a westerly course in the direction of Spottsylva- 
nia Court House until we had passed Hooketr^s right flank, 
we then turned squarely to the right and crossing the road 
were completely in Hooker's rear, leaving Lee in his front. 
Just about sunset the grand move was made by Pender on the 
right, near the Chancellor house, where we found the Yan- 
kees busily preparing supper, and being uninvited and un- 
looked for guests we caused quite a commotion, but made our- 
selves at home all the same. There never was such a surprise 
party anywhere. They knew nothing of our presence until 
we poured a volley into them and they broke, every man for 
himself and Jackson for the hindmost. The boys were sorry 
they could not stop to take supper, at least to take a cup of 
C/Offee, as there were large pots of the genuine on the fires, 
quantities of bread, ham and all kinds of good things to eat 
and the cooks all gona But the orders were "fo^rward." It 
was then getting dark, and with the flash of small arms in 
every direction, the bursting of flying shells in the air and the 
old Chancellor house in a blaze, the scene was grand and more 
than sublime. In the confusion of battle we could scarce tell 
friend from foe. Just then a halt was ordered to rectify and 
straighten out tibe lines, etc., and General Pender was or- 
dered to send a regiment to General Stuart. Calling to 
Major Gordon, of the Thirty-fourth, he ordered him to go 
with General Stuart, but Gordon began to complain that his 
men were very tired and needed rest. Pender then said, 
"Well, sir. Colonel McElroy will go — his men are tired, too — ' 
Colonel McElroy, take your regiment and go with General 
Stuart" We started at once and followed Stuart without 
knowing where we were going, but had not gone far when a 
courier came up and told General Stuart that General Jack- 
son had been wounded, and he was wanted to take command. 
He then ordered Colonel McElroy to go on to the United 

174 NOETH CAEOLmA Teoops, 1861-'65. 

States Ford, where ke would find a regiment of cavalry- 
camped, to deploy his regiment to the left of the road, and at 
signal to fire three rounds into them and then get back into the 
road, and join the brigade on the field, and then left us to ex- 
ecute the order. Marching about six miles we came in sight 
of their camp fires where they were having a busy, merry 
time, some cooking and eating, others fiddling and dancing, 
and other lying round the fires resting, not looking for or 
thinking of danger. Suddenly there was a crash as the three 
volleys were fired into this careless, happy-go-lucky troop in 
quick successio'U, causing another most surprising surprise 
party, and such a rush and stampede was never witnessed be- 
fore. Wo never knew what damage was done, but the Fed- 
erals thought the whole Confederate army was upon them, 
and yelled out, "Shackson's is upon us — Conner \ind blitz- 
zen," as each gathered himself together for a fiank movement 
to the rear, and the whole command hastily got on the safe 
side of the river, leavingcamp equipage, rations and spoils 
to a few skulkers (or broken down, mayhap) who failed to 
keep up with the regiment on its return. It was said by one 
of these men that a large force of Federals were sent over the 
river next day, but we don't know about that. In obedience 
to orders the Sixteenth immediately returned to^ the battle- 
field, reaching Chancellorsville about sunrise, and just as the 
line had been fo'rmed for the last grand charge Sunday morn- 
ing. There being no place for us in the line, the Sixteenth 
fell in' behind the Thirty-fourth and went into the fight, 
having marched and fought the whole day before and all night 
again. It was not long until we were in the thickest of the 
fight again, and mth one grand charge the enemy was routed 
and fell back on his last line. The Sixteenth lost very heav- 
ily in officers and men. Colonel McElroy was wounded in 
the mouth and disabled, Colonel William Stowe in the head, 
and Major Lee having been crippled for life at Fredericks- 
burg, the regiment waS' without a field officer. Captain A. S. 
Cloud, Company E, assumed command, and after a few days 
we were marched back and went into camp near Camp Gregg, 
where we put in the time drilling on the beautiful fields of 

Sixteenth Regiment. 175 

the Rappahannock and waiting for Halleck'to put up another 
General for us to whip. 


The death of General Jackson caused several changes in the 
army. A. P. Hill was promoted to Lieuten ant-General; 
Pender, Major-General, and Colonel A. M. Scales, of the 
Thirteenth Korth Carolina, to be Brigade commander. 

Sometime after our return tO' Camp Gregg, Pender issued 
a complimentary order to the brigade, in which he said : "I 
may be exacting and hard tO' please, but in this instance I am 
perfectly satisfied. Tou have pleased me well." We re^ 
mained at this camp until 4 June, drilling and grazing our 
teams on the fine clover fields of the Rappahannock. As we 
were drilling that evening, looking across the river hills we 
could see large fields of dust rising above the trees across the 
river, and we knew the Federal army was a^ain in motion. 
We were at once ordered back tO' camp and began preparation 
to move, tents struck, baggage packed and loaded in the 
wagons and everything got ready, and about dark we bade 
farewell to^ our pleasant camp never toi see it again. About 
dawn of day we reached Hamilton's Crossing and found the 
enemy in possession of the Port Royal road, making a good 
breastwork. It had been their line of battle in December, 
1862. Our sharpshooters were ordered to drive them out, 
our brigade succeeding, but Lane's men on the left failed to 
move those opposite their line, and we had to build a barri- 
cade between the two brigades. Lane's men being on the high 
ground and unprotected. 

Remaining at this place ten days, the writer had to make 
several trips from the railroad where our line was, to the 
Port Royal road occupied by the sharpshooters, and had to 
pass over the ground fought on in December. The Yankees 
who had been killed in that fight had been laid up in piles of 
about a hundred and a few shovels of dirt thrown over them. 
It was the most repulsive sight I ever beheld; there were 
heads, hands and feet sticking up through the dirt, and my- 
riads of worms and insects of various kinds working all over 

176 NoETH Caeolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

the piles. The stench was dreadful, and we had to hold our 
noses and run to get away from it. 

We remained here until IG June, with no demonstration of 
any kind except artillery duels across tJie river. Every even- 
ing the bands on each side would play Yankee Doodle, Star 
Spangled Banner, Dixie, Bonnie Blue Flag, and both would 
wind up with Home, Sweet Home, whereat there was on both 
sides a universal shout, reverberating from one to the other, 
back and forth, showing there was one tie held in common by 
these two grand armies. 


G-eneral Lee had sent Swell's Corps across the mountains 
into the Valley, and word has just reached us of his capture 
of Winchester and Martinsburg with many prisoners and a 
lot of propei'ty, and of his march across the Potomac into 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, On 14 June, 1863, our pickets 
in front reported that the enemy had all crossed the river, and 
on examining the gj-ound we found a very small force in sight 
with only a few gims posted on the Stafford Hills. They had 
removed or destroyed the pontoon bridges on which they had 
crossed. We were at once moved back of the hills, and or- 
dered to prepare three days' rations and be ready to move 
early next morning. We spent the day in cleaning up arms, 
filling up boxes and getting rid of our surplus baggage. 

Longstreet's Corps came up during the day from the Black- 
water and went into camp just in our rear. The order of 
march was the Sixteenth North Carolina in front with one 
howitzer from Pogue's Battalion, then the remaining regi- 
ments of Pender's old brigade under command of Colonel 
W. J. Hoke, of the Thirty-eighth, followed by the Light Di- 
vision, Major-General Pender, and the balance of A. P. Hill's 
Corps, then all the remainder of Lee's army. Very early on 
the morning of 15 June we broke camp near Hamilton's 
Crossing, striking the main road above Fredericksburg and 
on by Chancellorsville, passing the old Chaucellor hoUse, and 
on in the direction of the river. All along the line we saw 
Hooker had thrown up works and fortified on his retreat from 
Chancellorsville. Late in the afternoon we crossed the river 

Sixteenth Regiment. 177 

at the same ford where the boys had fired intO' the cavalry 
camp on the night of 2 May, and went into camp on the hill 
beyond, next night camped at Stevensburg, then to Culpepper 
Court House, and two more days march brought us to the 
Blue Ridge, crossing at Chester Gap, and down into the Val- 
ley at Front Royal, where we forded the two branches of the 
Shenandoah and camped at Nineveh. The next day we 
marched only about three miles, camping at White Post. 
Passing tlirough Oharlestown where John Brown was hung, 
the next day we camped near Shepherdstown, where General 
Scales came up and took command of the brigade, he having 
been wounded at Chancellorsville. 

Next day we passed through the town and crossed the Poto- 
mac below Boteler's mills ; we are soon on the familiar ground 
of Sharpsbburg and in the United States, 24 June, and 
went intO' camp just beyond the town. Company G was sent 
on picket all night. Next day passed through Hagerstown, 
where we saw a good many Southern sympathizers, but they 
were afraid to make much of a demonstration, as they were 
closely watched by their Union neighbors, but we saw many 
rebel flags displayed inside of the doors and windows of many 
of the houses. We were advised not to make any noise or 
fuss, but to pass through quietly lest we should get our friends 
into trouble. That night we camped near a town in Pennsyl- 
vania, name forgotten, where a quantity of whiskey was, is- 
sued — some of the men got drunk, and some of them were 
severely punished. The writer got a canteen of whiskey, a 
knife, fork and spoon which I. have yet (not the whiskey). 
Next night camped near Chambersburg where we spent two 
days, and the next night, 30 June, camped on top of Cash's 
Mountain, about five miles from Gettysburg. 


Next morning, 1 July, we passed through Cashtown, and 
about 2 p. m., came in sight of Gettysburg and were soon 
moved to the right in a lane with a wheat field in our front. 
Tearing down the fence, the order came "forward march," 
and the Sixteenth, Vith Pender's Division, moved forward at 
quickstep dressing to the left, and after marching about a 

178 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

mile in line of battle through the ripe wheat, we (jame up to 
the artillery posted on a bluff and firing rapidly. Passing in 
front of the guns, we lay down and watched the fight going 
on for half an hour, Heth's Division being on the line in our 
front. While lying here the guns in our rear kept firing 
over us and some guns on the opposite side replying, several 
of our men were hit by fragments of shells. One Captain 
was struck and his head was cut and scratched in several 
places. He jumped up and started to the rear hollowing at 
every jump, "I'm dead, I'm dead." The Colonel of his reg- 
iment called two stretcher men and told them to "go and 
take that dead man off — if you can catch him." 

While lying there we saw two regiments fighting on a rail- 
road cut, and saw a United States flag captured and recap- 
tured several times, and just before we moved forward I saw 
a man take the flag and wrap it around the staff and stick it 
in a brush pile, and what became of it then I never knew, 
for the command "attention" came and every man arose to 
his feet, grasped his arms with a firm grip, and at the order 
"forw-ard, guide left, march," we moved off at a quick step 
across a meadow and soon began to receive the attention of 
the foe, many of our men being struck with minie balls and 
shells. The men began to fall around me in ray own 
company. Lieutejiant John Ford fell on my right, John H. 
Bradley on the left, just after I had helped him pull the ram- 
rod, which had got fastened, from his gun. ITumbers of 
others were wounded ; our surgeon was shot in the head, and 
ought to have been killed for being there and for not attend- 
ing to his duty. I did all I could to get him to dismount 
and attend to John Ford, for I saw he would bleed to death 
imless attention was given him, but the doughty surgeon 
rode on, the only mounted man I saw on the line. Our line 
continued to advance, and passing to the right of Heth's men, 
came on the enemy's line and began to push them back up 
the hill, when just as we crossed a ditch I was struck on the 
right thigh with a piece of shell, knocking me down and tear- 
ing and cutting the flesh badly. After a short time I found 
that I could get up, and picking up a good hickory stick 
started to the rear as best I could. On my way out I passed 

Sixteenth Regiment. 179 

several sink holes among the limestone rocks which I found 
full of men, some wounded and others hiding. On reaching 
the place w-here Ford and Bradley had fallen they were gone, 
but going further up the hill I found Ford lying face down, 
and raising him up saw at once that he was dying. I asked 
him if I could do anything for him ; he could not speak, but 
motioned with his hand to be carried ofE the field, as the minie 
balls and shells were falling thick around him. I called a 
couple of litter bearers that T saw in the woods nearby to 
come and take him to a safer place, biit could not prevail on 
them to do so, and the poor man died where he was in a few 
minutes. Going on I soon passed General Lee's headquar- 
ters, when I saw Generals Lee, A. P. Hill, Longstreet and oth- 
ers watching the fight with their glasses. I soon reached the 
ambulance and was carried to the hospital, a large barn about 
two miles in rear of the line, where I found many wounded 
men of the Sixteenth, about ten of my own company, Bradley 
among them. And this is what I saw of the battle of Gettys- 

Captain ,T. Y. Mclntire, who was in command of the com- 
pany, tells me that we drove the enemy back beyond Cemetery 
Hill, where they had a hospital filled with wounded and sur- 
geons. We were afterAvards moved back across a branch 
where we formed line and throwing out pickets in front spent 
the night. 

During the next day, 2 July, Ave remained in the same posi- 
tion nearl^A'' all day, moving a little to the left, both sides keep- 
ing a shelling and sharpshooter firing during the day and 


On the morning of the 3d all were up and ready, expecting 
every moment to be into a fight, but strange to say everything 
was quiet, each side watching and waiting for the other to 
move. Our men becoming impatient would call out and say, 
"If we had Jackson we M'ould move and do something." But 
all at once, about 1 p. m., there was a crash and one hundred 
and fifty guns on our line belched forth fire and were an- 
swered by an equal number from the enemy, keeping it up for 

180 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

two hours, when the firing ceased and soon the order came, 

General Pender having been wounded the day before, 
Scales' and Pettigrew's Brigades were put under Major-Gen- 
eral Trimble and sent in on the left of Pickett. We were met 
by a storm of shot, shell and minie balls which caused Pick- 
ett's men to waver and fall back in confusion, leaving the sup- 
porting brigades to stand the brunt of the fight. 

Finding that Pickett had been repulsed, it was deemed nec- 
essary to withdraw if possible, and there was a general break 
to the rear, under a destructive fire which killed and wounded 
a great many men. A part of the Sixteenth, under Captains 
Cloud, McKinney and McEntire, had advanced so far that 
they found it impossible to withdraw and were forced to sur- 
render. They were at once taken to the rear in a great hurry, 
where they found everything in confusion and ready to re- 
treat, teams were hitched up and turned to the rear as if ready 
to run, and if Lee had made another assault then, they would 
have done so. Being badly crippled himself, and out of am- 
munition, far away from his base, with a big river behind 
him and hea'vy rains coming on, he found it necessary to re- 
tire, and did so at his own leisure, lying in their front the 
whole day, the 4th, without being attacked, which shows how 
much they feared him. The Sixteenth lost very heavily in 
men and officers, there not being an officer left in the regiment 
higher than Lieutenant, several companies without a single 

General Pender Avas wounded and died at Staunton ; Gen- 
eral Scales Avounded, Colonel W. J. Hoke, Thirty-eighth, 
wounded, leaving the brigade in command of Colonel Low- 
rance, of the Thirty-fourth. 

General Trimble said to General A. P. Hill as he left the 
field : "If hell can't be taken by the troops I had the honor 
to command to-dny, it can't be done at all." This was the 
remark of General Trimble, a Virginian, to General Hill, a 
Virginian, about North Carolina troops — Pettigrew's and 
Scales' Brigades. The Sixteenth Regiment was one of them, 
which fact ought to set aside the oft-told tale that there was 
no troops in that assault but F. F. Vs. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 181 


About 12 o'clock on Sunday, 4 July, orders came to the 
hospital for a general move to the rear, and the movement back 
to the Potomac began. The wagons and ambulances were 
loaded with all the wounded that could be moved, but we had 
to leave many of our poor fellows whom we never saw again. 
The writer managed to secure a seat on the top of a load of 
hay, where he spent about thirty hours. When we reached 
the top of the mountain it began to rain and soon got very 
dark, but there was no halt made, a steady trot being kept up 
all night, and I could never tell how we got along without 
some accident. During the night we passed Thad Stephens' 
Iron Works, which Ewell's troops had burned as they passed 
on some days before, and they were still smoking. I heard 
after the war that the old man said that it saved him from 
bankruptcy, as he got a big price for them from the govern- 
ment, enabling him to settle up all his affairs. 

About daybreak Sunday morning it ceased raining and 
soon the sun came out, and we poor wounded rebels who had 
been riding all night in the cold began to feel the influence of 
his gentle rays, and though hungry, tired and sore, began to 
crack jokes with the natives, they jeering and telling us that 
we would never cross the Potomac, that we would soon be 
gobbled up. About 10 o'clock there was a short stop to feed 
and rest the teams as they were very tired. After an hour's 
rest they were hitched up again, and soon we passed through 
Greencastle, where the Dutch women paid us their compli- 
ments by abuse and wishing us in a warmer climate than 
Pennsylvania. Here we saw the effect of a raid that had 
been made on the train ahead of us, several wagons cut down, 
the teams and men captured and gone. General Imboden had 
been sent with us as an escort to protect us, but he was a com- 
plete failure in that part. A few hours after, just as the 
wagon I was on had passed across the road near Emmetts- 
burg, one of Imboden's cavalrymen dashed by at full speed, 
ran over a man and horse in front, but made no stop, only 
looking to his own safety. Hearing considerable commotion 
in the rear, I looked back and saw that a small squad of cav- 
alry had dashed into the road just as the last of Pender's train 

182 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

passed, and striking the front of Heth's train, had captured 
several teams, wagons and ambulances, the first ambulance 
having Colonel Leventhorpe, of the Eleventh, and I think Col- 
onel J. K. Connally, of the Fifty-fifth North Carolina, with 
others that I did not know. They were at once hurried off 
on the cross road for fear of recapture. Major Scales, Divis- 
ion Quartermaster, was the only man I saw that seemed to 
have a head on him, and he stopped a few of Imboden's men 
and gathered a few stragglers together and soon drove the 
raiders off, but they had done considerable damage in cutting 
down wagons and running off the teams. A member of my 
own company who was riding with me, swore he 'would save 
his own bacon, jumped off, took to the woods, and I did not 
see him again until we reached the Potomac. We were not 
molested again, arriving at Williamsport, on the bank of the 
Potomac, which we found past fording, this compelling us to 
halt. The whole train was placed at the foot of the hill be- 
tween the Chesapeake and Ohio canal and the river, so as to 
be able to cross as soon as the river fell. 

On Monday about 4 p. m., we were startled by a shot fired 
from beyond the town, and the ball dropping down among us 
struck one of our miiles, breaking his neck, then phmging into 
the river, followed by several others, but none doing any 
other damage. There was quite a comniotion for awhile, but 
some of our oooler headed ones, seeing the necessity of action, 
soon had quite a little company organized of stragglers, 
drivers and some of the wounded, and marching- back into the 
town we gave them the best fight we could under the circum- 
stances, but I fear we would all liave been captured had not 
General Pierce M. B. Young, who had been sent by General 
Stuart after the raiders, come up just in time, and making a 
charge drove them off, killing and capturing several of them. 
We had several men killed and wounded in this affair; the 
Sixteenth had one man (Bowman, Company I) killed. In 
the meantime. General Lee had left Gettysburg on the night 
of the 4th, after lying all day in front of Meade, who did not, 
for reasons best known to himself and his Generals, feel in- 
clined to push him, had marched at his leisure, and passing 
Hagerstown on Monday, established himself on a line between 

Sixteenth Regiment. 183 

that town and in front of Williamsport, where he remained 
for about ten days in front of Meade offering him battle, but 
he refused to accept. Quite an artillery duel was kept up 
between the two armies all that time, but little damage to our 


On the afternoon of the 13th orders were received for the 
trains to cross at the ferry, and everything was sent over 
during the night, General Lee moving with army after dark, 
going down on the north side and throwing a pontoon bridge 
across at Falling Waters, where the river is quite narrow, the 
banks being steep and high, forcing the water into a channel 
of 200 feet. Falling Waters is so called from a creek that 
runs over a precipice about twenty feet high and into the river 
at that place. The fall is just above the road and is quite pic- 
turesque, making a miniature IvTiagara. 

It was at this place that a squadron of Federal cavalry 
made a dash at Hill's Corps as the men were lying on the 
ground resting and waiting for the artillery to cross. In 
this affray General Pettigrew was mortally wounded and a 
fcAV rebels captured, among them one member of Company G. 
As soon as our men realized that an assault had been made, 
they sprang up, opened fire and soon drove them off, killing a 
number and among them the man that shot Pettigrew. 

When all the artillery and wagons were safely crossed, the 
men followed, and marching up the turnpike a few miles en- 
camped for the night near Martinsburg. 

Passing through Martinsburg the next Monday, 15th, up 
the valley to Bunker Hill, where we remained in quiet about 
ten days, the men enjoying themselves living on dewberries, 
there being a great abundance of them in the clover fields, fur- 
nishing good picking for the whole army. Leaving the valley 
we crossed at Chester Gap and had quite a brisk little skir- 
mish and artillery duel at Gaines' Cross Tloads; not much 
damage done to either side. Going on to Culpepper Court 
House we camped there until 9 August, when the cavalry got 
up quite a warm fight near Brandy Station. We were or- 
dered out and started towards Orange Ct)urt House, which we 
reached on the 10th, going into camp on the farm of Colonel 

184 NoETH Caeolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

Taylor, near Barnett's Ford, where we picketed and rested 

until October, having one or two fights with cavalry at the 

About 11 October General Lee sent A. P. Hill's Corps 
across the river, passing Madison Court House, the second 
day crossing Robertson's Run, where our sharpshooters had 
a severe battle with the Federal cavalry, driving them off, 
which developed our movement and put the whole army in 
motion. Ewell having been left on the Rapidan, at once 
broke camp and followed by Culpepper Court House. Hill 
moving by the left flank all the time, crossed the Culpepper 
road by Amosville and Warrenton, where we camped in the 
camp the Yankees had vacated that day. 'Next day Scales' 
Brigade -was stopped at a little town, ISTew Baltimore, and or- 
dered to wait until the army train had passed, then to follow 
and guard it from raiders. After the wagons had all passed 
we fell in and followed until late in the afternoon. General 
Scales ordered Captain McLoud to stay with the train, and 
he with the other regiments of the Brigade would go to the 
front, as we could hear heavy cannonading in front. We 
marched by companies on each side of the road until about 
midnight, when the train stopped and we lay down by the side 
of the wagons and slept until daylight, when we were roused 
up and soon joined the main force at Bristoe Station, where 
we found that Hill's Corps had had a severe and disastrous 
fight, being roughly handled, all through a mistake' of General 
A. P. Hill. 


Arriving near Bristoe on the afternoon of 14 October, A. 
P. Hill found the rear giiard of Meade's army, imder General 
Warren, moving across his line of march, and immediately 
made arrangements to attack him with Cooke's and MacRae's 
Brigades of Heth's Division. Warren had his corps posted 
behind a railroad embankment and out of sight, but had a 
strong line of sharpshooters posted about two hundred yards 
behind his line and in front of a piece of woods, giving the 
impression that his line of battle was in the woods. Hill or- 
dered Heth to advance his two brigades at once and take pos- 

Sixteenth Regiment. 185 

session of the railroad, but Heth not liking the looks of things, 
did not move until Hill had sent him three peremptory orders 
to do so. He then ordered the two JSTorth Carolina Brigades 
forward, but when they were in a few yards of the railroad 
Warren's whole corps rose and gave them a volley that very 
nearly cut to pieces the whole command, only a few falling 
back in good order, many wounded and as many dead lying 
on the ground. Our artillery opened on them and a heavy 
fire was kept up during the day, the enemy holding their 
ground until dark, when they retired in the direction of Man- 

We remained on the ground until about 2 o'clock p. m., 
burying our dead and caring for the wounded, cooking, etc., 
when we again moved back to Catlett's Station, where our 
brigade commenced tearing up the railroad and burning the 
ties, working all day in the mud, tired and hungry. 

About dark Baxter Long came up and gave me some crack- 
ers he had found in an old shed on the way, also some pork 
and beans left by the Yankees. Being very hungry I did 
not wait to get into camp, but commenced eating the crackers 
at once, but when I got a fire so I could see I found my crack- 
ers filled with black, hairy worms. I had no idea how many 
I had eaten, but it did not turn my stomach for I was soon 
able to make a hearty meal after getting things in shape. 
Next morning we finished oiir job of tearing up the track and 
crossed the Rappahannock on a pontoon bridge, going into 
camp near an old brick house. The country beyond the Rap- 
pahannock looked bare and desolate, nothing in sight but 
chimneys on all sides. I do not remember seeing but one 
house standing on our way from JSTew Baltimore to Bristoe 
and back to the Rappahannock, and that was a large house 
with a large placard on the front gate marked : "This house 
is protected by papers from the British Consul at Washing- 

While camped here the writer was lying in his tent, cov- 
ered with all the blankets he could get and shaking with a 
severe chill. The cry was raised, "Fresh beef, somebody's 
coming," and we knew at once that a lot of fresh conscripts 
were coming. Soon some one was heard to say: "There's 

186 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

France. Hello, France, come here, old fellow," and the an- 
swer came back : "How the devil can I come ; don't you see 
I'm uuder guard ?" And I at once recognized our old Valley 
Mountain comrade, F. D. W., who remained with us lantil 
the close of the war, often enlivening the camp with his dry 

The next day we were ordered to move back near Brandy 
to put up winter quarters. On the way I felt like I would 
have another chill, and seeing our doctor unpacking a box 
near where we stopped, I went to him and told him what was 
the matter. He unstopped a jug and poured out about a gill 
of whiskey, telling me to drink it. I told him it would make 
me drunk. He said "drink it," which I did, and did not have 
any chill, but liad something else. The men went to work 
cutti];^ logs and putting up shanties on the land of the old 
Congressman, John Minor Botts, who would not let us have 
any straw . 


The second day while camped here we had a grand cavalry 
review of all the cavalry of the army on the same field where 
Stuart foiight the Federals the summer before. That night 
about 10 o'clock, just as I was going to lie down, my only 
brother, who belonged to Pogue's Battalion, came up to the 
fire and wanted to know if M-e did not have marching orders. 
When informed that we did not, he said you will have soon for 
everything between this and the river is on. the move. Just 
then the Adjutant came along and ordered us to pack up all 
baggage and be ready to move at 4 o'clock a. m., and all our 
calculations about winter quarters was knocked in the head 
for the time. Some of the men had completed nice cabins 
and expected to move into them the next morning, but such is 
war. We found afterward that a force of the enemy had 
crossed the river at a ford above us and were making an effort 
to get in our rear. We were on the march before the time or- 
dered, and soon found from the whistle of shells passing over 
that we were followed. About daylight we halted on a high 
ridge where we spent the day in line of battle. The artillery 
and sharpshooters kept up a constant fire all day, a shell now 

Sixteenth Regiment. 187 

and then passing over our heads. About an hour after dark 
we moved back to a road where we waited some time for some 
others to pass and then marched on in the direction of Cul- 
pepper Court House, which place we passed about 12 o'clock. 

Culpepper was about the darkest town that night I ever 
saw. I saw only one light in the town as we passed through. 
Our artillery and wagons being in front and the road very 
muddy, we made slow progress, and being an extremely cold 
night I don't think there was a fence rail left between Cul- 
pepper and the Rapidan, all being burned. We crossed at 
Barnett's Ford early in the morning and went into camp near 
the one we had left, feeling quite at home after an absence of 
more than a month. We remained at this camp until about 
23 November, when Captain L. P. Erwin came on a visit to 
us, and I made a bet with him of a pound of candy, then 
worth $25, that we would leave that place before morning, and 
sure enough at 12 o'clock we had orders for marching at 4 
o'clock, and before the citizens of Orange had gotten their 
eyes open we had passed through the town on our way to the 
Wilderness. Just after that, the writer was put in command 
of the provost guard of the brigade. Just before night we 
crossed a little stream called Mine Run and stopped for the 
night. Next day we moved back across the Run and formed 
line of battle on a ridge, and soon found General Meade and 
his army in front of us. The weather had turned intensely 
cold and there was great suffering among the men. 

My guard was posted in rear of the line in an open field 
on the high ground Avhere the wind from the mountain had 
full sweep at us, and the only protection we could get was to 
put some pine tops into a deep gully on the icicles, where we 
could lie on our blankets. There was a continual artillery 
and sharpshooter duel going on all the time but no fighting. 
On the night of 1 December, 1863, Generals Lee, Stuart, A. 
P. Hill and others rode up and down in rear of our lines 
several times, and we made up our minds we would have 
hot work in the morning. When daylight came we found the 
Yankees had gone during the night. The order came at once 
to follow, which we did, passing their works soon after cross- 
ing the Run, where we found the sides of the road strewn with 

188 JSToETH Oabolota Teoops, 1861-'65. 

the plunder left by them in their hurry to get off. We fol- 
lowed about eight miles on the Wilderness road, when we met 
Generals Lee, Stuart, and others. General Lee said : "Well, 
boys, you may go back to camp." 

We gave three cheers for General Lee, and started home 
again, reaching Orange about 12 M. the next day, and went 
into camp the next day near the old place. A few days after 
our return Captain Erwin was retired from the service on ac- 
count of wounds received at Fredericksburg, and left for 
home promising that he would call on my friend, Andrew An- 
tone, as he passed through Richmond and get the pound of 
candy I had won from him and give it to two young lady 
friends of mine, but I find it has not been paid yet, and I still 
demand the $25 worth of candy. 

In General Meade's examination before a Congressional 
Committee on Conduct of the War, he was asked why he did 
not fight Lee at Mine Run. He replied that the weather was 
so cold that his sentinels froze to death on post. 

WINTEE OF 1863-'64. 

We reached our old camp near Orange about noon, 3 De- 
cember. The men marched like cavalry, all so anxious to get 
back to the old grounds. The weather moderated after we 
got back, and for two weeks we had fine, pleasant weather, 
but just before Christmas it began to snow and sleet, and we 
then had very cold weather for some time. The day before 
Christmas I had accepted an invitation to visit some friends 
in Lane's Brigade about four miles up the river near Liberty 
Mills, to take Christmas dinner, they having possessed them- 
selves of a fine gobbler and other Christmas goods, but just 
after tattoo the long roll was sounded and orders were issued 
to pack up and be ready to march at a moment's warning and 
let no one leave camp until further orders, so all our calcula- 
tions for Christmas were spoiled. We were kept in suspense 
for three days, and as nothing further happened, the men be- 
gan to feel at ease. We found out afterwards that the order 
was only intended to keep the men in camp during Christ- 
mas, fearing that they woxild go off, get drunk and do mis- 
chief — but such is war. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 189 

We remained quietly doing picket duty during the next 
month, having one or two little cavalry dashes, at Barnett's 
Ford until 1 February, 1864, when the enemy made a feint to 
cross in the afternoon. Our brigade was marched down to 
the ford and kept the breastworks until after dark, when they 
were ordered back to camp and to cook rations and be ready 
to return at 4 o'clock. Promptly on time we were again in 
the trenches, and at dawn of day the artillery on both sides 
opened and kept up a heavy fire for about an hour, the in- 
fantry having a little fight across the river with their cav- 
alry — if they had infantry we saw none of it. They soon re- 
tired and we were left alone. Troops were coming in all day 
to our relief, but as there was no further demonstration on the 
part of the enemy all again became quiet, the troops returned 
to their camps and the usual routine of duty was taken up. 

Just at this time the writer was granted a thirty days' leave 
of absence, and drawing from the Quartermaster $.500 Con- 
federate money, T started for Richmond and home. Some 
time before I had sent to R. M. Robinson, of Charlotte, three 
and one-half yards of cloth furnished by North Carolina for 
$25. On reaching Charlotte I found the clothes ready and 
paid Robinson $150 for making and trimmings, and on my 
return to Orange I had $10 left, which I gave for a pound of 
soda and went to camp without a cent, showing that it cost six 
months' pay to go home, pay for a suit of clothes and one 
pound of soda. 

During March and April we had only one little affair at 
the Ford with cavalry and artillery, our cavalry being on the 
north side of the river. Standing on the hills on the south 
Kide we could see the charging and counter charges, first one 
on the run, then the other. We had a few men wounded at 
the river by shell. Quite an amusing incident occurred at 
the Ford with some women who were crossing on foot while 
the shells were falling and bursting in and around the Ford, 
but for fear of making some one blush I will not relate this 
story. The Yankees were soon driven off and all was quiet 
again for some time. 

About 25 April we had quite a snow storm, the ground 
being covered several inches. In a day or so the sun came 

190 NoETH Caeoijita Teoops, 1861-'65. 

out warm, the sno^v melting off except on the mountain sides 
a few miles off over the river. On 4 May I was on picket 
with strict orders to allow no one to cross unless they had a 
pass from General Robertson. There was some cavalry graz- 
ing their horses on a clover field across the river, and just 
after 1 had returned from the lower part of the line, I heard 
their bugles blow "boots and saddles," and saw, the men run- 
ning and bridling their horses in great commotion, and soon 
after a courier riding at full speed came up the road leading 
to the Ford where T had placed myself to meet him. Stop- 
ping his horse for a moment he drew from his pocket a large 
official envelope addressed "General E. E. Lee," saying he 
had a dispatch for General Lee. My orders forbade my 
allowing any one to pass without General Robertson's per- 
mission, but believing that delay might be dangerous, I at 
once determined to assume responsibility of disobeying orders 
and handing him the dispatch, told him to go ahead. I im- 
mediately wallced doAvn to the river and notified my pickets 
to be ready to move as I was sure we would be sent for, and 
soon a courier came ordering us to camp. Bidding farewell 
to Barnett's Ford, where we had spent near ten months rather 
pleasantly, we started to camp, and on our arrival found all 
the troops gone and about a hundred negroes plundering and 
searching for anything and everything left by the men. I 
found orders for me to follow by Orange Court House, which 
we soon passed for the last time, not catching up with the 
army until late, when we found them camped near Mine 
Run, at the same place we had camped on otir return from 
Mine rtm in the previous December. 


Early on the morning of 5 May, 1864, we were under arms 
and again on the march, passing Mine Run and about 4 p. m. 
came near the future battlefield, and leaving the plank road 
we turned to the left and marched more than a mile, when we 
were halted in a dense thicket and in the rear of Ewell. 

Lying there about an hour, we heard the fight open in the 
direction of the plank road. Orders came to fall in, and we 
started at a do\ible-quick, and soon reaching the road where 

Sixteenth Regiment. 191 

■we had left it we found the road filled with wagons and ambu- 
lances and the field on the left of the road full of artillery. 
Going down unti.1 we came to the Brock road, which crosses 
the i)lank road and leads to Spottsylvania Court House, we 
moved to the right and formed line on this road, our left rest- 
ing on the plank road. We then moved forward, passing over 
a regiment that would not advance. The Colonel was cursing 
them and told them to lie down and let somebody that would 
go, go over them. We soon struck some troops of Hancock's 
Corps and drove them before us through a swamp, when we 
were stopped and moved back to the Brock road on the top of 
the ridge, and it being near dark, we put out sentinels in front 
and prepared to spend the night, barricading with all the old 
logs and rails that we could find. 

Early on the morning of the 6th, orders came to send a de- 
tail with all the company canteens for water for the men, 
and just at sunrise a gun was fired down the road and the shot 
came whistling up the road, and following it came Hancock's 
Corps. This was the only battle I ever saw or heard of in 
modern times fought without artillery, and the one mentioned 
above was the only one I remember to have heard that morn- 
ing, and there was only one gun used on the 5th near the 
plank road, and that only fired grape at very close range. 

Thomas' Georgia Brigade was on our left, and Hancock's 
line was so arranged his forces struck it before he reached our 
front. Thomas' men gave way at once, almost without firing 
a gun. Our left, the Thirtj^-eighth, I think, seeing them- 
selves flanked began to break, and soon a general break all 
along our line occurred. Colonel C. M. Avery had his regi- 
ment, the Thirty-third North Carolina, lying just in the rear 
of the Sixteenth, and as we moved back in good order, he or- 
dered his men up and said as I passed him, "We will give 
them one volley before we go," and he gave the order to fire, 
and at the same time the fire was returned, killing and wound- 
ing many of his men. The Colonel himself was mortally 
wounded. Several of the Sixteenth were hit, and Color- 
bearer Carpenter was killed and many others wounded. I 
soon met a staft' officer on horseback, who was making an effort 
to rally and stop the men, but with little effect. He told 

192 NoETH Oaeolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

them that "Longstreet was on the grouBd and would be there 
in less rhan five minutes, only hold your ground until he gets 
in," but everybody seemed to be for himself .and the Yankees 
take the hindmost, which Avould soon have occurred to us all 
if just then we had not met (general Benning, of Longstreet's 
Corps, loading his brigade in. He told his men to open ranks 
and let us pass. After getting in rear of Longstreet's we 
got our men quiet and into line, and crossing the plank road 
we forme<l a new line on a kind of crescent in rear of Ewell. 
Just after crossing the road I met Tom Hayden with a can- 
teen, and our detail not having returned I asked him for a 
drink. Handing his canteen he said, "Here is some pond 
water," and without thought I took a big swallow before I 
found it was the meanest whiskey I ever tasted, and of course 
I was worse off than before I took it. In a few minutes we 
heard Longstreet's men open fire and in a very short time we 
heard the old rebel yell, and we knew that Hood was moving 
them ; then the yell became general all along the line, and I 
don't think I ever listened to a sweeter sound. It would 
start on the left and like a wave roll down the line and back 
again, and our line took up the refrain, and just like the lit- 
tle dog after being whipped when a big dog comes \ip and 
takes his place, they began to jump and yell and cut up 
shines, as much as to say, "Arn't we horses." 

Shortly after Longstreet had routed and was driving them 
back, we were moved down upon the line on the left of the 
plank road, where some command had erected the only breast- 
work during the night, and then you should have seen what 
a brave set of fellows we were. Just then we saw a little fel- 
low riding up behind us on a gray horse, dressed in a fine new 
uniform with two stars on the collar and a big black feather 
in his hat. We recognized little Captain Cloud, who had 
been captured at Gettysburg, just on his way from Johnson's 
Island. During his captivity he had been promoted to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. We almost had to detail a guard to stop him 
from charging over the works and capturing Grant and the 
whole Yankee army. The battle raged pretty much all day 
in oiir front, and it is claimed by some that but for the 
woimding of General Longstreet Grant's army would have 

Sixteenth Regiment. 193 

been driven across the Rapidan. I knoAv that by this timely 
arrival he saved our brigade from capture. We remained in 
this position until Sunday, the 7th, about 4 p. m., when we 
were ordered to march by the Brock road to Spottsylvania 
Court House, which place we reached at 12 M. Monday and 
found nearly all our artillery on the line and pretty well for- 


Spottsylvania is located on a long high ridge, and in May, 
1864, contained a court house, jail, one brick church and a 
tavern — tliese are all the buildings I remember. Our forti- 
fied line was near the top, of the ridge and north and east from 
the court hoiise, and was about five miles in length, extend- 
ing about four miles above to the Tay river, and one mile be- 
low the court house. The ground in front of the court house 
was sloping for about two hundred yards, and there was met 
by a thick pine woods, and beyond these pines Grant had two 
fortified lines about one hundred yards apart. 
, Arriving on the ground about 12 o'clock Monday, 8 May, 
we were put on the line on the left of the court house near 
the branch, with a tliick pine forest in our front, but did not 
remain long in this position, but were moved to the right be- 
yond the court house, and for three days were kept moving 
up and down the line, being in reserve all the time. 

On the niglit of the 11th we were marched about four miles 
to the left near tlie Tay river where there was a fort, and just 
as I had my little shelter tent put up and ready to lie down, 
orders came to fall in, and Ave were soon on the way to town in 
mud and rain, the night so dark Ave could scarcely see the men 
ahead of us. It stopped raining and cleared up before we 
reached the court house, and just as day Avas breaking we 
heard Hancock's grand assault on our lines open and were 
soon made aware that part of our line had been captured — 
Johnson's Division of Eaa'cH's Corps being taken prisoners. 
This was the place where it Avas said General Lee wanted to 
lead tht! troops in person, but the men refused to go forward 
until he Avent to the rear, assuring him that they would re- 
establish the lines, Avhich they did most gallantly. When we 

194 • North Carolina Troops, 1861-'6n. 

reached the field we fovind ourselves in rear of Lane's Bri- 
gade, then desperately struggling to hold its position, and 
standing some time on the high ground in rear we were in a 
very uncomfortable position for a short while, but Lane find- 
ing that he had support behind him, ordered a charge and 
went over the works — we at once occupied and spent the day 
in them, finding it much safer, though we had some men 
wounded by shells and long range rifles. 

After driving the enemy back behind his works. Lane came 
out and going down the line in front of the court house he 
\A'ent in agaiu and had quite a hard fight, capturing a large 
number of prisoners and a stand of colors. The next day just 
before dark. General Lee thinking {hat Grant was moving 
round his right, we were sent inside the line to find out what 
they Avere doing. We marched in by the right flank, led by 
Major-General Wilcox, and after reaching the pine woods, the 
head of the cohmin, soon found the Yankee sharpshooters in 
strong force, several of our men being wounded by their first 
fire. General Wilcox soon came back, his old white pony 
pacing along like he was going to meeting. The General 
always rode with a long hickory switch. As he passed us he 
told us to face to the right and move just above the path and 
lay down. We obeyed the order. As I lay down between the 
color-bearer and another man we soon found that a Yankee 
sharpshooter was using us as a mark for his rifle, the balls 
passing very uncomfortably near and over us, but dark coming 
on, though the firing still went on, it was not so close and 
dangerous. I was very tired and soon fell asleep, but was 
aroused by the men moving off. Jumping up and taking my 
place in line I thought that we were going to make an assault, 
but coming to a low fence we had crossed I knew we were 
going out and was much relieved. We passed out through 
the lines and lay down to rest near an ice house and were not 
farther disturbed during the night — a very unusual occur- 
rence, as assaults had been made on our lines every night. 

The next day we were again marched to the front to retake 
a part of the line that had been captured, and did so in a hand- 
some charge, driving the enemy before us and eliciting the 
praise of General Early, who was in command of the corps 

Sixteenth Regiment. 195 

since the Wilderness fight, General A. P. Hill being sick. 
The whole face of the earth in and around was covered with 
dead Yankees killed in this affair. During the day we saw 
the Federal General Sedgwick shot and killed by a sharp- 
shooter while he was superintending the placing of a gun to 
enfilade our lines. lie was more than a half mile away. A 
friend informs us that a beautiful monument has been erected 
on the spot. 

We were sent next day to the right to support General 
Wright, of Georgia, while he was sent in to make a reconnois- 
sance, we holding his lines while he made his move on Grant's 
works. Finding the enemy's lines well manned he soon re- 
tired, suffering some loss, and occupied his old ground, and 
we were sent back to the left of the court house where we 
spent the day under heavy shelling, losing several men. We 
remained in all about ten days at Spottsylvania, on the go all 
the time. We coiild not lie down with any assurance that 
we would be undisturbed for five minutes. The last day we 
were there, after being under fire of the sharpshooters and 
artillery all day, we were moved from the left of the court 
house down to the right and sent into the Yankee lines to see 
what they were doing. The line was formed just inside of 
our lines, and we moved forward over the open ground, then 
through a piece of woods, and crossing over a high rail fence 
we found ourselves in front of their works and were at once 
fired on by sharpshooters and their artillery from outside 
works, about one hundred yards in rear. Without stopping 
to return the fire, we made a rush for the works and drove 
them back into the second line. After holding this line for 
an hour under a very heavy fire of solid shot, we were or- 
dered to march out by the flank, and going back to the road 
at the court house we found the army in motion and at 
once took up the line of march toward the ISTorth Anna 
river. After marching, several hours we halted to rest in 
a piece of woods, and there for the first time in more than 
two weeks we had a few hours of uninterrupted rest and 
sleep. JSText morning we were up early and on the march, 
and soon after crossing North Anna river we struck the 
Fredericksburg railroad, and following it down to Ander- 

196 North CAROLmA Troops, 1861-'65. 

son Station we spent near two days in manoeiivering between 
that and the rirer. 


On the afternoon of the second day we were ordered back 
to the station, and following the railroad back in the direc- 
tion of the river about a mile we came to a water tank, where 
we found the Light Division in line of battle. The order to 
move forward soon came, and the Division moved off through 
an open woods in excellent order and fine style, General 
Thonjas' Georgia Brigade on the left and resting on the river. 
The]-e being no place for Scales' Brigade, we marched in rear 
of Thomas, the Sixteenth leading. General Thomas mounted 
his horse and rode in rear of his troops, hollowing as if he was 
in a fox chase ; soon reaching a fence in the edge of the woods, 
with a clover field in front, the fence was thrown down and 
the field entered, when his line was fired on from the cedar 
hedge just on the brow of the hill by a line of sharpshooters. 
The whole of Georgia broke loose and ran for dear life. The 
Sixteenth standing end foremost at the head of the brigade, 
Colonel W. A. Stowe ordered them into line, and we moved 
to the front, the Yankees running down, the hill as fast as 
their legs could carry them. We followed up to the cedars, 
and by the time we reached the hedge they had got down the 
hill and across a branch, and going up a hill in front of iis 
our men had a fair chance to pick them off. One poor fellow 
was lame and got behind, but he did some of the hardest rtin- 
ning I ever saw. I don't think he was hit, though I saw a 
good many balls strike near him. 

As soon as the pickets got otit of danger, the gims on the 
high ground beyond began to pay their, respects to us, giving 
us a fiTsillade of grape and canister. The Sixteenth was 
standing there aloue, unsupported, no other being in sight. 
The writer, who was standing about twenty feet in front, 
called to the Colonel that it would not do to stand there, we 
must move forward, and he gave the order to do so at once. 
We moved down the hill, crossing the branch and then up to 
near the brow of the hill and lay down, the shot passing over 
lis, a few of our men being hit. We soon discovered that a 

Sixteenth Regiment. 197 

movement was starting in our front to cut us off and capture 
us, and reporting the fact to the Colonel he ordered us to fall 
back to the branch in line ; he then led us down the branch by 
the left flank until we reached the river, then keeping well 
under the bank of the river we kept up the river until we came 
to the railroad, and following that we soon found the other 
regiments of our brigade. 1 never could tell how it was that 
we were allowed to go into s\ich a place alone or how the others 
got away. I was informed by a man at Division Headquar- 
ters that General Wilcox cursed out Thomas and the others 
who failed to come up. This place was called Jericho Ford. 
We spent the night on the railroad near the water tank where 
we went in and next morning moved down to the station. 

When we got back to the station we found that General 
Smith, chief engineer of the Army of ISTorthern Virginia, had 
already located a line and done a lot of work. The line ran 
through a beautiful garden, which was soon torn up with 
trenches and embankments for artillery — everything in the 
way of vegetables, pot plants and herbs destroj^ed and the gar- 
den ruined. The Yankees soon found us out and followed 
np. The second day we found them established in our front 
with artillery and small arms. During a rain storm I had 
crawled under a high piazza for protection, but had hardly 
gotten in a comfortable position when the first shot fired came 
crashing through the house above me, and I soon walked out 
into the rain but did not find much comfort then, for a gun 
fired from the opposite side of the river, enfilading our line, 
killed two men in the company on the left of Company G and 
all was confusion for a short time. The rain soon stopped, 
' and dark coming on the men were put to work by the en- 
gineer in charge of the line so as not to be enfiladed. We re- 
mained at this place about a week; had no general engage- 
ment, but kept up a sharp picket fight very near all the time 
we remained. 

General Lee finding that General Grant was again on the 
move to flank him, we again started to head him off, and cross- 
ing the South Anna river and passing between Hanover Junc- 
tion and Ashland, we stopped for the night in the swamp near 
the latter place. Early next morning we were again on the 

198 NoETH Caeolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

march, and about 12 M. halted near Green Pole church, 
throwing up strong works and remaining three days with 
heavy picket and artillery firing all' the time. I think the 
Sixteenth had but one man killed. Sergeant Westall, a gallant 
young fellow of Company H, Macon County, killed on the 
picket line. We left this place early next morning and passed 
down by Beaver Dam Station to Atlee's Station and spent two 
days as reserve corps. Just four weeks from the time we left 
Orange, we were told that the officers' baggage wagon was 
just in rear near the branch and we could go back for a short 
time and clean up, which we gladly accepted. I had changed 
my clothes on the morning we had gone on picket at Orange, 
but don't think T had had my shoes off since. We had just 
gotten through our toilets when the long roll was beat and 
"fall in, men," was the order, and off we go through heat and 
dust for Cold Harbor. Passing down in rear of Mechanics- 
ville, we met Breckinridge's and Hoke's Divisions on their 
way to join Lee, then on, crossing the bridge at Gaines' Mill, 
which had been burned since we were there in June, 1862, we 
were- soon in front of part of Grant's army drawn up in line 
on the same field where we had killed so many Zouaves 27 
June, 1862. 


There are three ridges which all come together, the Yan- 
kees having possession of the last or outside one, and extend- 
ing their lines up to the junction, then on the left for several 
miles. They also had a line of dismounted cavalry on the 
middle ridge. We turned to the right going down the third 
or inside ridge, and formed in rear of Breckinridge's artil- 
lery; Lane on our left joining Hoke and Breckinridge, Mc- 
Gowan on our right and resting on the Chickahominy. In 
passing down to the right I walked over the place where I saw 
a number of Rutherford boys buried in 1862 — Sloan, Staf- 
ford, Correll and others of Company G; Moore of Company 
D, and George Foster of Polk. 

Soon after our line was formed General Breckinridge gal- 
loped down our front and ordered his artillery to open fire on 
the middle ridge, which was soon cleared and our whole line 

Sixteenth Regiment. 199 

moved forward. On reaching the top of the ridge we saw 
the cavalry dashing out across the bottom in front and into 
the swamp beyond. Lane had quite a fight on his left, also 
Hoke and Breckinridge, bnt all succeeded in clearing the 
ridge. General Lane was severely wounded and some of his 
men killed. About dark it began to rain very hard. The 
writer was ordered to go to the front and relieve the Captain 
of the sharpshooters, as he had been on continuous duty for 
three days and nights. I was directed to go to a light that 
could be seen in front as the place to find the Captain, and 
feeling my way down the hill into the bottom, soon found my- 
self in a ditch ; badly scratched by the briars on the banks, I 
scrambled out and started ahead, finding another, then a third 
ditch, but finally reached the place and relieved the Captain 
and took command of the line, extinguishing the light which 
had been made for my guidance. The next morning, 3 June, 
it had cleared off, and just as day began to appear in the east 
the enemy made a general assault on our left. A part of 
Lane's Brigade and all of Scales', with McGowan's on our 
right, being covered by a dense swamp, were not disturbed and 
had nothing to do but listen and look on for more than two 
hours, the battle raging Avith great fury, the enemy making 
about thirteen assaults with a loss of over 8,000 men killed 
(5,000 by their own coimt). Our loss was very slight, being- 
well protected by works put up during the night. I had my 
position on the road where it entered the swamp and expected 
to be attacked at any moment, biit was undisturbed by any 
force. One Federal Captain came out who said he had de- 
serted, and one or two wounded men who had missed their 
Avay. They were disarmed and sent to the rear. While 
standing there I heard a gim fire in the SAvamp on the right, 
and pretty soon a man came up to me shot through the arm, 
and said a Yankee sharpshooter had shot him. Taking two 
men I went down to the place where he had been and cau- 
tioned them to watch close and keep themselves well covered 
or they would get shot if there was any one there, and went 
back to my post at the road. Some time afterward one of the 
men came up, bringing a blanket full of holes which he said 
he found behind a log, showing that the man had shot him- 

200 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

self. He lost his arm by amputation. About 12 o'clock I 
was relieved, the fight having ceased except the firing of artil- 
lery, and I went back to the line. I found the meadow cov- 
ered with fine strawberries, and I stopped and enjoyed a fine 
feast with the shells flying over my head. On getting up to 
the lines and going up a little way to the left I could see the 
ground in front of the works covered with dead Yankees.* 
Xext day they sent a flag of truce asking leave to remove their 
dead and wounded, and for more than two hours they were 
busy with litters and ambulances getting them off. 

After the repulse of Grant's troops on the 3d, we remained 
in our position undisturbed except by shells and solid shot 
from beyond the swamp. The men would lie down on the 
bank to sleep, but regularly at 12 o'clock a big gun would be 
fired and the shot would come tearing over us, some times 
striking the bank and going through the house just in our 
rear. It was not necessary to give orders to fall in, for the 
boys had already rolled in and there they lay for two hours 
while the firing continried. 


On the morning of 13 June, just eleven days after coming 
to Cold Harbor, orders were received to be ready to march at 
once, and we were soon on the way crossing the Chickahominy 
and passing Seven Pines, we crossed the Nine Mile road and 
took the road to White Oak Swamp and Frazier's farm. 
About 1 p. m., we found the cavalry stopped by the roadside 
in an old field, and we knew that we were close to the enemy. 
Passing the cavalry a short distance we turned to the left of 
the road through the pines and were halted and faced to the 
front, and soon General Wilcox's voice was heard ringing out, 
"Forward march, guide right," and off we moved in line of 
battle. Soon the Federal sharpshooters began to fire at us 
through the pines, the balls whistling by and now and then 
striking down a brave rebel. We drove them through the 
woods and into an old field, and were making a dash to cap- 
ture a rifle gun which had been shelling us, when General 

*It was here that when Grant ordered a second advance not a man in 
his whole army moved. — Ed. 

Sixteenth Regiment. 201 

Wilcox galloped up and ordered us to fall back into the pines 
about one hundred yards, where we formed line. The gun 
mentioned we would have captured in another moment for 
the men had left it, ojaened on us again and got our range so 
accurately that the shells struck our lines at every fire. Our 
men lay flat on the ground but this did not save them, for 
they were being killed and wounded by the dozen, Company 
G losing six in less than that many minutes. I was stand- 
ing with a groiip of officers watching the movement of the en- 
emy, when I was struck by a piece of shell, making a slight 
wound on my right hand, cutting the guard of my sword in 
two and striking me in the stomach, of coiirse knocking me 
speechless. I remember Colonel Stowe taking me by the col- 
lar and pulling me back against a big tree ; the Adjutant got 
a canteen of water and he and the Lieutenant-Colonel worked 
with and rubbed me until I could speak, and a man from 
my own company ran out, picked rae up and started to carry 
•me off when General Scales, who was lying behind a tree fifty 
yards in the rear, called to Stowe and inquired who was 
wounded, telling him to send the man back to his place ; that 
he had a man with him who would attend to me. I was then 
taken up and carried about a mile up the road, where we 
found a doctor and the ambulances, and getting into one I 
was taken back to the field hospital and the next day sent to 
Richmond, where I spent the most miserable six weeks of ray 
life at Winder Hospital, leaving there on Sunday morning, 
31 July, the day after the great mine at Petersburg was blown 
up, and if they had succeeded in cutting the southern road as 
they expected, I would now be resting in Hollywood Ceme- 
tery, for I know I coTild not have lasted many more days at 
Winder Hospital. 

I wish here to ]iay tribute to the memory of a brave man, 
the man who picked me up at Riddle's Shop and who I never 
saw again. Before going into the battle of the Wilderness 
there were twelve men detailed to act as color guard, with 
strict orders not to leave the flag for a moment. My position 
as commander of the sixth company in line would naturally 
be next to the colors. After the opening of the fight at the 
Wilderness I never saw but one of their men, and that was 

202 ISToETH Caeoijna Teoops, 1861-'65. 

Adolphus B. Carson, of Company G, of Rutherford County. 
I could lay my hand on him- at any hour, day or night, during 
the six weeks. The poor fellow died soon after at Peters- 
burg. He joined Company G in March, 1862, at Fredericks- 
burg, and was never absent from the regiment for one hour ex- 
cept from sickness, and had never asked for a pass to go' out- 
side. In February, 1864, 1 had the privilege of giving a fur- 
lough of eighteen days, and I gave it to him. 

On Sunday morning, 31 July, I left Richmond for home, 
reaching there late on Monday, where I remained until Tues- 
day afternoon. Just after being put out of the hack from 
Cherryville and while lying on the hotel porch. Dr. Miller 
passed, and seeing me stopped and invited me home with him, 
but not feeling able to walk I had to decline his kind invita- 
tion. He then said after feeling my hands: "You need a 
stimulant; you must have some brandy," whereupon a now 
very prominent man of Shelby stepped up and said : "I will 
bring him some." He soon returned with a bottle and small 
glass, and poured about two spoonfuls into the glass and I 
drank it. He then informed me that T owed him a dollar, 
which I paid him, and have taken particular pains never to 
speak to him again. 

Leaving Shelby about 2 p. m. Tuesday, we reached Webb's 
Ford about dark to find the bridge undergoing repairs; the 
floor being off, the driver set me afoot and went home. Rev. 
G. M. Webb very kindly gave me a glass of buttermilk and 
loaned me a horse to ride home on, which W. L. Davis prom- 
ised to take care of and return next day. On reaching the 
bridge we found that it coxild not be crossed by horses, but 
Davis hired a man to ford the river with them and we crossed 
on the sleepers. We reached home about 1 p. m., to find the 
town full of people waiting to hear the news from friends in 
the army. 

I remained at home until 3 J^ovember, 1864, reporting 
once at Columbia, S. C, and once at Asheville. I would 
here crave the pardon of the reader for giving so much of my 
own experience, but will say as one of old said of Solomon, 
"The half has not been told." 

On 1 November, 1864, I found the Sixteenth at Battery 

Sixteenth Regiment. 203 

45, on the Boydton Plank road near Petersburg. The regi- 
ment was moved next day nearer the city, just where the Wel- 
don Railroad crossed our lines, and at once went to work erect- 
ing cabins for winter quarters. 


The day after I left the Sixteenth at Riddle's Shop, the 
regiment was marched to Richmond, embarked on the cars 
and rushed to Petersburg, where it arrived just in time to 
meet the advance of Grrant's army in their attempt to capture 
the place. The Sixteenth was in a number of engagements 
during the summer, including the repulse at the celebrated 
mine sprung by Burnside 30 July, and in which he admits 
that his loss in killed was over 6,500. The Sixteenth was en- 
gaged in all the movements of the army round Petersburg 
during the summer on both sides of the Appomattox, but as T 
was absent I am not prepared at this late day to give the de- 

WIKTEE OF 1864-'65. 

Very early in November we commenced building winter 
quarters, going in between the lines and cutting the pine poles 
which grew plentifully in our front. General Lee issued a 
general order that no timber should be cut in rear of the line, 
so all our firewood and cabin material had to be carried across 
a field near a half mile; the distance between the opposing 
lines at this point was more than a mile. An amusing inci- 
dent, showing General Lee's attention to small things, oc- 
curred here in which a member of Company G figured as a 
party of the second part. The- medical department of our 
brigade was located a half mile in rear of our line. John 
Steadman, of Company G, M^as detailed as ambulance driver, 
being disabled by wounds in knee from marching. General 
Lee was riding along in the rear one day and found Steadman 
cutting a pine tree and asked : "What are you cutting that 
tree for?" Steadman answered: "To burn, of course." 
"Don't you know," said the General, "that it is against or- 
ders ? What is your name and command ?" ordering him to 
report to his command under arrest. Steadman grinned and 
thought "that's all right, I'll never hear of it again," but to 

204 JSToRTH Oakolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

his utter surprise the next day an order came from headquar- 
ters to put John Steadman under arrest for cutting trees in 
rear of the line. 

We got our cabins fixed up pretty soon, and then regular 
details were made each day for work and picket. No camp 
guard was kept up. General Lee had an immense dam con- 
structed across a creek that run between Battery 45 and Fort 
Gregg on the opposite hill, there being nothing between the 
two forts. Our men were called on to work on the dam and 
in a mine near our camp. About Christmas this dam was 
completed and the waters stopped, but the dam did not fill for 
two weeks, but when it did fill it was the largest body of fresh 
water I ever saw and completely filled up the line between 
the two forts. Then came a long and hard rain during the 
latter part of the winter which broke the dam and tore up 
everything below, smashed the railroad bridge and the stone 
viaducts of the canal and almost stopped the Appomattox so 
that all our hard work went for nothing. 


Aboiit 1 December the Yankee papers gave an account of a 
Christmas dinner that the people of the United States were 
going to furnish their soldiers. Our papers also had a great 
deal to say. about it, and it was soon suggested that our army 
have a Christmas dinner, and the people of the Soiith were re- 
quested to furnish it. A paper was sent to the company of- 
ficers asking their opinions on the matter. I signed in oppo- 
sition to the dinner, as T had spent the summer in ISTorth and 
South Carolina and thought I understood the condition of 
things there, and the other States were even in a worse condi- 
tion. We were losing territory every day and communication 
from the South was being constantly cut off, and I coiild not 
see how anything could be accomplished to the satisfaction of 
the army. I suggested that if the jDeople had anything to 
spare that they send it to their immediate friends and let them 
enjoy it. I was otit-voted and the dinner was ordered to be 
sent. About two weeks after Christmas we had orders to send 
to the commissary for our Christmas dinner, and when it came 
we got for Company G one drumstick of a turkey, one rib of 

Sixteenth Regiment. 205 

mutton, one slice of roast beef, two biscuits, and a slice of 

So our Christmas dinner was a failure, as I feared it 
would be. 

Early in December, 1864, General Grant made a move to 
the left, known by the men as the "Belfield Eaid." The Six- 
teenth was ordered out and marched just before dark, going 
down the Weldon Eailroad and as far as Belfield, in rain, 
sleet and snow, but before we got there the Yankees under 
Sheridan had been defeated and driven off, and after an ab- 
sence of five days, hard marching but no fighting, the Six- 
teenth was again back at Petersburg in their old quarters, 
where we spent the remainder of the winter. 

The first thing that greeted our sight each morning when 
we opened our dxjors and looked to the front was the Federal 
flag floating high above the timber in our front, and an obser- 
vatory with a lookout on the top overlooking our lines and 
Petersburg. During the winter there were several beautiful 
displays of fireworks on the lines below us, which we enjoyed 
very much, being at a safe distance. We would stand some- 
times half the night watching the mortar shell* flying through 
the air, sometimes bursting in their passage and often appear- 
ing to meet each other in the air. 


On the night of 24 March, General Lee massed a num- 
ber of troops on the left of him and in front -of Fort Stedman 
for the purpose of capturing the fort. The lines at this point 
were about 150 yards apart, the picket lines within fifty yards 
of each other. The pickets were generally captured before 
they suspected anything was wrong, and then a grand dash 
was made at the fort and works around, which were soon cap- 
tured. By this time the Federals were waked up all along 
the line and were moving to recapture the lost ground. There 
was a great stir and commotion among them in our front, and 
we expected them to make a dash at us, but we were not dis- 
turbed — only badly scared. Very soon it was found that 
such a strong force was brought against the place, and that 
all the works captured could be enfiladed from other batteries. 

206 NoHTH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

so the position could not be held, and orders were given to fall 
back, and we lost more men in falling back than in making 
the assault. A great many lay down and were captured — 
and a great many were killed — and not many got back safely 
into our lines. 

On the 26th Grant made a reconnoissance in our front with 
a strong force, by making an attempt to cross over the ground 
that had been covered by the big dam that had been w^ashed 
away a few weeks before. I suppose they were satisfied, as 
they withdrew their troops after a sharp skirmish with Scales' 
Brigade and other troops on the ground. The next day he 
commenced moving troops to his left, and we were ordered to 
march in the same direction. Just as I was packing my traps 
for the move, I was notified that I was to be left with a small 
party from the brigade to keep up a show of fight and take 
care of the property of the brigade. My orders were to keep 
these men in the works all through the day and make as big 
a show and as much noise as we could with the small force 
(about forty) left with me, and not to leave until the Yankees 
were on the works ; but I knew that if we stayed there that 
long we would fee like the Irishman at Bull Run. When 
teased for running at that fight he replied: "Faith, and 
thim that didn't run is there yet." The brigade marched 
out after dark, and I was left alone with 20,000 Yankees in 
front with nothing to do but walk over and take us home with 
them, but they didn't come. The pickets who had been put 
on duty that morning were left and were not relieved for 
three days. The Sixteenth was engaged in all the fights and 
skirmishes from Petersburg to Five Forks on the 31st, where 
more than half the regiment was cut off and captured, the re- 
maining portion making their way with the brigade toward 
Burkeville. On Friday night as I was lying in my cabin 
asleep some one came and knocked, and on my enquiring 
what was wanted answered that they wanted quarters for 
General Cox and his brigade ; that he had been sent there to 
reinforce me. Of course I was glad help was at hand and 
that the responsibility was to be removed from my shoulders 
to that of higher authority. The next morning I found Gen- 
eral W. E. Cox, of ISTorth Carolina, and his brigade on the 

Sixteenth Regiment. 207 

ground. On reporting to him and looking over the ground 
with him, and having our pickets relieved, he insisted that I 
should take my men out of the works in front of our camp 
and take them down on the left of the Weldon Railroad. To 
this mo^^e I objected, as I was acting under orders from Gen- 
eral Wilcox and did not think I had any right to leave. I 
told him that of course I would yield to him and would put 
my men in the works between his, as his were posted at least 
twenty feet apart, but he thought that would cause some con- 
fusion with his men. I told him then that I had a special 
duty to perform and that I v/ould take my own men out of 
the works and retire to the cabins, which I did. I have met 
the General several time since, and he always jokes me about 
not wanting to yield the command to him. Everything re- 
mained quiet in our front during the day, but there was fight- 
ing going on all day on our left about Fort Stedman with ar- 
tillery. About 12 o'clock that night, 1 April, reading the 
Lamp Lighter, I heard a gun fired in front and a shot came 
screaming over our works, and from that time on iintil day- 
light it was kept up making it very uncomfortable for us, but 
doing no damage. 


At daylight Sunday, 2 April, a general advance was made 
all along the line. The ground in front of us was open for 
more than a mile, and we could see thousands of troops march- 
ing across our front in the same direction taken by them in 
their sortie a few days before, showing that they had mapped 
out their course on the former occasion. There was nothing 
to stop them after driving in our pickets, and crossing the 
creek that had been dammed they struck Lane's Brigade, 
breaking their line and passing on to attack Fort Gregg in 
rear of his line and on the hill opposite Battery 45. I stood 
on 45 all day long and watched the operations. A part of 
Lane's brigade had fallen back into it, with some Mississippi 
troops and probably some others. I do not know who was in 
command of the party, but I do know that they made the most 
gallant fight that I ever looked at. Five times I saw the as- 
saulting column form on the hill and charge, and four times 

208 AToBTii Cakolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

they were repulsed, but the fifth and last time they got the 
fort, but nothing else as the artillery had been withdrawn, 
and the fort had been gallantly defended by less than one 
hundred infantry. I could not help thinking how foolish 
they were to sacrifice so many men as I saw fall for the cap- 
ture of a fort that was already cut off, surrounded and would 
have been soon abandoned. I have always thought that the 
reason they did not attack us was on account of a mine that 
had been run from the works of our brigade some two hundred 
yards to the front near a large house. I was sure that they 
had got the location of it from deserters from our lines, and 
I want to say that the only man of the original Company G- 
who ever deserted, had worked all the winter in this mine. 
The fighting and skirmishing was kept up all day, the shells 
fiying around and over us, but doing no harm that I saw. 
Our sharpshooters were being driven in, and before dark they 
had reached the house in front near the mine. All the after- 
noon Colonel Lane, who was in command of the artillery that 
was posted on our line, had been withdrawing his artillery 
and everything looked like a break up. 

The last time I remember seeing Colonel Lane he was gal- 
loping up Halifax street on a little poor sorrel colt with a 
rope bridle, and using a shingle for a whip. In the mean- 
time Longstreet had crossed over the James and had thrown 
his forces between Petersburg and the Appomattox, and was 
holding the only bridge open to us. 

As I stood on 'No. 45 pretty much all day Sunday, 2 April, 
and saw tlie Yankees march across our front, crossing over 
the creek where the big dam had been, and sweep Lane's 
Brigade out of their way and then assault and capture Fort 
Gregg — I felt that everything was lost, on that line at least. 

Everything was in confusion on our lines all day, and we 
expected nothing but that we would be assaulted every 
moment, but were not disturbed except by their artillery 
which kept \\p a fire all day on our lines, I think for the pur- 
pose of seeing if our forces had not been moved OTit. Late 
in the afternoon a wagoner drove up to camp and called to 
me that he had been sent to take the baggage of the officers 
of the Sixteenth. I had just before gone over my kit and 

Sixteenth Regiment. 209 

made a small bundle of my papers and a few things that I 
wanted to save and thought I would carry with me, but to 
relieve myself of a burden I j)ut it all back and loaded every- 
thing in the wagon, which drove off across the railroad, and 
I heard nothing more of it until I reached Farmville. There 
on reaching the Quartermaster's camp on the opposite side o£ 
the river, he found Colonel Ashford, of the Thirty-eighth, 
who had been wounded in the arm, and who made the driver 
throw out our baggage and put in his. I was very much 
disappointed and worried, as I had lost all my private and 
public papers and some very valuable articles, inchiding 
all my clothing except what I had on. 

Colonel Lane, who was in command of the artillery, was a 
son of General Joe Lane, of Oregon, who was a candidate for 
Vice-President on the Breckinridge ticket in 1860. He was 
a good, kind-hearted man. There were some little boys who 
came every day to our camp to beg for something to eat, and 
though rations were scarce, we sometimes had a little we could 
give them. On one occasion a little fellow about four years 
old came along with a sack, and when asked what he had it 
for, said: "I'm going to General Lane's tent; he gives me 
a pint of meal every day. I didn't go yesterday, and he'll 
give me a quart to-day." 


About 10 o'clock that night, or Monday morning, we had 
orders to evacuate the place, which was quietly done. On 
reaching the city we found everything in confusion, hundreds 
of negroes surrounded the commissary department, some roll- 
ing off barrels of flotir, others carrying off hams and every- 
thing they could lay their hands on and get away with. A 
barrel of whiskey had been emptied into the gutter, and as 
we passed we saw an old negro man dipping it up with a tin 
cup and drinking it, jumping up cracking his feet together as 
happy as a lord. We soon left the city and crossed the river 
on the pontoon bridge, and marched on the main road through 
Chesterfield County, between the James and Appomattox. 
After daylight I found that I had lost one of my men, James 
Hoyle, of Company G, and have never heard of him since. 

210 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

He was wounded in the knee and I suppose must have given 
■out in the night and was probably picked up next day by the 
■cavalry, and quite likely died in prison. After some time I 
saw an old man marching ahead of me with a shawl on his 
shoulder, and soon recognized old Dr. Armstrong, who had 
spent the fall and winter in and around our camp, and preach- 
ed to us often. He was an old Presbyterian D. D., and had 
been imprisoned by General Butler when in command of Nor- 
folk, and had been made to sweep the streets with a ball and 
chain on his leg and under a negro guard. When I caught 
up with him and asked him why he was leaving he replied; 
"I never expect to fall into the hands of General Butler again 
if I can help it." He kept up with us till we reached Appo- 
miattox, and I heard some time ago that he was still alive at 
his home in Norfolk. We marched all day Monday and 
Monday night, and Tuesday morning, 4 April, just at day- 
light recrossed the Appomattox, having to wade some distance 
before reaching the bridge, and there we found the remnant 
of the Sixteenth under Colonel Stowe. After resting an 
hour we again took the road and reached Amelia Court House, 
where we spent the night, getting a very small quantity of ra- 
tions, the first since leaving Petersburg. Just as we were 
ready to march the next morning, Wednesday, a courier 
dashed up with the news that the Yankee cavalry was raiding 
our wagon train on another road, and the Sixteenth was 
started at once to drive them away. We found several wagons 
with their wheels cut down and others on fire, the teams all 
gone, the ground strewn wdth officers' trunks all broken open 
and rifled of their contents. While there a gentleman came 
Tip with a small piece of silverware that he had found. He 
said they had robbed his hoiise of everything they could carry 
off, but had dropped that one piece on the road. We followed 
for some distance, but the only Yankee we saw was a cavalry- 
man who was so drunk that he didn't know anything. Some 
one had taken all his outer clothing off, and we left him lying 
in the road as we found him. We found the brigade resting 
about 11 o'clock that night, and early next morning were 
again on the march in the direction of Farmville, which we 

Sixteenth Regiment. 211 

reached on the morning of the 7th, where we found our wagon 
train and I learned of my loss. 


On 7 May, at FarmviJle, we were attacked by a whole corps 
of infantry and one division of cavalry, and after a sharp 
fight the enemy was repulsed with heavy loss, including one 
General. Here, so far as I Imow, the last Federal soldier was 
shot by the Sixteenth. Israel Higgins, of Company G, being 
on the skirmish line, shot an officer off his horse and then 
crawled out to him and got the horse and brought it in, but in 
doing so he was seriously wounded and had to be left in the 
hospital there. After the surrender at Appomattox ]' was 
sent to from division headquarters for his name which I gave. 
Before the enemy could bring up their reinforcements we 
were again met on the march in the direction of Appomattox 
Court House, bu_t in the afternoon we made a stand, formed 
line of battle and got ready to give the enemy a warm wel- 
come. They came in sight, formed line and we expected 
every moment that they would advance on us, but with the 
exception of shelling us a little they did not trouble us. 
After dark Ave again moved off and marched all night and 
day of the Sth, with a short stop or so for rest, and went into 
camp about two miles from the court house. The last time I 
left home a little niece of mine put half a dozen ears of pop- 
corn in my haversack; .1 still had one left, and that was my 
only supper. We each got a pint of meal that night, but too 
late to be baked, so carried it over. 

Early on Sunday morning, 9 April, we were aroused and 
soon on the way, but for some reason unknown to us, our pro- 
gress was very slow. We would march a little way, then stop 
and stand for some time, then move on to be halted again, 
and it being still dark we could not see what was going on 
ahead. We had about 1,500 prisoners, including one General 
of cavalry, and we thought may be they were delaying the 
march. Just as daylight began to appear we heard picket 
firing in front, and as we came nearer the firing became more 
rapid until aboiit sunrise it sounded very much like a general 
engagement. About this time we came in sight of Appomat- 

212 North Cakolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

tox Court House and could see troops engaged on the high 
grounds beyond. Appomattox is just such a town as Euther- 
fordton, the main street running east and west instead of 
north and south, with a large branch at the foot of the hill, 
with the much talked of apple tree in the bottom to the right 
of the road. There is no branch on the south side, but the 
ground rises gradually into a long, high ridge, resembling the 
ridge from Captain Bell's school building to New Hope 
Church and on to the right. 


General Lee had divided his army into two wings after the 
death of A. P. Hill, who was killed on 2 April, near Fort 
Gregg, the Third Corps (Hill's) being attached to Long- 
street's and the Second was under General Ewell; but he, 
with a number of other officers, had been captured the day be- 
fore. That wing of the army was under command of General 
Gordon, who Avas then doing the fighting on the heights south 
of the town. As wo marched down the hill toward the town 
we met two Confederate and one Federal officer coming in a 
gallop, the Federal carrying a white flag, and from his dress 
and long yellow ringlets, I recognized him as General Custer. 
They were tlien on their way to General Longstreet to have 
him stop the march. A very short time after they passed and 
just as the Sixteenth had reached the branch and near the old 
apple tree, an order came to right about march. We imme- 
diately turned and. marched by the left flank a short distance 
and then left the road, going up on just such a place as where 
T. B. Justice's residence stands, were halted and ordered to 
stack arms and rest. A few minutes after we had stopped, as 
I was lying down by a tree in rear of the line, a Confederate 
officer rode down from the woods behind us, and approaching 
me asked why the firing had ceased in front. I told him I 
did not know, but there was a rumor and a suspicion that the 
army was going to stirrender. He asked: "What makes 
you think so ?" I told him what I had seen, and pointing to 
the hill on the opposite side of the road directed his attention 
to the artillery coming off the field. He then asked where 
the Colonel of the regiment was, and on Colonel Stowe being 

Sixteenth Regiment. 213 

pointed out he rode down to where he was, and leaning down 
said something to him that I could not hear, but I heard the 
Colonel say : "No ! ISTo !" He then put spurs to his horse 
and dashed back through the woods and was soon out of sight. 
We soon heard a number of carbines crack and followed by 
the last rebel yell I ever heard — then all was quiet. I learned 
afterwards that it was General Rosser of the cavalry, and he 
with G-eneral Mart Gary, of South Carolina, with a number of 
others, cut their way out and did not surrender. A brother 
of the writer, who was on the hill with the artillery, said he 
never saw a more gallant charge during the war. After get- 
ting through they struck Sheridan's wagon train and burnt 
about five miles of it, and that was stated as one reason why 
they did not give us any rations but kept us there four days 
without a mouthful to eat and sent us away without anything. 
A few hours after we had gone back to the hill General 
Lee rode back from the front, and as he passed the men all 
ran down to the road and surrounded him, everyone trying 
to shake hands with him, many of them in tears. He took off 
his hat and made a little speech in which he said : "Boys, I 
have done the best I could for you. Go home now and if 
you make as good citizens as joxi have soldiers, you will do 
well, and I shall always be proud of you. Goodbye, and God 
bless you all." He seemed so full that he could say no more, 
but with tears in his eyes he gave Traveler the rein and rode 
off in the direction of his headquarters, and that was the last 
we ever saw of him. 


The same day the officers of the different commands were 
ordered to sign the following parole, viz. : 

"We, the undersigned prisoners of war, belonging to the 
Army of JSTorthern Virginia, having this day been surren- 
dered by General E. E. Lee, commanding said army, to Lieu- 
tenant-General Grant, commanding the Armies of the United 
States, do hereby give our solemn parole of honor that we 
will not hereafter serve in the armies of the Confederate 
States, or in any military capacity whatever against the 
United States of America, or render aid to the enemies of 

214 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

the latter until properly exchanged in such manner as shall be 
mutually approved by the respective authorities. 

"Done at Appomattox Court House, Va., this the 9th day 
of April, 1865." 

The above ofScers will not be disturbed by the United 
States authorities as long as they observe their parole and 
the laws in force where they may reside. 

Geo. H. ShabpEj 
General Assistant Provost Marshal. 

Regimental and company officers were ordered to sign the 
following obligation for the men : 

"1, the undersigned commanding officer of , do, for 

the within named prisoners of war belonging to the Army of 
jSTorthern Virginia, who have been this day surrendered by 
General Kobert E. Lee, Confederate Army, comimanding said 
army, to Lieutenant-General Grant, commanding Armies of 
the United States, hereby give my solemn parole of honor, 
that the within named shall not serve in the Armies of the 
Confederate States, or in military or other capacity whatever, 
against the United States of America, or render aid to the en- 
emies of the latter until properly exchanged in such manner 
as shall be mutually approved by the respective authorities. 

"Done at Appomattox Court House, this 9th day of April, 

On the next day, the 10th, the following farewell address 
was issued to the army by General Lee : 

General Order No. 9. Headquarters Army Northern Vir- 
ginia, 10 April, 1865. — After four years of arduous service, 
marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of 
Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelm- 
ing numbers and resources. I need not tell the survivors of 
so many hard fought battles, who have remained steadfast to 
the last, that I have consented to this result from no distrust 
of them, but knowing that valor and devotion could accom- 
plish nothing that would compensate for the loss that would 
attend a contin\iation of the contest, I have determined to 
avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past valor has en- 

Sixteenth Regiment. 215 

deared them to their countrymen. By the terms of the agree- 
ment officers and men can return to their homes and remain 
there until exchanged. You will take with you the satisfac- 
tion that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully 
performed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will ex- 
tend you his blessing and protection. With an increasing 
admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, 
and a grateful remembrance of your kind devotion and gen- 
erous consideration of myself, I bid you an affectionate fare- 

R. E. Lee, General. 

It was arranged that each regimental or battalion com- 
mander should sign paroles for the officers and men under 
them, and accordingly, after waiting four days, on Wednes- 
day, the 12th, Wilcox's Light Division was reached and the 
company commanders were furnished a parole for each man 
surrendered like the following: 

Appomattox 0. H., Virginia, April 10, 1865. — (Paroled 
Prisoner's Pass.)— The bearer, Private F. D. Wood, of Com- 
pany G, Sixteenth North Carolina Troops, a paroled prisoner 
of the Army of IsTorthern Virginia, has permission to go to his 
home and there remain undisturbed. 

W. A. Stowe, 
Colonel Commanding Regiment. 


About 3 o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, the 12th, we 
marched into the main street of the town and marched in be- 
tween two lines of Yankees faced inward, who at order of 
their commander presented arms, which was followed by our 
men. The men then stacked arms and were marched back to 
the place where we came from, and gathering up what few be- 
longings we had left the Light Division formed line for the 
last time and marched out, passing again over the ground 
where we had lately surrendered and out of the town on the 
road to Campbell Court House. There was no demonstration 
of joy or rejoicing when we surrendered or marched through 
the Federal lines, but everything passed off quietly. We saw 

216 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

very few of their officers or men wMle we were there. Major- 
General Gibbon came to onr camp to see his brother, Dr. Gib- 
bon, one of our surgeons. He enquired what troops it was de- 
fended Fort Gregg on Sunday before, and said he had never 
set-n such a gallant defence by so small a party. 

General Sheridan also rode through our camp, but did not 
speak to any one so far as I heard. While we were stacking 
our arms in the street I saw a young lady standing on a ve- 
randa in front of us crying. I wanted to go to her, take her 
in my arms and kiss her, but could not break ranks just then 
— too many Yankees between us. 


Gathering up the company we marched about five miles 
that evening and then stopped in a piece of woods for the 
night, without anything to eat or any prospect for break- 
fast. It rained hard during* the night and we had to take 
it, there being no chance for shelter. Next morning was 
fair and bright when we got up. I called up all the mem- 
bers of Company G and gave each one his parole, telling them 
I thought they had better get away from that crowd as soon 
as possible, as I had fears that they would suffer for food if 
they kept with it, that I expected to take the first road I saw 
leading to the right. There were paroled with me F. D. 
Wood, E. S. Callahan, C. C. Hawkins, Joseph Jay and John 
P. Eaves, of the original company; Jo and Josh Steadman, 
J. A. Justice and W. H. Jay, recruits from Rutherford 
County; J. C. Camp, of Polk, and Isham S. Upchurch, 
Joseph and Elisha Cole of Chatham, and Daniel Boon Dallas 
of Robeson County. We soon came to a road that seemed 
to lead into a mountain on the right. I told the men that I 
was going to take that road, they could go with me or on the 
main road as they chose. Bidding the Chatham men goodbye 
I turned to the right and found that all the Rutherford men 
followed me but three. We soon began to pass farm houses 
and made application for something to eat, but received the 
same answer from all : "Nothing for ourselves ; both armies 
have been in the country for a week and have taken every- 
thing we had." Finally about 12 o'clock, when I was almost 

Sixteenth Regiment. 217 

ready to give up, we came to a large house, and on entering 
the yard we found no white person at home except a young 
lady, and on making our wants known we received the same 
answer. I then asked her if she would allow us to rest a 
short while on the grass near a beautiful spring in the yard. 
Looking through the hall I saw a large map hanging on the 
wall and asked permission to look at it a moment, and while 
examining it she stood near while I pointed out the route we 
wanted to travel. She then said she had some cow peas that 
she would give us if we could use them, and I told her any- 
thing that would sustain life and give us strength to travel 
until we could reach a part of the country that had not been 
overrun by soldiers, would be thankfully received: She then 
went up stairs and brought down a half gallon, which I gave 
to one of the men to cook. One of the party had a little salt, 
the only seasoning we had, and I don't think I ever enjoyed a 
dish of peas more in my life, and again thanking the young 
lady for her kindness, we started on the tramp feeling much 

After leaving the kind young lady who gave us the peas, 
we passed a number of fine merchant mills on the way, but 
could get nothing from any of them, all claiming that their 
grain and flour had been pressed for the army. Every one 
we approached said "if you go to Henry Alexander's you can 
get something." Finding that he lived on the road we were 
traveling, we made for his house, and as we walked up into 
the yard an old gentleman came out and said: "Well, 
how many of you is there along," and being told there was 
fourteen in all, he gave us a shoulder of meat and near a half 
bushel of meal, and one of his daughters went in and came 
back with a lap full of eggs, another with some Irish potatoes 
and other eatables, all most acceptable to a lot of hungry men. 
It being still sometime until night, we took the good things 
given us with many thanks and moved on several miles, stop- 
ping at a house jiist before night and getting our provisions 
cooked we ate a hearty supper and then went to a school house, 
built a fire and went to bed on the floor. The next morn- 
ing after travelling a few miles we stopped on the road and 
ate the remains of Alexander's rations, and then agreed to 

218 North Caeolina Teoops, 1861-'"65. 

travel in smaller parties, as we found it hard. to get food for 
such a large crowd. Captain Joe Mills of Brindletown, Dr. 
R. E. Murphy and John Corn of Polk, with Bill Carson, a 
servant of Joe Mills, took the first left hand road we came to, 
the others keeping the right. After that we had no trouble in 
getting places to stay and food to eat. On Monday, the 17th, 
Tom McEntire and W. T. Wilkins caught up with -us at G. 
W. Napiers, the old tobacco trader, who used to travel 
through this country before the war. After Tom came with 
his fiddle we had a fine time, but I don't suppose the readers 
will be interested in our trip. We passed through Camp- 
bell, Bedford, Henry and Patrick Counties, Virginia, and 
Stokes, Surry, Yadkin, Wilkes, Caldwell, Burke and McDow- 
ell, then home, where we arrived on 27 April. 

Just at the mile post on the Asheville road I met Colonel 
Wash Hardy driving an ambulance, with Mrs. General Polk 
and daughters, on their way to Asheville. Telling them 
that I had heard at Morgan ton that the Yankees had left 
Asheville and gone down into Tennessee, they drove on and 
in a few miles met the Federal General Palmer and 1,500 of 
his bimimers. Learning who the ladies were, they allowed 
Colonel Hardy to go on with them, but made him promise to 
turn over the team and ambulance to a Quartermaster they 
had left at Asheville. 


A few hours after reaching home, while sitting on the 
street talking to some friends, a party of about a dozen Yanks 
rode down the street carrying a white flag. Some of the boys 
who had not had enough of war stopped them and talked 
about capturing the party. The Lieutenant in command 
said they were going to carry a message to some troops below 
to stop taking property, as the war was over, and on the 
strength of that they were allowed to go. The officer in 
charge smiled very blandly as they rode ofl^. They then pro- 
ceeded to cross the branch on the Shelby road, and true to 
habit established themselves as a picket post and caught every 
one who attempted to leave town by that road. One man 
from the coimtry who had come in horseback, saw them pass, 

Sixteenth Kegiment. 219 

ran and jumped on his horse without waiting to put on the 
saddle, and went out of town at full speed, calling to some 
one as he passed to get his saddle. Every one laughed at him 
for being scared, but he was the only one who saved his horse. 
In a very few minutes after this there was at least fifteen 
hundred Yankees in town. A number of citizens who had 
hid out their horses and other valuables, thinking the coast 
was clear had brought them in, only to have everything that 
a Yankee could steal taken from them. While standing on 
the street looking on, a party of officers rode up to the front 
gate of one of our citizens, dismounted and entered the house, 
the family coming down to the gate. I thought I would walk 
up and speak to them. One who, four years later, became 
very near and dear to me, came running down the walk wring- 
ing her hands and crying, and without any welcome to me, 
said: "Do go and tell Settle, Hawes and the others to get 
away with their horses — please go." Not knowing who they 
were, I asked who and where they were. "Oh, McCormack's 
men — Wheeler's Cavalry," was the answer. I afterward 
learned they were a lot of Kentucky cavalry who had strag- 
gled off from the army, and thinking they had found a safe 
place had stopped here and were feeding their horses on the 
public corn and were being feasted and feted by the citizens, 
and soon as the Yankees came took refuge in Mrs. McDowell's 
attic and there remained until General Palmer left next 
day, taking the Blue Grass horses with them but leaving the 
men as not being of any value. 

I have tried in this long and rambling story to do nothing 
but justice to all, and to tell nothing but the truth, though 
I am fully conscious that I have not told the half, so I think 
I had better close without any apology to anyone; the only 
thing I am sorrv for is that it has not been better told. 

G. H. Mills. 

Rtjtheefoedton, N. C, 
9 April, 1901. 


1. W. R. Capehait, Surgeon, C. S. A. 1 

2. Robert H. Brooks, Sergt., Co A, Manly's 

Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.) 

John Springs Davidson, Private, Co.^ C, 

Brcm's Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.) 
Robt. E. Gibson, Private, Co. D., Ramsay's 
Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.) 
5. Jas. N. Thompson, Private, Co. A, Manly's Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.) 



By T. 0. MOORE, First Lieutenant Company I. 

I desire to add the following to the brief sketch of Com- 
pany I, Fourth North Carolina, which is to be found in 
Vol. 1 of this work, at page 582. I have lost my notebook 
of the movements of the battery and must write mostly from 

Company I, Tenth llegiment State Troops, Light Artil- 
lery, was organized in May, 3 861, at Wilmington, with Sam- 
uel R. Bunting as Captain; L. II. Bowden, First Lieutenant; 
D. E. Bunting, Second Lieutenant, and James F. Post, Jun- 
ior Second Lieutenant, and myself as First Sergeant. We 
were ordered into camp at the Marine Hospital for field 
drill; then to the old Oostin House. From there we were 
ordered to Wrightsville and Masonboro Sound as coast guard. 
We remained there until ordered to ISTew Bern 13 March, 

1862, to take part in the fight there. Arrived at Kinston 
and met the troops falling back from New Bern. After that, 
were put on detached service between Kinston and New Bern, 
Washington, Greenville and Trenton. We were engaged in 
the fight at Hobb's Mill. Also in the fight at Gum Swamp, 
near Kinston, imder General Robert Ransom. Then in the 
fight at Deep Gully under General D. H. Hill; then at the 
siege and retaking of Washington, N. C. On 13 December, 

1863, our battery was engaged in the fight at Kinston. It 
lasted to 19th at Goldsboro bridge. 26 Off. Bee. Union and 
Confed. Armies, 113, 807. We had one man killed and four 
wounded, and lost two of our guns in these series of fights. 

We were then ordered to Fort Fisher, where we remained 
(or at Masonboro Sound) till the capture of Fisher 15 Jan- 

222 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

nary, 1865. Captain Southerland was wounded at Sugar 
Loaf. Our battery's conduct in the assaults on Fort Fisher 
is mentioned in 87 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 
1021, 102Jt and 88 ditto 1226. After the fall of Fisher and 
evacuation of Wilmington we retreated to Northeast river. 
On the morning of 23 February, 1865, we had two hours 
fight at jSTortheast railroad bridge. We then made forced 
marches thence to Kinston. After arriving at Kinston, under 
command of General Hoke, we were engaged in his move- 
ment 8 March, 1865, when he got in the rear of General 
Schofield, aboiit 10 or 11 o'clock at night, routing that part 
of his army and capturing about sixteen hundred prison- 
ers. We fell back to Kinston 10 March. From Kinston 
we joined General Joseph E. .Tohnston and were in the 
three days' battle at Bentonville 19-21 March. After that 
fight our battery was in the historic retreat to Greensboro. 
There the battery was surrendered with the army. It was 
commanded at that time by Captain T. J. Southerland; T. 
C. Moore, First Lieutenant; T. J. Ivey, Junior First Lieu- 
tenant; W. W. Freeman, Second Lieutenant; C. 0. Redd, 
Junior Second Lieutenant; Stephen A. Currie, First Ser- 
geant, and reported 70 present for duty. 

Ham, N. C, 

36 April, 1901. 

Battalio/n Histories. 


By the editor. 

The following Battalions, twenty-five in number, continued 
in existence till the close of the war, except the Fourth, Fifth, 
Seventh, Eighth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Fottrteenth, Sixteenth 
and Eighteenth, which were merged into regiments, after 
somewhat lengthy existence as battalions. 

The Sixth, Ninth, Eleventh, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, 
Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty- 
third, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth were not officially so 
styled and are herein thus numbered only for convenience, the 
official designation being given in each case in the sub-head. 

There were also several other battalions not hereinafter 
given whose existence was soon merged into regiments as Sin- 
gletary's Battalion, which became the Twenty-seventh Kegi- 
ment ; Wm. T. Williams' Battalion, which was raised into the 
Thirty-second Kegiment; Rogers' Battalion, later Forty-sev- 
enth Regiment; Evans' Battalion, later Sixty-third Regi- 
ment; Sixth Battalion, which was enlarged and made the 
Sixtieth Regiment. Then there were the eight Reserve Bat- 
talions which were merged into the Seventieth, Seventy-first, 
Seventy-second and Seventy-eighth Regiments, as is related 
in the history of the organization of the reserves and several 
battalions of Senior Reserves were merged into the Seventy- 
third, Seventy-fourth, Seventy-sixth and Seventy-seventh 

There may have been other battalions still which soon lost 
their separate existence in regimental organization. 

Including the "Bethel" Regiment and excluding those nine 
of following battalions which, as stated above, were merged 
into regiments, this State furnished 84 regiments, 16 battal- 
ions and 13 unattached companies, besides the companies and 
individuals from this State serving in commands from other 
States, and nine regiments of Home Guards and the militia 
rendering short tours of duty. 


R W. Wharton, Major. 

R. E. WiJson, Captaiu, Co. A. 

3. James A. Blum, Sergeant, Co. A. 

4. George E. Nisseu, Sergeant, Co. B. 



By R. W. WHARTON, Ma.iok. 

This battalion was organized in April, 1862, and was com- 
posed of two companies from the Twenty-first North Caro- 
lina Regiment. 

That regiment originally had twelve companies. At its 
reorganization in April, 1862, the two commanded, origi- 
nally, by Captains John K. Connally and R. W. Wharton, 
were organized into a battalion, E. W. Wharton with the 
rank of Major commanding. Captain Connally having pre- 
viously resigned, Company A, of the battalion, was com- 
manded by Captain E. E. Wilson, and Company B by Cap- 
tain P. T). Headley. Both companies were organized in May, 
1861, Company A, in Yadkin county, and Company B, in 
Forsyth. Most of the members of the two companies were 
from those two counties, though there were some from the ad- 
joining counties. 

The history of the Twenty-first Regiment, originally the 
Eleventh Volunteers, is the history of the two companies 
composing the battalion during the first year of the war. 
The Twenty-first North Carolina Eegiment, though com- 
posed entirely of North Carolina troops, was organized at 
Danville, Va., in June, 1861, where it remained about three 
weeks, engaged in company and battalion drill. It went 
thence to Eichmond, Va., and stopping there four or five 
days, proceeded by railroad, towards Winchester, Va., to join 

Note. — There was also a First Battalion of Junior Reserves which was 
later merged into the Seventieth Regiment whereupon the Ninth (Mil- 
lard's) Battalion was designated the First Battalion and as such attached 
to the Junior Reserves Brigade. Its story is herein told under the head- 
ing "Twentieth Battalion." There was also a First Battalion of Senior 
Reserves whose career is told later on as the "Twenty first Battalion." 
Moore's Roster gives also the "i^irsi Battalion Heavy Artillery" whose 
career is narrated further on under the heading "Ninth Battalion" and 
the First Battalion of Thomas Legions later Eightieth North Carolina. 


226 NoKTH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

General Joseph E. Johnston. When the regiment arrived 
at Manassas Junction, about sundown, 16 July, it was or- 
dered to remain on board the cars and wait further orders. 


At daybreak next morning it was ordered to leave the train 
and proceed immediately to Mitchell's Ford, on Bull Eun. 
Mitchell's Ford is on the direct road from Manassas Junction 
to Centerville, about half way between the two places, and 
about four miles from each. Centerville lies north of the 
junction, and had been occupied by the enemy under General 
McDowell on the preceding day, and it was expected that he 
would attempt to capture the junction that day, the I7th. 

The regiment reported to Brigadier-General Bonham, at 
Mitchell's Ford, and was posted by him on the extreme left 
of his brigade, about half a mile from the ford. While going 
to this position the regiment was under fire for the first time. 
While passing through an old field, the enemy fired a few shot 
and shell in our direction. Some of the shell exploded quite 
near us, sounding decidedly ugly and causing a general dis- 
position tO' duck one's head. The fight on that day was only 
an artillery duel, with but little damage on either side. No 
one in the Twenty-first was hurt. 

That night the Twenty-first was posted at the ford, occu- 
pying several hundred yards on each side of the same and 
remained in that position up to and during the battle of Sun- 
day, 21 July. Early on the morning of the 21st the enemy 
opened fire on our position with artillery and kept it up for 
several hours. The shot were aimed too high> however, and 
again no one in the regiment was hurt. At first the men 
were quite nervous, but that soon passed off and when later in 
the day the Twenty-first was ordered to march on Centerville, 
a shout went up from one end to the other of the regiment and 
in ten minutes time it had fallen into line, waded the creek 
and was on the Centerville side ready for any service re- 
quired. From some mismanagement, not, however, on the 
part of the commanding officer of the TWenty-first, but of 
the commander of the brigade, nothing was accomplished un- 
der this order. 

First Battalion. 227 

After the battle, the Twenty-first remained in the vicinity 
of Manassas for several weeks, and from bad water and the 
general unhealthiness of the country there was much sick- 
ness among the men and ofiicers. Camp was next moved to 
a point near Groveton on the Manassas Gap Railroad and 
about eight miles west of the junction. The change of camp 
seemed to do no good and in a short time there were between 
seven and eight hundred sick men in camp. Diarrhcea and 
camp fever were the prevailing diseases. During the six or 
seven weeks which the regiment spent in this camp, one hun- 
dred and sixty-four of its members died in camp and neigh- 
boring houses. From some cause the loss of the two compa- 
nies, that afterward formed the battalion, were less than half 
of that of any other two companies in the regiment. From 
here the regiment went to Bull Run Gap, the point where the 
railroad passes through the Bull Run mountains. In the 
latter part of October most of the men, who had survived, 
were again able for service and the regiment then about 800 
strong, moved down to Oenterville, where, for some time, a 
battle seemed imminent. Soon after Christmas the Twenty- 
first went intO' winter quarters on the railroad between Man- 
assas and Bull Run. On 8 March, the Twenty-first, with 
the balance of the army, left Manassas Junction and fell back 
to the south bank of the Rappahannock river. The Twenty- 
first was then a part of Ewell's Division, which remained in 
the vicinity of Rappahannock station until April, when it 
moved back to Gordonsville and from there moved over into 
the Valley of "Virginia and united with the forces under Gen- 
eral Jackson. 


On the march to the Valley of Virginia, the division halted 
for two or three days near Gordonsville. During that halt 
the First Battalion of Sharpshooters was organized, though 
the two companies composing it remained a part of the 
Twenty-first until after the battle on 25 May, 1862. It was 
in that fight the Twenty-first had its real baptism of blood on 
the field of battle. In that fight every third man of the regi- 
ment that went in was killed or wounded in twenty minutes. 

228 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

General Jackson, with Taylor's Brigade of Louisianians, ap- 
proached Winchester by the Valley Pike, while Ewell, with 
Trimble's Brigade, and one or two batteries, approached by 
the plank road from Port Koyal. Shortly before night, on 
the evening of the 24th, Trimble's Brigade, with the Twenty- 
first iTorth Carolina in front, came upon the enemy's picket, 
some three miles out from the town. The picket was soon 
driven in and the troops advanced until they were about a 
mile and a half from Winchester. Soon after dark the writer 
was ordered to proceed with his own and another company to 
a skirt of woods on the left of the road and about a mile from 
town. It was expected that we would find the woods occu- 
pied by the enemy's skirmishers. We were to drive them out 
of the woods and hold the same until further orders. We 
found no one in the woods, but the enemy had left evidence 
of having recently been there. 


At daylight on 25 May, 1862, Colonel Kirkland came up 
with eight co-mpanies of the Twenty-first, ordered the writer 
to call in his two companies and join the regiment and 
immediately proceeded down the road toward town at a 
double-quick. Just at the edge of the town, where the land 
was cut up into small parcels, surrounded by stone walls and 
without any warning a whole brigade of Yankees rose up 
from behind a stone wall on our left and less than seventy- 
five yards from the road on which the regiment was march- 
ing, and poured a deadly fire into our ranks. Colonel Kirk- 
land ordered a charge ; some of the men got to the wall behind 
which the enemy were, but none got over it. We then fell 
back behind a wall that ran along side the road on which we 
had been marching and kept up the fight until the enemy's 
line, which was much longer than ours, extended around on 
our side so as to subject us to a flank as well as front fire. 
The regiment was then moved about a hundred yards to the 
left, in order to protect its right flank and formed with a view 
of making another attack on the enemy's position, but not in 
front of the stone wall this time. Our intention was to make 

First Battalion. 229 

a short detour and get on both sides of the enemy's wall and 
attack them on the flank. 

The men were thoroughly aroused and had no idea of 
giving up the job until they had driven the enemy from its 
position. At this juncture orders came to desist from making 
a further attack, as troops were being sent to the rear of the 
town to intercept the retreat of the enemy. About this time 
Major Fulton, with the two other companies, came up and 
joined the regiment. The Major with two companies had 
been sent out the previous night into another part of the field 
and had not got back when the fight began. We were then 
ordered to protect Latta's battery, which was on a hill not far 
away. The order was given by General Ewell in person, and 
was very emphatic. We were told to go with the battery 
wherever it went and not to leave it under any circumstances. 
In a short time the battery moved off briskly to and through 
the town. We followed at a double-quick. When we 
reached the main street, we found it full of the citizens — old 
men, ladies and children, who had turned out to feed the Con- 
federate soldiers. Some had pitchers of water, others had 
plates and trays of bread and chicken and ham and all kinds 
of good things to eat. As the writer was passing along, a 
very beautiful young girl gave him a glass of water, at the 
same time a fine looking old gentleman seized him by the 
arm, saying come in here, opening a door. I was led 
up to a side board and commanded to take something. 
While I was "taking something" in came the good lady of 
the house with fried chicken and bread. I had no time 
to stop and eat, but taking my hands full of the good things, 
I put out after that battery. We followed it all that 
day. Some times we were in sight of it and some times not. 
On reaching Bunker Hill, twelve miles below Winchester on 
the road to Martinsburg, we decided to halt for the night and 
give the stragglers time to come up. These continued to 
come in for two or three hours and it was noticed that most 
of them had something that was not water in their canteens. 
We were on the road again, next morning, as soon as it was 
light and soon overtook the battery and marched into Mar- 
tinsburg with the battery and Ashby's Cavalry, about 10 

230 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

a. m. In a little more than twenty-four hours we had fought 
a severe battle and marched twenty-two miles in pursuit of 
the enemy. The Twenty-first went into the fight with about 
300 men, the Major and two large companies being absent. 
Of these 104 were killed or wounded. Colonel Kirkland 
was severely wounded early in the fight; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Pepper had wounds from which he died in a few days ; Cap- 
tains Hedgecock and Ligon were killed in the charge on the 
stone wall. While we, with Latta's Battery and Ashby's 
Cavalry, were in hot pursuit of General Banks, we supposed 
that the balance of the brigade was coming on, but more 
leisurely. Finding, however, that it did not come up, we re- 
ported to Colonel Turner Ashby, the ranking officer present 
and who a day or two afterwards was promoted to Brigadier- 
General. Colonel Ashby said he had not expected any in- 
fantry, bvit directed us to go into camp and await further or- 
ders. Next day he informed us that he had received a dis- 
patch from General Ttimble inquiring if we were at Mar- 
tinsburg and stating that it had not been intended that we 
should follow the battery there, but only that we should stay 
by it during the balance of the fight at Winchester. We, 
however, understood and obeyed. the order of General Ewell 
literally and were well repaid for our hard march. We 
found Martinsburg full of sutler's stores that had been hastily 
abandoned. The railroad depot was also crowded with 
choice commissary supplies and hundreds of boxes of nice 
things that had been sent out to the Federal officers and sol- 
diers by their friends at home. Every soldier that wanted a 
box took one. One of them opened his box in the presence of 
the writer. It contained a dozen bottles of claret, at which 
he was much disappointed. After the battle at Winchester 
the two companies that composed the first battalion were de- 
tached from the Twenty-first and became a separate com- 
mand. We remained at Martinsburg five or six days and 
then rejoined the brigade near Winchester. On reaching 
Strasburg, twelve miles southwest of Winchester, we left the 
turnpike and took a road leading in a northwest direction. 
After marching about two miles we encountered the head of 
Fremont's column. Fremont, with 25,000 men, was coming 

First Battalion. 231 

down from northwest Virginia to intercept and capture Jack- 
son with his little army of 14,000 men. Jackson, however, 
as was his custom, got to the right place first. The Con- 
federates were quickly formed into line of battle and after a 
little skirmishing and a big demonstration, were quietly with- 
drawn and reformed in line on the high ridge just west of 
Strasburg, where we remained until after dark. As soon as 
it was fully dark we quietly withdrew and made a rapid 
march in the direction of Woodstock. We marched until 2 
a. m. that night. After that we proceeded up the Valley at 
our leisure and were not molested by the enemy until after 
we left the pike and were on the road to Port Republic. 
Next morning after leaving the pike the enemy's cavalry at- 
tacked our rear which was in charge of General Turner 
Ashby. The attack was quickly repulsed and some prisoners 
captured. The writer saw the prisoners a few minutes after 
their capture. Among them was a large fine looking officer 
of the rank of Colonel and in full Federal uniform. This 
officer proved to be Percy Wyndham, an Englishman and sol- 
dier of fortune, who commanded a brigade of Fremont's Cav- 
alry. After repulsing the attack General Ashby pursued the 
attacking force and made an attack upon it, after it had been 
reinforced by infantry. In this attack he was killed. His 
death was a serious loss to Jackson's command. He was not 
only a gallant and enterprising officer, but also an exceed- 
ingly attractive man. The writer had been under his com- 
mand a short time at Martinsburg and had seen considerable 
of him. 

The next day was Sunday, a bright, balmy, pure day. 
About the middle of the afternoon we halted and went into 
camp near a place called Cross Keys, which was only a cross 
roads and a small church building or school house, about one 
and a half miles from Port Republic. All were glad to have 
a little rest. 


The next day was 8 June. Everything was very quiet in 
camp, during the morning; no marching orders were read 
and the general impression was that we were to have a whole 

232 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

day's rest. This impression did not last long. General 
Trimble ordered the battalion to go back, on the road by 
which we came, about a mile, and tate possession of a skirt 
of woods between two fields, on the right of the road, and 
to hold the same until he came up with the balance of the bri- 
gade. The order was promptly executed and as soon as the 
brigade was in sight, the battalion, deployed as skirmishers, 
was advanced across the field in front. The field was in 
wheat just headed out. The enemy soon made their ap- 
pearance in force. , The skirmishers fell back to the brigade, 
which was quietly lying behind a rail fence, which ran along 
the edge of the field in front. Soon the enemy came up 
briskly, in line of battle, with no skirmishers in advance. 
When they were within sixty or seventy yards of the fence 
the brigade rose up, fired and then charged. The enemy 
broke and fied precipitately to a wood beyond the field, leav- 
ing, however, some 200 dead and wounded. The brigade 
after pursuing a short distance returned to its first position. 
The field in front was only about a third of a mile wide and 
we could plainly see the manceuvers of the enemy, and that 
heavy reinforcements were coming up. Soon they formed 
another line of battle and began tO' advance across the field. 
Our orders were to remain perfectly quiet, withholding our 
fire until they were within short range and then let them have 
it. Unfortunately, however, one man in the Fifteenth Ala- 
bama could not resist the temptation to shoot and fired be- 
fore they had advanced fifty yards and then the whole of the 
regiment fired. The enemy hastily fell back into the woods 
and did not again attempt to advance. Later in the day we 
attacked them simultaneously in front and on their left flank 
and drove them back a mile or more. This ended the fight 
on our right wing. When the fight ended the whole field 
of battle was in our possession and the enemy had been driven 
back fully a. mile and a half. 

That night the battalion was posted in the woods where the 
fight began. The moon shone brightly and I walked out 
where some of the enemy's dead and wounded were still 
lying. As I walked along the wounded would speak to me. 
I could not understand what they said. Finally one of them 

First Battalion. 233 

in broken English said they were asking me to have them re- 
moved to the hospital. They were all Germans and I learned 
that some of them had been in America only a few weeks. 
In a short time the ambulances came up and removed the 
poor fellows who were paying dearly for the greenbacks, for 
which only, they were fighting. 


Early next morning we crossed the river at Port Eepublic, 
the battalion bringing up the rear and being the laat to cross 
the bridge. Two or three hundred yards before reaching the 
bridge we passed a straw stack, when each man was required 
to take up a bunch of straw and drop the same on the bridge. 
After the battalion had crossed the straw was fired and in a 
few minutes the whole bridge was in flames. After the 
bridge had been fired a single Confederate cavalryman came 
up to cross. Seeing the bridge was on fire, he attempted to 
swim his horse across the river, which was fiush and the cur- 
rent strong. In the middle of the river the horse became 
confused and both horse and rider disappeared under the 
water and were seen no more. While this was going on, the 
hard fought and bloody battle of Port Republic was being 
fought — about two miles below the villaga During the 
night General Jackson, leaving General Trimble, with his 
brigade, to face Fremont and retard his advance, had moved 
the greater part of his forces to the south side of the river and 
early in the morning met and defeated GenerarShields, whose 
forces, it was said, amounted to about 12,000. The battle 
was, for a short time, stubborn and very bloody — but was 
over before Trimble's Brigade arrived on the ground, and 
Shields was in full retreat. 

After this we encamped on the Shenandoah, near Weir's 
Cave, and had a much needed rest of about two weeks. Our 
next move was southeastward across the Blue Eidge, through 
Charlottesville and Gordonsville and on towards Eichmond. 


In about six days Ave arrived at Ashland, some sixteen or 
eighteen miles from Eichmond. Next day the seven days' 

234 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

fight conunenced. That night we lay not far in the rear of 
McClellan's right wing. We were near enough to hear the 
report of small arms. The battalion did picket duty that 
night. Next day we soon fell in with the divisions of D. H. 
and A. P. Hill, and when it was known that we were Jack- 
son's troops from the Valley, were greeted with shouts of ap- 
plause. All the roads were full of marching troops. Every 
now and then a shout would be heard in front or rear, and 
pass along the line in our direction. The men would imme- 
diately say that Jackson, or more frequently, "Old Jack," as 
they familiarly and affectionately called him, was coming. 
In a few minutes General Jackson and his staff would pass. 
Jackson's Corps marched in the rear that day and of course 
our progress was slow. About the middle of the afternoon 
we heard firing not very far in our front. General Trimble 
took his brigade, by a short cut, through some fields, and in a 
short time we were on the field of the first battle of Gaines' 
Mill or Cold Harbor. Trimble's Brigade was composed of 
the Fifteenth Alabama, Sixteenth Mississippi, Twenty-first 
Georgia, Twenty-first North Carolina Regiments and the 
First North Carolina Battalion. In this battle the Georgia 
and Alabama Regiments were soon engaged. The Mississip- 
pians and North Carolinians were held in reserve until near 
the close of the fight. Shortly before sundown, an ofiicer 
rode up to General Trimble, who was sitting on his horse 
near where I was and said, "General Trimble, General Lee 
says the enemy have been driven on both flanks, but still 
holds his position in that woods," pointing towards a piece of 
wood-land about a quarter of a mile distant. "He directs 
you tO' drive them from it." We were ordered to charge as 
soon as we came in sight of the enemy. On reaching the 
woods we first went down a steep hill, crossed a branch and 
then up a steep hill. When we got to the top of the hill we 
saw the enemy about 100 yards in front, but there was an- 
other branch between us and them. We immediately raised 
the rebel yell and charged. The enemy fired as soon as we 
came in sight, stood their ground and fired again before we 
got tO' them. When we were within a few yards of them 
they gave way. In this charge a few men in the battalion 

First Battalion. 235 

were wounded, but none killed. Doubtless if we had stopped 
to fire when we came in sight of the enemy, the casualties on 
our side would have been much greater. Just in the rear of 
the captured position were hundreds of standing teats. In 
one of these tents Lieutenant-Colonel Fulton, of the TWenty- 
first North Carolina, found a wounded Federal Lieutenant 
who, upon inquiry, turned out to be a member of a Pennsylva- 
nia Regiment and a distant relative of his. ISText day Gen- 
eral Jackson with his corps marched eastward to a point on 
the Richmond & Yorktown Railroad, to intercept the enemy 
in case he should attempt to retreat by that route. Nothing 
of special interest occurred until about the middle of the af- 
ternoon, when suddenly we heard a tremendous noise up the 
road, which sounded like the near approach of a great storm 
and instantly a train came rushing down the road at a fearful 
speed and pitched into a small creek where a bridge had been 
destroyed, accompanied with an explosion that almost 
knocked men from the saddle a half mile away. The enemy 
had loaded a train, containing a number of box cars, with 
powder, shells and other ammunition, and turned loose the 
engine with a high head of steam on. Nobody on our side 
was hurt. That night we crossed the Ohickahominy on one 
of McClellan's bridges, and joined in the pursuit. The bat- 
talion was at Malvern Hill and under a heavy artillery fire, 
but not closely engaged. It was also at Harrison's landing 
and with the Twenty-first North Carolina occupied the skir- 
mish line nearly two days. 


After the seven days' fight was over the battalion remained 
in the vicinity of Richmond three or four days and was then, 
with the rest of the brigade, hurried back to Gordonsville to 
protect that place from a raid. We encamped near Gor- 
donsville several weeks. The next fight was that of Cedar 
Mountain, in which the battalion participated. It was also 
in Jackson's raid on Manassas Junction and in all the hard 
fighting done by Jackson's troops in the second battle of 
Manassas. The battalion suffered heavily in the latter fight. 

236 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Captain Wilsoii, of Compaiiy A, was severely wounded; 
Lieutenant Owen, of Company B, was killed. Eight or nine 
others were killed and quite a number wounded. The bat- 
talion was also at the capture of Harper's Ferry, and the 
battle of Sharpsburg, sometimes called Antietam. 


The battalion remained in northern Virginia until the mid- 
dle of November and then moved down to Fredericksburg in 
time for the battle of 13 December, 1862. In the beginning 
of that battle our position was in the second line, near Hamil- 
ton's Crossing, on the railroad. We were directly in the rear 
of one of our batteries which was hotly engaged with the en- 
emy, the enemy's shot and shell passing over us, at first fif- 
teen or twenty feet above our heads. Their aim was soon 
lowered and we were compelled to lie flat on the ground to 
avoid being hit. One solid shot passed between the writer 
and the man lying next to him, and the Adjutant of the 
Twenty-first, who was lying a few feet away, was instantly 
killed by a solid shot striking the ground directly under him. 
Under such circumstances the order to advance was a welcome 
one. The enemy had broken our first line in our front. We 
soon drove them back and advanced some distance beyond the 
railroad. This position being much exposed we fell back 
to the railroad cut, in which we remained during the night. 
Many of our dead foes, and among them a General Jackson 
who that day commanded a brigade of Pennsylvanians, called 
Buck Tails, because each man wore a wisp of a buck's tail in 
his cap, were lying near us and some of our men who had 
worn out their shoes in the march from the Valley took the op- 
portunity tO' get a new supply. In this fight the battalion had 
some wounded, but none killed. After the fight was over 
and General Burnside had got back to the north side of the 
river, the battalion with the rest of the brigade went into win- 
ter quarters on the Rappahannock, sixteen miles below Fred- 
ericksburg. At this time our rations were small in quantity 
and poor in quality. Poor beef, corn meal, and flour, and not 
enough of that, constituted the bill of fare. There were thou- 
sands of ducks on the river, almost every day, and it was 

First Battalion. 237 

agreed that Captain Adams, Adjutant-General of the brigade, 
and the writer should make an effort to bag some of them. We 
made the effort and the result was, got ourselves bagged. We 
borrowed a double-barreled shot gun from a man living near 
our camp and went ducking. The river at that point, Port 
Royal, is about 500 yards wide and was picketed on the south 
side by Confederates and on the north by Federal cavalry. 
The pickets did not molest each other nor any one out on the 


While we were out a heavy wind storm came up from 
the south, blowing directly across the river, and in spite of 
all we could do, boat and duck hunters were blown over to 
the north side and picked up by the Yankee pickets. We 
were treated very well, however, by our captors, and were 
sent up to General Burnside and thence to Washington City 
tO' spend the winter in the old Capitol prison. We were 
exchanged and got back tO' the Confederacy in time for the 
next fight, the battle of Chancellorsville. During this fight 
the battalion was in Early's Division and was engaged more 
or less on the skirmish line or in line of battle, from Thurs- 
day morning until the next Monday morning, when the last 
of the enemy, not killed or captured, succeeded in getting 
back to the north side of the Eappahannock. In the Sunday 
evening fight, Early's Division charged and drove the enemy 
from a strong position. General Hoke was severely wounded 
and his brigade suffered severely, especially in officers. In 
the battalion a number of men were wounded, but not killed 


The next move was that which culminated in the battle of 
Gettysburg. General Ewell had assumed command of his 
corps, and, though he had lost a leg at Second Manassas, 
could still mount and ride a horse quite well. At the be- 
ginning of the campaign the battalion was detached from 
Hoke's Brigade — then commanded by Colonel Isaac E, 
Avery, of the Sixth North Carolina, and ordered to report 
directly to General Ewell. 

238 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

The march into and through Pennsylvania was delightful, 
at least until the time when the corps left Oarlisla The 
country was magnificent and full of all needed supplies, ex- 
cept certain articles which our soldiers especially needed, 
such as hats, shoes, etc. These articles had been shipped 
away or concealed so that we did not find them. The writer 
was Military Governor of Carlisle for nearly two days and 
the only thing that he got for governing and taking care of the 
city during that time was one glass of beer. When the corps 
left Carlisle the battalion had orders to wait until all the 
other Confederates were out of the city and then bring up the 
rear. We left just before daybreak and as we were on the 
point of marching, several hundred Federal prisoners were 
turned over to us by our cavalry. The prisoners were Penn- 
sylvania militia that had been called out to repel our inva- 
sion. What to do with them was the question. I had no 
idea of being incumbered with such a large lot of inoffensive 
people. The late Colonel D. M. Carter, then a member of 
the military court of Swell's Corps, who was with me, con- 
cluded that the best thing to do was to parole them and let 
them go home. After some trouble we got them into a long 
line, single file, and requiring every man to hold up his right 
hand, administered to them, en masse an oath that they would 
not take up any arms against the Confederacy again until 
they had been regularly exchanged. They evidently took 
the oath willingly. The streets of Carlisle were macada- 
mized and consequently were full of small pebbles and stones. 
The moon was shining brightly and I observed that the pris- 
oners moved about very gingerly, but did not know the cause 
until happening to look down I saw that the last one of them 
was barefooted. The scene was extremely ludicrous. The 
battalion had nothing to do with the matter. The prisoners 
were just as we received them. Possibly they exchanged 
their shoes for tobacco, as was sometimes done down in Vir- 
ginia, or possibly their captors may have taken their shoes 
from them, as a punishment for sending out of our reach all 
the shoes that should have been in the stores. From Carlisle 
we marched in the direction of Gettysburg and when near 
that place the battalion was ordered by General Ewell, to 

First Battalion. 239 

Cashtown, a small village some three miles from Gettysburg, 
to guard his train and protect it from Federal cavalry. ISText 
day the train was moved tO' the right and to a point immedi- 
ately in the rear of Longstreet's Corps. On the morning of 
3 July, hearing that there was Federal cavalry a short dis- 
tance in our rear, Colonel D. M. Carter and the writer rode 
back a mile or two to reconnoiter. We found that the cav- 
alry had been in the vicinity, but were gone. Returning, and 
just as we reached the top of a high hill and about a mile and 
a half in rear of our army, the artillery iire of that day 
opened. In a few minutes a large number of guns were at 
work. It was reported that about 140 guns on each side were 
firing at the same time. The scene was grand as well as ter- 
rible and was far beyond anything that I had witnessed be- 
fore, though I was at Malvern Hill and most of the other great 
battles in Virginia. We sat on our horses for some time and 
witnessed the terrible conflict. Afterwards, when the in- 
fantry got to work, we went up into the immediate rear of 
the fight, where the wounded were being collected. It had 
then begun to rain and for most of the wounded there was no 


Next morning, 4 July, General Ewell ordered the battalion 
to escort his train back to Williamsport, on the Potomac, and 
sent a company of Alabamians, commanded by a Lieutenant, 
and containing about thirty men, to reinforce it. The Ala- 
bamians were placed in front, and the battalion brought up 
the rear. The train contained more than a hundred wagons 
and ambulances, and when strung out on the road extended 
over several miles. Our route, after passing through a valley 
for several miles, led up a mountain side by a narrow, rough 
road to the Gettysburg and Hagerstown turnpike. Soon 
after we started an exceedingly heavy rain fell which ren- 
dered travel slow and difficult. 

At the junction of our road with the pike a considerable 
force of our cavalry had been previously stationed, as an at- 
tack on that point by the enemy's cavalry was apprehended. 
During the afternoon we occasionally heard a few shots on 

240 North Carolina Troops, ]861-'65. 

top of the mountain, and as night approached the firing be^ 
came frequent. We also learned from couriers who came 
down the mountain that a heavy force of Federal cavalry was 
threatening that position. With the battalion were a few 
Federal prisoners, and also forty or fifty Confederates under 
arrest for various minor offences during the campaign. In 
addition to these were four Confederate under sentence of 
death for desertion, and were under a separate guard. Just 
before night I released and armed all the Confederate pris- 
oners except the four under sentence, and ordered them to 
fall in with the battalion, telling them if they behaved well 
that night I would report the same in their behalf. After 
nightfall the firing on top of the mountain greatly increased. 
Taking the battalion and the men who had just been released 
from arrest, I proceeded up the mountain, halting the train 
as I passed, to the assistance of our friends at the junction of 
our road with the pike. Before reaching the point the firing 
became very heavy for a few minutes and then ceased and 
was followed by the huzzas of the enemy. By this we knew 
the position had been captured by them and that they would 
break into< that part of the train that had passed .that point. 
We went ahead as fast as we could and as we came near found 
the enemy had placed a cannon in the road by which we were 
approaching and were firing grape shot down the same every 
few minutes. Fortunately, the road made a sharp turn, 
about 100 yards from the gun and the shot did not sweep the 
road beyond that point. After a sharp engagement we cap- 
tured the position together with fifteen or twenty prisoners. 
Among the prisoners was an elderly gentleman named Mitch- 
ell, who was army correspondent of the ISTew York Herald. 
We also captured the colored servant of General Kilpatrick 
and- three of the general's saddle horses. The enemy cap- 
turned and carried off a few of our wagons and ambulances 
and doubtless, but for our timely arrival and attack, would 
have destroyed a large part of the train. The Confederates, 
that I had released and armed a few hours before, behaved 
well and a number of them, who belonged to the cavalry, 
mounted themselves on horses captured that night. 

A very remarkable thing occurred next morning in rear of 

First Battalion. 241 

the train. While the battalion was engaged in the fight, 
some Confederate cavalry that arrived at the point of attack 
at the same time as the battalion, stampeded and rushing 
down the mountain in great disorder completely dispersed the 
guards in charge of the prisoners in rear of the train. It 
was a very dark and rainy night. They were in a dense 
woods. It was impossible to recognize any one and no at- 
tempt was made to collect the prisoners until next morning. 
After daylight three of the Confederate soldiers that were 
under sentence of death, reported to the officer of the guard 
and all the Federal prisoners were found near by. Of course 
after that the three Confederates were pardoned. 

We remained on the north side of the Potomac, near Wil- 
liamsport, about a week and then returned to Virginia with 
the rest of the army. A few weeks thereafter the battalion 
was sent back to its old brigade, again commanded by General 
R. F. Hoke, who' had recovered from the wound received in 
the battle of Chancellorsville. 


Nothing of special interest occurred in Virginia in the 
fall of 1863. In February, 1864, the battalion was in the 
New Bern expedition tinder General Pickett. In an attempt 
to capture the bridge across Batchelor's creek, near New 
Bern, by a detail of twenty men under Captain John A. 
Cooper, now a resident of Statesville, N. C, three men were 
killed outright on the bridge and a number severely wounded. ' 
Among the killed was Henry N. Welsh, who deserves special 
notice. He was a native of Davidson county and one of the 
original members of Company B. When he volunteered he 
was a delicate looking young man and it was not thought that 
he would be able to stand the service long. After an attack 
of fever the first summer he enjoyed good health and was 
conspicuous for the fidelity and promptness with which he 
discharged all his duties. When a detail was called for, on 
service considered especially dangerous, he was the first or 
among the first to step out. He had been in the service from 
first Manassas to this time, February, 1864, and had never 
had a furlough, but under the furlough system of the Army 


242 North Carolina Troops, 1861 -'65. 

of JSFortliern Virginia was then entitled to one, but had de^ 
f erred taking it until this expedition was over. He was shot 
in the head and instantly killed on the bridge across Bachel- 
or's creek. We sent the lifeless body of this youngest child 
and darling home to loving parents. His noble and gallant 
spirit had received a furlough for all eternity. 

The battalion remained in !N"orth Carolina the balance of 
the winter aud spring of 1864, and was in the expedition un- 
der General Hoke, which captured Plymouth, N. C 

In January, 1864, the writer was appointed, by Grovemor 
Vance, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixty-sevemth Regiment, 
Iforth Carolina State Troops, which position he assumed in 
^February after the N&w Bern expedition. He is, conse- 
quently, unable to give a detailed account of the services of 
the battalion after that date. 


The battalion returned to Virginia and participated in the 
defense of Petersburg, being attached to General Robert D. 
Johnston's Brigade, Early's Division, 96 Official Records 
Union and Confederate Armies, pp. 1180 and 1270. It sur- 
rendered at Appomattox with that division, the battalion 
being then commanded by Lieutenant R. W. Woodruff. 95 
Official Records Union and Confederate Armies, p. 1270. 
In one of the last engagements near Petersburg, Captain 
R. E. Wilson lost a leg ; Lieutenant C. A. Shultz lost an arm 
•and Lieutenant W. L. Masten was killed. 

During the last six months of the war Captain John A. 
Cooper served on the staff of General R. F. Hoke. 

I learn from a statement sent me by Mr. T. B. Douthit, of 
Salem, who was one of the original members of Company B, 
and served through the entire war, that in that company 
eleven men were killed outright in battle, eighteen were 
severely wounded, some of them entirely disabled for further 
service, and seventeen died of disease. I have no informa- 
tion of the exact number of casualties in Company A, but 
presume that they were about the same as in the other com- 

RuFus W. Wharton. 
Washington, N. 0., 

9 April, 1901. 


1. ^VhartoIl J. Green, Ijeut.-Colonel. 2. Frank Patterson, Surgeon. 

3. H. T. Bahnson, Hospital Steward. 


By WHARTON J. GREEN, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In the first days of April, 1861, the telegraph left no room 
for doubt that the United States Government was resolved to 
try to revictual Fort Snmpter then beleaguered by the young 
Government just springing into being. 

Each fully realized that this meant war. The next train 
carried the writer to Charleston as a would-be volunteer 
gunner, anxious to see the beginning of what he deemed the 
inevitable struggle and indeed no wise loth to see it begin. 
In this he was disappointed, as orders had just been issued 
forbidding any additional recruits into the batteries. He 
heard, however, the opening gun of the mighty drama to fol- 
low, and a day later the final one which preceded the surren- 
der of this almost impregnable fortress, as subsequent events 
proved it to be, when beseiged and besiegers were reversed. 
It was a dramatic sight replete with patriotic enthusiasm, 
even as witnessed from the city "Battery. A thrilling one 
when "the old flag" was hauled down in token of evacuation 
and "the new one" run up. With hu.ndreds of others our lit- 
tle boat was just below the walls when it was done, an explo- 
sion of cartridges killing three of the garrison while saluting 
the first. 

A few days later my company, that is the one in which I 
was an enrolled private, was in camp at the State Capital. 
The very first I think to go into the camp of instruction there 
was the "Warren Guards," Captain Ben. Wade, certainly 
one of the first three. After a short space of preliminary 
drill it was assigned to the Twelfth Regiment, Colonel Sol. 

Note. — There were two other Second Battalions, one of Junior Reserves, 
commanded by Major J. H. Anderson which was merged into the Sev- 
enty-First Regiment and the other of Senior Keserves, hereinafter num- 
bered Twenty-Second Battalion.— Ed. 

244 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Williams, which organized at Grarysburg and was ordered 
first to Richmond, thence to JSTorf oik. 

While in camp there Ex-Governor Wise, then a Brigadier- 
General, sent me unsolicited on my part, authority tO' raise a 
regiment and join his command, known as the Wise Legion, 
Governor John W. Ellis gave me an order for some six hun- 
dred Enfield rifles, the only ones at the State's disposal. Un- 
fortunately, however, before all my companies could reach 
the camp of formation and requisition be made for the guns, 
this glorious son of ISTorth Carolina had breathed his last, and 
his successor revoked the order and gave the guns to another. 
The Legislature thereupon voted fifty thousand dollars to 
arm^ and equip my command. Ordinarily such a sum would 
have far more than sufiiced, but in those days weapons of ap- 
proved pattern were above money and above price, simply 
because they were not to be had. Luckily my command waa 
composed of the right sort of men, and not over fastidious as 
to outfit. Though cheated of our "Enfields," to the front we 
would go with squirrel substitutes and double barrel shot guns 
of divers calibre. Every man was afraid that he could not get 
a hand before the game would be ended. And so these honest 
workmen took the best tools that they could get, and there was 
no grumbling. We all expected better after our first fair field 
and an honest fight. Fortunately our uncouth armament 
was supplemented by some 350 old flint lock muskets which 
Governor Letcher, of Virginia, generously turned over to us, 
because his folks would not touch such tools. After being 
percussioned by the Government, they made very respectable 
killing implements, especially when each double barrel man 
carried beside a two foot carving knife of the heft of a meat 
axe in lieu of bayonet. 


On 12 December, 1861, was ordered to Wilmington and re- 
ported to General Joseph R. Anderson, commanding the De- 
partment of North Carolina. By him was assigned to the 
duty of guarding the coast above and below Masonboro 
Sound, some seven miles to the east of that city. We con- 
tinued in the discharge of that duty until 30 January, 1862, 

Second Battalion. 245 

when I was ordered by General Cooper, Adjutant and Inspec- 
tor General, to proceed at once to Eoanoke Island, then threat- 
ened by the Federal force under General Bumside. At this 
time the Second North Carolina Battalion consisted of the 
following eight companies, averaging about eighty-five men to 
the company. The two other companies necessary to a regi- 
ment, had not reported. 

(Owing to the loss of my papers when captured, necessity 
frequently compels the use of proximates.) 


Wharton J. Geeen, Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding. 

Marcus Eewin, Major. 

Dr. Frank Patterson^ Surgeon. 

Dr. Samuel Young^ Assistant Surgeon. 

— . — . McJSTuTT^ Adjutant. 

Captain A. H. Shuford, Quartermaster and Commissary. 

Kev. H. E. BrookSj Chaplain. 

Company A — Madison County, N. G. — Captain, S. F. 
Allen ; Lieutenants, Van Brown, Condell. 

Company B- — Stokes County, N. C. — Captain, Milton 
Smith; Lieutenants, J. B. Tucker, N. G. Smith, Edwin 

Company C — Mechlenhurg, County, Va. — Captain, E. C. 
Overby; Lieutenants, B. P. Williamson, Henry S. Wood, B. 
R. Williamson. 

Company D — Pike County, Ga. — Captain, Edward 
Smith ; Lieutenants, W. H. McClue, R. M. Julian, David T. 

Company E. — Meriwether County, Ga. — Captain, Du 
Bose ; Lieutenants, J. J. Tucker, W. J. Hudson, J. E". Lee. 

Company F — Randolph County, N. C. — Captain, T. W. 
Andrews; Lieutenants, John M. Hancock, Z. J. Williams. 

Company G' — Forsyth County, N. C. — Captain, W. H. 
Wheeler; Lieutenants, J. S. Swain, H. C. Wheeler, R. Gor- 

Company H — Surry County, N. C. — Captain, D. M. 
Cooper; Lieutenants, L. J. ISTorman, J. Sayars, J. Gordon. 

As has been said above, the order from the War Depart- 
ment to proceed to Roanoke Island (the only one under which 

246 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

I could venture to move), reached me on the evening of 30 
January. Some ten or twelve days anterior thereto, however, 
the following order was received from General Wise to the 
same eiTect: 

Norfolk^ Va., 15 January, 1862. 
Lieutenant-Colonel W. J. Green, Commanding, Etc. : 

Sie: — You will as early as practicable, move your whole 
force from Wilmington, JST. C, to ISTorfolk, Va., and there re- 
port to General Huger for transportation to Koanoke Island. 
Bring with your men all the outfit which you can procure at 
Wilmington, and make requisition at Norfolk for deficien- 
cies. Prompt movement is necessary, as the enemy are near 
in large force. 

Heney a. Wise^ 

I waited at once on General Anderson and asked for per- 
mission to start the next day. This he peremptorily refused, 
threatening arrest if the attempt was made. "You are un- 
der my command," he said, "by order of General Cooper, and 
no less authority is going to take you away from here." 

He, however, consented that Major Erwin might to to 
Richmond and lay the matter before the Secretary of War 
for final arbitrament. The Major carried request from me 
to obey General Wise's order, and protest against it from 
General Anderson. 

After the interval stated, and after General Wise had writ- 
ten the Secretary of War under date of 26 January, "Please 
order the forces of my Legion under Colonel Green, at Wil- 
mington, N. C, * * * to be forwarded to me," the de- 
sired permission (order) arrived. 

Within the shortest possible time that transportation could 
be obtained, about thirty-six hours after receipt of order, we 
went on our way to destination. On reaching Norfolk, was 
again detained two or three days, needlessly, awaiting water 
transportation, starting on 5 February. 


The sequel is sufficiently set forth in my report of oper- 
ations of the next three days ensuing, of date of 18 February, 

Second Battalion. 247 

herewith reproduced from Official Records, Vol. 9, Series 1, 
to which should be added that this command was the only 
one under arms outside of the water batteries at the time of 
the surrender. 

Am thus explicit in details concerning this first great dis- 
aster to the Confederate cause in order to refute the unjust 
insinuations of General Wise that I was needlessly dilatory 
in starting from Wilmington in obedience to his orders. In 
plain words that those issued direct from the War Office were 
not subordinate tO' his. The absurdity of the assumption is 
not deserving of comment. If any were needed, it is sup- 
plied in the report of the Congressional Investigating Com- 
mittee. General Wise's absence from the island, and pres- 
ence on the mainland during the entire fighting, shoiild have 
made him more cautious in his reflections, not only in this 
case, but as to almost every other regimental commander there 
present. It grieves to say as much of one who had presump- 
tively done a favor. A brilliant talker, a fiery orator, a 
pungent writer, and withal a patriot, all this he was, but like 
some other political generals, a very indifferent soldier. 

Querulous with superiors, captious tO' equals, insolent to 
subordinates, and opinionated in the superlative degree, 
he was totally unfitted for command at a most important point 
and at a most critical juncture. Had this not been said in 
effect before the Investigating Co^mmittee relative to the fall 
of Roanoke Island, and in refutal of the baseless aspersion 
above referred to, it probably would not here appear. !N"o 
less is due to my gallant command as well as to myself in the 
proposed embodiment of historic regimental sketches of the 
various commands of our State. Immediately after ex- 
change the Second Battalion was upon my application trans- 
ferred to the brigade of that superb soldier, Junius Daniel, 
which after his death at Spottsylvania, was commanded by 
his worthy successor. General Bryan Grimes. 

Recurring to report alluded to, let it be premised that the 
Second Battalion was most needlessly inchided in the list of 
prisoners that day. After the fall back of the troops engaged 
and the resolve to surrender, an official order to re-embark and 
strike for the mainland would have saved every man in it. 

248 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Report of Lieutenant-Colonel Wharton J. Green, Second 
North Carolina Battalion: 

OiNT Board Steamee S. K. SpAULDiiirG^ 

Off Roanoke Island, N. C, 

February 18, 1862. 

SiK : — I herewitli submit a report of tbe skirmish in which 
my battalion (Second North Carolina) was engaged on Sat- 
urday, the 8th instant: 

In obedience to orders from Adjutant-General Cooper, re- 
ceived on the evening of 30 January, I struck camp in the 
vicinity of Wilmington on the morning of the 1st instant, and 
proceeded hither with all possible dispatch. Owing to the 
want of transports, we were detained two days and upward 
in Norfolk, leaving that place on Wednesday, the 5th instant, 
in tow of the canal tug boat White. 

On Friday when about thirty miles distant from the 
Island, continued discharges of artillery informed us of the 
progress of a fight between the Federal fleet and Confederate 
batteries. Being entirely ignorant of the topography of the 
Island, and not knowing where or to whom to report, I left 
our transports about twenty miles hence and came on in the 
steamer for information. Having obtained which, I re- 
turned to my men and crowded them on the smallest number 
of transports that would contain them, and then started. 
The night was very dark and stormy, with the wind against 
us, conseqiiently our progress was slow. 

After beating about until midnight our pilot declared that 
he had lost his reckoning, and as we had only a fathom and a 
half of water, thought it safer to wait for daylight. 

About 2 a. m. Saturday, a number of Confederate gunboats 
passed us from the direction of the island, one of them run- 
ning into the schooner Beauregard (one of our transports) 
and seriously injuring her. In reply to our challenge and 
statement of our condition, all the answer we could get was 

that one of the boats was the Beaufort, the other the . 

Had they stopped in their flight long enough to exchange 
pilots with us, or even to give ours the necessary instructions 
as to his course, my battalion would have reached the island 
in time to have participated in the entire action. 

Second Battalion. 249 

Failing to do so, it was 10 a. m. when we reached the island 
and 12 o'clock before the men, arms and ammunition could 
be got on shore, owing to their having to be taken on lighters. 
Having distributed all of my ammunition, I started for the 
scene of action, but soon met scores of stragglers, who re- 
ported everything lost and the Confederate forces entirely 

Notwithstanding these discouraging reports, my men kept 
in good spirits and pressed on with animation. On reach- 
ing jonr camp, and having the worst reports confirmed, T 
called upon you for orders, and was told to proceed to a point 
some mile or two distant, under the guidance of Major Wil- 
liamson, and take position. 

After proceeding about half a mile we came suddenly upon 
a Federal regiment, which I have since learned was the Twen- 
ty-first Massachusetts. The two advanced companies of the 
respective commands were about seventy-five paces apart, I 
being some twenty paces in advance of mine. 1 gave the 
command, "By company into line," when the officer in com- 
mand of the Federal regiment threw up his hand and cried 
out: "Stop, stop. Colonel; don't fire; you are mistaken!" 
Believing it to be a trick, I repeated my command. There^ 
upon the Federal officer gave the command, "Fire." My 
advanced companies returned the fire, firing at will after the 
first volley. Finding that there was some confusion, and not 
knowing the ground, I soon became satisfied that I could not 
form my men in line of battle to any advantage on the ground 
that they then occupied, so I ordered them to fall back a short 
distance and form behind the log houses occupied by Colonel 
Jordan's Regiment as quarters. This they did in good order. 
1'he Federals fell back immediately after. Immediately 
after forming behind the houses, Lieutenant-Colonel Fowle, 
of the Thirty-first North Carolina, passed by with a white 
flag, and stated that a surrender had been determined upon. 

My loss was three men killed and five wounded, two of 
whom have since died. I am happy to be able to report fa- 
vorably of the action of both officers and men. The enemy's 
loss, as I learned from themselves, was between twenty and 

250 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

thirty. I inarched my entire command, with very few ex- 
ceptions, in good order back to your camp. 
I am sir, very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

Whaktobt J. Grebw, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Second North Carolina Battalion. 

To Colonel TI. M. Shaw. 

In my report to Colonel Shaw should have been stated 
the fact that I strenuously protested against surrender 
without a further effort to- resume our original lines, pledg- 
ing my command to hold the enemy's advance in check a rea- 
sonable time if he would come to our assistance with the 
other troops. This I certainly understood him to prO'mise to 
do. A mistaken sense of courtesy or delicacy to the officer in 
immediate command to whom report was submitted, forbade 
its insertion at the time. Sure I am that the survivors of the 
gallant gentlemen who were present at that interview, and 
there were many, will vouch to the accuracy of the statement. 
The Second North Carolina. Battalion, was in uribroJcen line 
of battle with the enemy advancing in full force, but hoping 
reinforcements, when the white flag of surrender passed. 
In reply to my expressed purpose to double quick it back 
to the transports with an eye to escape, the answer came, 
"This island and all upon it has been surrendered. You will 
make the attempt on your peril of breach of terms." 

A little incident of juvenile heroism surpassing that of 
"the boy on the burning deck," may not be out of place. 
Whilst awaiting the enemy in force, a little lad scarcely mid- 
way in his teens, walked down the front of the line, his right 
arm dangling at his side but still clutching his trusty double- 
barrel with his left. 

"Colonel," he said, "they have broken my arm. Can I go 
to the rear and let Dr. Patterson look after it ?" 

There was no more perturbation in his voice than if he had 
been asking or answering a question on parade. There was 
incipient hero there, and would that I knew him to-day. I'll 
stake my life that that boy has never proved recreant to past 
manhood duty, or gone back on early promise then made. 

Second Battalion. 251 

A few days after the surrender, we were transferred to the 
steamer S. E. Spaulding with Fort Warren as objective 
point. But 'through the efforts of General Bumside, who 
impressed us then with his courtesy and soldierly treatment, 
as he did those who knew him after the war, imprisonment 
was changed into parole. Fortunately for the Confederacy 
later on, his reach of requisite for the chief command to 
which he was assigned against the greatest soldier of his age, 
fell something short. But better far than the reputation of 
a second-class commander, he bore "the grand old name of 
gentleman." The writer is thus pleased to- acknowledge 
more than one civility received at his hands, including an ex- 
change of body servants, his and mine, the first being then 
confined at Kichmond. Mine, Guilford Christmas, was with 
me before and during the war and has been with me ever 
since, a faithful servant and a true friend, once exchanged as 
said, and later escaping after a second capture. Had not 
racial interdict precluded his enlistment, the Confederacy 
would have had few more devoted servants, for his heart was 
in it. 

The disparity of force in this, the second great battle of 
the war, was too' great to admit of hope for the weaker after 
the other side had secured a foothold. Colonel Shaw gives 
his entire available force exclusive of those in the water bat- 
teries at 1,434, rank and file, previous tO' the arrival of my 
own and Major Fry's commands. Loss 23 killed, 58 
wounded and 62 missing. General Burnside puts his, not 
counting the gunboats, at 12,829, loss 264. To make the dis- 
parity the greater they were commanded by educated soldiers 
like Burnside, Foster, Parke and Reno. That inequality 
was a little too much so, even in those early days, when to- 
paraphrase Harry of England, some did "think upon one 
pair of Soutliern legs did march five Yankees." 

Later on, and after better acquaintance, few objected to 
having the carrying capacity of those locomotors reduced to 
three or even twO' blue coats. 

Eight or ten to one, was out of all reason. On 21 Febru- 
ary the battalion was paroled at Elizabeth City. We were 

252 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

exchanged on 18 August, 1862, and ordered to rendezvous at 
Drewry's Bluff. 


Whilst in camp there and attached to Colonel (later Gen- 
eral) Daniel's Brigade, a petition was set afoot looking to a 
reorganization. Although opposed to it on principle as cal- 
culated to' introduce politics into camp, and although from 
the peculiar constitution of this command, it could have been 
avoided, nevertheless when it became obvious that such was 
the desire of a number of the officers, no obstruction was inter- 
posed on my part. In the reorganization 35 September, I 
was superceded as commanding officer by Captain W. H. 
Wheeler, who, however, resigned a few days thereafter, where- 
upon Captain Charles E. Shober, of the Forty-fifth Regi- 
ment, was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain PI. L. An- 
drews Major, later promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
killed at Gettysburg. A. W. Green was appointed Adjutant, 
and Captain D. M. Cooper, A. Q. M. Company C was soon 
thereafter transferred to a Virginia command. At the time 
the Second Battalion was attached to this superb brigade, it 
was composed of the Thirty-second, Forty-third, Forty-fifth 
and Fifty-third Regiments, which continued intact until the 
end of the war. 

Shortly after, about 1 January, 1863, the brigade was or- 
dered to Goldsboro, IST. C, in anticipation of a forward move 
by the enemy. I went there at ouce to volunteer, but was 
told by General Daniel that I would be enrolled on his staff 
as a supernumerary or volunteer aide, until something in the 
line should turn up. Thence shortly after, the brigade was 
ordered to Kinston where it remained until 17 May, 1863, 
when it was moved upon the Rappahannock. 


Whilst in camp at Kinston we were, by General D. H. 
Hill's orders,, moved down the right side of the ISTeuse, Pet- 
tigrew's Brigade keeping abreast on the other with the object 
in view of taking ISTew Bern by surprise. Daniel's advance 
after reaching a point contiguous to that place was subject to 
gun signal from the co-operating column upon capture of 

Second Battalion. 253 

the gunboats on that side of the river. These, however, got 
up steam in time to prevent capture, and so the attempt fell 

General Hill next attempted the capture of Washington, 
which was represented as being short of provisions and sup- 
plies. A battery, Fort Hill, was planted below the town to 
prevent relief by the gunboats. Whilst here Generals HiU, 
Daniel, Robertson and myself rode over to the fort to take in 
the situation. The gunboats were anchored some two or 
three miles off, just out of reach of our pop-guns and had 
kept up an incessant fusillade on the garrison for a day or two 
previous without doing any harm. Before, however, we 
had been in there fifteen minutes, I was knocked down by a 
ten pound piece of shell. 


Soon after this the brigade was ordered to Virginia, and 
on arrival was assigned to Major-General E. E. Rodes' Divis- 
ion comprising the following other brigades, viz. : Eamseur's 
ISTorth Carolina, Iverson's ISTorth Carolina, and Doles' 
Georgia, and no better division was there in any army. Most 
fortunate were we in brigade and divisional commanders. 
Both Rodes and Daniel were born soldiers, and both died on 
the field of battle in glorious discharge of duty. The divis- 
ion was in Ewell's Corps. On Daniel's death Bryan Grimes 
became his worthy successor and later on the successor of the 
lamented Rodes. 

About the first of June, 1863, our division, Rodes', broke 
camp at Hamilton Crossing, a few miles from Freder- 
icksburg, and started, whither few knew, but many surmised. 

At Brandy Station 9 June, 1863, we became aware that a 
fight was going on in front. Were hastily formed and moved 
forward to the point, upon nearing which General Lee in per- 
son met General Daniel and told him that he was to keep his 
command concealed under the brow of a hill except upon 
emergency, as it was a cavalry fight and he did not wish the 
enemy to learn that he was on the move. Shortly after met 
the corpse of my old Colonel, Sol. Williams, being brought 
out on horseback by his brother-in-law, Lieutenant Pegram. 

254 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

He was shot through the forehead, and Pegram told us that 
General B. F. Davis had just been killed on the other side 
by the self same wound. He and I were classmates and 
close friends at West Point, and yet his death reached me 
without a pang of regret, for he was fighting under the wrong 
flag, being a Mississippian. 

Gallant Sol. Williams had only been married a week or 
two to the daughter of Captain Pegram, who won lasting 
honor in the Confederate States Navy. Singular coinci- 
dence her cousin and another old classmate of mine, General 
John Pegram, was killed in front of Petersburg after the 
same brief nuptials. He married the beautiful and brilliant 
Hettie Cary, of Baltimore. 

General J. E. B. Stuart (another classmate) repulsed the 
enemy that day after a hard day's fight, although he had been 
taken by surprise in the morning. He, too, was killed later 
on in front of Richmond. Here let it be remarked by way 
of parenthesis, that nine out of twelve of that glorious class 
(that of 1850) who espoused our side were killed in battle, all 
with one exception, wearing the insignia of General, Stuart, 
Pender, Gracie, Pegram, Deshler, Villipique, Mercer, Ran- 
dall and one other whose name now escapes me. Was there 
ever a nobler holocaust of young heroes on the altar of patri- 
otism, each thirty or thereabouts? Generals Stephen D. 
Lee and Custis Lee are the sole survivors, as far as I am able 
tO' ascertain. 


Prom Brandy the division moved on towards the Potomac, 
passing through Front Royal, Winchester and Berryville. 
At the last place came near capturing Brute Milroy and his 
entire force, but with the coward's instinct he saved his vile 
neck by precipitate fiight. He was one of the three who 
were made infamously immortal by Confederate executive 
mandate that they were not to be accorded the rights of pris- 
oners of war , if captured. Beast Butler and Turchin,^ the 
barbarian, were the two others. Let the triumvirate of gold 
laced felons stand pilloried where they were put, in the scorn 
of all true soldiers through all time to come, to teach would- 

Second Battalion. 255 

be imitators that wars must henceforth be conducted by gen- 
erous and humane rules instead of barbaric. Moving on 
through Martinsburg we forded the river at Williamsport 
and camped a couple of days at Hagersto^^vn, Md. There 
Lieutenant-Colonel Shober resigned and on the promotion of 
Major Andrews, Captain Jno. M. Hancock, of Company T. 
became Major. Thence on to Greencastle, Pa., where there 
was another halt for a day. Thence to Carlisle where we 
took possession of the Government barracks. 

The next day (Sunday) the flag pole which had been cut 
down by the enemy, was replaced and the "Stars and Bars" 
wafted to the breeze. 


30 June made an early start and a forced march to Heidel- 
berg, eleven miles short of Gettysburg. The next morning 
bright and early started again. Had proceeded but a short 
distance when the opening guns of that momentous conflict 
fell upon the ear. On arrival were deployed in line of battle 
in a skirt of woods. The enemy at once began to shell us. 
General Daniel ordered the brigade to lie down until ready to 
advance. While he and I were standing just in front of the 
Second Battalion holding our horses, a shell exploded in a 
few feet of the left killing and wounding nine men. Proba- 
bly no one missile occasioned more loss to life during the war. 
A little later the men were ordered to rise and advance. The 
enemy were some five or six hundred yards in front, and re- 
sults showed had set a most deadly trap for us. When half 
way between our starting point and their line, were ordered 
to lie down whilst our guns in the rear played on their ranks. 
Then rose and charged to the brink of the deep cut of the rail- 
road, beyond which at some hundred paces the enemy were 
drawn up in line. 

The men in their ardor slid iowa the almost precipitous 
bank and attempted to scale the opposite, but to no effect. An 
enfilading battery to our right then opened sweeping "the 
cut" with terrible effect. Suggesting to Colonel Brabble, the 
senior officer, to face to the left and clear the gap, I scram- 
bled to the top and got one shot at the advancing foe with a 

256 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

musket taken from a sick boy at the start, with whom my 
horse was left. Believe it was with effect, as it caused a 
pause in the line behind and delayed a down pouring fire 
until we got out of that horrible hole. As soon as it was done 
the men who had behaved like veterans so far, became tempor- 
arily demoralized. Then it was that the soldier loomed up 
and plucked the flower safety out of the nettle danger, Junius 
Daniel is the man referred to. 

In his stentorian tones audible in command a quarter of a 
mile or more away, he ordered the men to halt and reform on 
him. This they did without regard to company or regimen- 
tal formation almost to a ma'n, advanced at once and inflicted 
a loss on the enemy, from all accounts greater than that which 
they had just sustained. A sublime picture of heroism that, 
on the part of commander and command. Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Andrews was killed and Major Hancock wounded while 
gallantly leading their men and during the remainder of the 
actions at Gettysburg the battalion was commanded by Cap- 
tain Van Brown, of Company PI. 

Just then I was knocked down by a wound in the head and 
had to go back to the field hospital. Here the scene was sick- 
ening in the extreme. By sundown, hundreds of wounded 
had arrived, and the horrid work of amputation was going 
briskly on. Here I pause to pay brief tribute to an unpre- 
tentious hero who did his duty as grandly as any other on 
that bloody field although his only weapons were scalpel, saw 
and bandage. Though Daniel's Brigade had the largest 
wounded list of any other at Gettysburg, the surgical staff 
was something short that day. But there was one who was 
a host in himself. For three days and nights with coat off 
and sleeves rolled up, I do not think Dr. Frank Patterson, 
my old surgeon, then brigade surgeon, relaxed in his bloody 
work of mercy half an hour at a time. If he closed his eyes 
in sleep during that dread ordeal, it escaped my observation, 
although in thirty feet and full view of the operating table. 

"The Glorious Fourth" was a fateful day, not only for 
that glorious army, but for the cause, for far away Vicksburg, 
the key of the Mississippi, had fallen. 

The retreat began in regular order on that day. Lieutenant 

Second Battalion. 257 

Wm. R. Bond, of General Daniel's staff, now of Scotland 
Neck, likewise wounded, and myself, were assigned to a one- 
horse wagon driven by Guilford. The wounded train was 
tacked on to a part of the ordnance. That night having to 
pass through a long defile, it was subjected to an annoying 
fire from above, Kilpatrick's Division having ridden ahead 
and taken position on each bank of the road. This doughty 
hero should have been cashiered for not capturing that entire 
train, for it was only guarded by two squadrons of cavalry. 
As it was, he only took some thirty or forty ambulances and 
ordnance wagons. 


Shortly after getting through the deep cut of the road our 
little mounted escort broke and went tO' the head of the train. 
An ordnance wagon loaded with old guns, took off one of our 
rear wheels in trying to pass, and before Bond and I could 
pick ourselves up, a dozen revolvers were bearing on us. It 
was then that volubility told. Guilford with a flow of words 
unparalleled in his speech before or since convinced the gen- 
tlemen on horseback that, "we surrender, we are prisoners, 
for God's sake don't shoot." Believing that the entire ord- 
nance train was lost and all lost with it, it is within bounds 
tO' say that his impromptu eloquence elicited but scant thanks 
from either of the two "prisoners." 

Thence were carried to the hospital at Frederick, from 
there to Fort McHenry, thence to Fort Delaware for a while 
and from there to Jolmson's Island in Lake Erie, which con- 
tinued to be the residence of most of the officers until near 
the surrender. My cartel was, I believe, the last one ante- 
cedent thereto. Many projects for wholesale escape had been 
formed during otir imprisonment, but were always frustrated 
by some secret spy or cowardly informer. 

But tO' return to the Second North Carolina Battalion at 
Gettysburg. It fell short of a full regiment, and yet it is 
doubtful whether any full regiment in that matchless army 
sustained the loss in killed and wounded that it did. One 
hundred and fifty-three is authenticated record. Perhaps 

258 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

it is better to give an excerpt from a letter received from 
JH. A. London: 

u^Ar * * r^]^Q Second Battalion at Gettysburg had more 
men killed and wounded than any full regiment in Pickett's 
Division. Its killed was twenty-nine (including its com- 
mander, Lieutenant^Colonel Andrews), and wounded 124. 
The Fifty-seventh Virginia regiment had 26 killed and 95 
wounded, which was the heaviest mortality of any of Pickett's 
regiments. Major James Iredell, of the Fifty-third, who 
took command at Orange Court House (Major Hancock 
having been captured at Gettysburg), was killed at Spottsyl- 
vania, where the battalion was nearly all captured, killed or 
-wounded. I do not think any field officer commanded the 
"battalion after Iredell's death. It remained with Daniel's 
Prigade until the end, but I do not know its number at Ap- 
pomattox — a mere handful, however. It was a noble band 
and shared fully in all the glory of Daniel's (afterwards 
Grimes') Brigade. * * * 

Yours truly, 

"H. A. London." 


The following addenda is from the pen of a gallant soldier 
of the same brigade, Sergeant Cyrus B. Watson, of the Forty- 
fifth North Carolina, now one of the most distinguished law- 
yers of our State. He says : 

"From September, 1862, the date given by Colonel Green 
when the Second North Carolina Battalion became a part of 
Daniel's Brigade till 9 April, 1865, it fought along side of my 
regiment, the Forty-fifth. 

"Four companies of the battalion were from the coxmties 
of Randolph, Forsyth, Stokes and Surry, and the men com- 
posing them had many acquaintances in our regiment, from 
which there existed a friendly feeling between the men of the 
two commands. After the battle of Gettysburg, this senti- 
ment grew stronger, from the fact that the two commands 
were together in the dreadful conflict in and about the rail- 
road cut that cost both so many lives. 

Second Battalion. 259 


"Again on 10 May, 1864, the Torty-fifth Eegiment felt the 
touch of the Second Battalion, while holding the line to the 
left of the break caused by the crushing of Doles' Brigade by 
the massed forces of the enemy. In each of these engage- 
ments the battalion lost a commander. 

"On the latter occasion the companies on the right of the 
battalion were doubled back on those of the left, and in this 
position fought almost hand-to-hand with the enemy until 
nearly annihilated. 

"The morning after this conflict, the dead of the Maine 
Regiment which led the assault on the Second Battalion and 
the Forty-fifth Regiment were scattered thickly and indis- 
criminately over the field. 

"This Second Battalion had a number of commanders be- 
side the two noble men, Andrews and Iredell, who lost their 
lives, and these changes had the effect to some extent of inter- 
fering with discipline. General Daniel would some times 
call it "my little mob," but its fighting and staying qualities 
were never questioned. ISTo regiment of the brigade ever 
complained that it lagged in a charge or faltered in the line. 

"I personally knew many of its officers and men. Most of 
them who survived the war have since passed away. The 
officers living as far as I can recall are C. F. Robinson, A. Q. 
M., of Farmington, N. C. ; Captain W. H. Wheeler, of Win- 
ston, N. C, and Lieutenant Dempsey S. Brown, of Company 
G (written "Boon" in the Roster), now living in Missouri. 

"And I am reminded just here that one evening just before 
Christmas, 1862, two young lieutenants of the battalion in- 
vited me over to their camp to help devour a roasted wild ( ?) 
turkey that "some of the boys" had found the night before 
perched upon an old loom in an out house in the neighbor- 
hood the night before. It was argued that the old gobbler 
had no pass and was subject to arrest. 

"I have said that the battalion was not noted for its disci- 
pline, and this is true, but it is no less true that no body of 
men belonging to the army of General Lee sustained a bet- 
ter reputation for heroic devotion to duty in the hour of bat- 
tle than the Second North Carolina Battalion." 

260 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

This is high praise from a high source. The career of 
the battalion is largely told in the histories in this work 
of the Thirty-second, Forty-third, Forty-fifth and Fifty-third 
North Carolina Eegiments which were in the same brigade 
and in the sketch of the "Daniel-Grimes" Brigade by Captain 
W. L. London, A. A. G-. The handful of the battalion left 
surrendered with the brigade on that bright Sunday morning 
at Appomattox. 

Whaeton J. Geeett. 
Fayetteville, N. C, 

9 April, 1901. 


(light aetillehy. ) 

By JOHN W. MOORE, Major. 

This command went into camp near Ealeigh in Febru- 
ary, 1862, and was mustered into service on the 27th of that 
month. General McClellan soon after that began the trans- 
fer of the great army that had for months previously been 
held for the defense of Washington and commenced his 
movement for the capture of Richmond by way of the penin- 
sula, which lies between the James and York rivers. The 
batatlion while yet awaiting its guns and horses, was or- 
dered to tlie Confederate Capital, to take part in its defense. 
The field and staff officers at that time and with small change 
until the end of the war consisted of — 

John W. Mooee^ of Hertford county, Major. 
Augustus M. Mooke, of Chowan, Adjutant. 
Henry G. Teadee^ of Hertford, Quartermaster. 
W. A. B. NoECUM^ of Chowan, Assistant Surgeon. 
ExuM B. Claek, Sergeant Major. 
Oliver T. Gilbeet^ Commissary Sergeant. 
J. F. JuLicH, Chief Bugler. 

There were in the battalion three batteries. Company A 
was recruited in Northampton county. Andrew J. Ellis, 
Captain; W. J. Rogers, First Lieutenant; J. ~N. Ramsey, 
First Lieutenant ; and John M. Webb, Second Lieutenant. 

Company B was formed of men enlisted mostly in Chowan 
and Tyrrell counties. Its officers were William Badham, 
Captain, of Chowan ; First Lieutenant, ISTelson McCleese, 

Note. — There was another Third Battalion (Reserves) commanded by 
Major Hooks which was merged into the Seventy-Eighth Regiment, 
(Eighth Reserves) and later another Third Battalion, also Reserves, 
which was commanded by Maj. J. T. Littlejohn and whose services are 
told herein under the heading "Twenty-Third Battalion " — Ed. 

262 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Tyrrell; First Lieutenant, John M. Jones, Chowan; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, David J. Gaskins, Chowan. 

Company C consisted of men who chiefly were reared and 
enlisted in Hertford. Its officers were then, Julian G, 
Moore, Captain ; John M. Sutton, First Lieutenant ; Alfred 
M. Darden, First Lieutenant ; John E. Powell, Second Lieu- 
tenant. Lieutenants Sutton and Powell were Bertie men. 

around eiohmond. 

The battalion having been sent to the front before getting 
its equipment of light artillery when General McClellan drew 
near Richmond with his immense army the coimmand was 
ordered from the camp of instruction and did its first ser- 
vice by occupying Battery No. 1. This was an extensive 
earthwork which was near the York Kiver Railroad, and 
commanded the highway leading from Mechanicsville, which 
was only six miles away and was the nearest point of ap- 
proach made by the United States Army. There General 
McClellan had strongly protected the right flank of his forces 
and several bloody conflicts occurred before the seven days' 
of battle resulted in the defeat and withdrawal of the Fed- 
eral forces. 

The Third Battalion remained near Richmond for some 
time afterwards and in September, 1862, was ordered to pro- 
ceed to the Valley of Virginia and report to General R. E. 
Lee. The battle of Sharpsburg had just been fought and 
we met the Army of ISTorthern Virginia in its cantonments 
around Martinsburg. Having reported to Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Pendleton, Chief of Artillery, the Third Battalion was 
received into his corps and served therein until early in 
December when General Burnside began his famous race for 
the capture of Fredericksburg. We were in camp at Culpep- 
per Court House one dreary winter evening when an orderly 
brought orders for our instant departure for Fredericksburg, 
The discomforts and haste of that movement exceeded any- 
■ thing of the kind we saw during war. After pressing on for 
two miserable days through the terrible roads crossing South- 
western Mountains and reaching a point flfteen miles from 
Fredericksburg, orders came for the battalion to proceed to a 

Third Battalion. 263 

railroad bridge some miles south of Fredericksburg, where 
defenses had been constructed for the security of the bridge. 
We were sorely disappointed in not being permitted to take 
part in the great battle fought a few days later, so near uh, 
but it was all important that no raiding party of the enemy 
should be allowed to bum the bridge over which nearly all 
the svipplies for General Lee's army had then to pass. We 
remained at the bridge until Burnside^s defeat and in a few 
days were ordered to the defense of our own State. 


When the Third Battalion had reached Wilmington, that 
is the main body of the men, we had more than a week of 
waiting apparently before us, before our horses could reach 
us by the long march overland from Richmond, Va. But on 
Sunday morning after our arrival. General Whiting notified 
Major Moore that his horses had arrived at Goldsboro and 
that enough of them were in such condition that one of his 
batteries could be properly horsed. He was ordered, there- 
fore, to take the men and guns of one battery and to reach 
Kinston as soon as possible and report to General French. 
Two days before General Foster had left JSTew Bern with 
twenty thousand Federal troops and had been steadily driving 
back the Confederate forces, but was as yet unable to cross 
from the south side of ISTeuse river. 


By reason of a defective engine, we were nearly all day 
making the run to Mosely Hall, where we found General 
French and our battery horses. Troops from Virginia and 
other points were pouring in and the enemy was reported close 
at hand across the river. Just before night, by General 
French's order. Lieutenant Nelson McCleese was sent with 
the right section of Badham's battery to the defense of the 
bridge at White Hall, on ISTeuse river. These two guns were 
supported by the Eleventh Regiment, the Thirty-first, Colonel 
Evans' Sixty-third (Fifth Cavalry), and Colonel Ferebee's 
Fifty-ninth (Fourth Cavalry) Regiment. At an early hour 
Monday morning Foster drove in the Confederate picket 

264 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

across the river and attempted, by a tremendous infantry and 
artillery fire, to so drive off the men on onr side, that he could 
pontoon and cross the river. More than a dozen pieces of 
artillery were brought to bear upon the point where Lieu- 
tenant McClee&e and his men were so bravely holding their 
ground. From early in the morning until well past midnight 
this unequal struggle went on. McCleese lost but two men 
and two horses, but his right gun was, after being struck re^ 
peatedly, finally disabled by a shell that broke the axle and 
struck down five of his cannoneers. After such creditable 
service, Lieutenant McCleese was relieved by Lieutenant J. 
G. Moore, who brought a fresh section into action. The en- 
emy, however, soon ceased firing and moved for another 
bridge a few miles higher up the stream. At that place on 
the next day Lieutenant John M. Jones, with the centre sec- 
tion of Battery B, did also most effective service. 

It is proper to say here that the battalion at this time con- 
tained only two batteries. It was found so difficult in the 
fall of 1862 to procure enough cavalry and artillery horses 
that many artillery and cavalry companies were induced to 
change themselves into infantry. Then, too, many four-gun 
batteries were by orders of the Secretary of War, formed into 
large six-gun batteries by uniting the men of both companies 
and allowing them to elect officers for the new command thus 
formed. When the order for distributing inchoate com- 
mands reached Major Moore in Camp Lee, near Hichmond, 
in 1862, the Third Battalion contained five companies. There 
were in addition to the three already mentioned, two others, 
commanded by Captains Thomas Capehart and Solomon 
White. The latter of these two gave up its artillery organ- 
ization and joined a regiment of infantry. 

Batteries A and D were combined under the command of 
Captain Ellis, while Company C was added to Battery B tin- 
der Captain Badham and Captain Julian G. Moore became 
First Lieutenant in the same until in March, 1863, by another 
order from Kichmond, Company C was reorganized iinder the 
officers as mentioned above. 

Third Battalion. 265 


After the battle of Goldsboro, the Third Battalion was or- 
deretl to reunite by Company B inarching across the country 
to rejoin the other half of the command at Wilmington. 
During the whole year of 1863, the enemy left the Cape Fear 
region unassailed, so there were only the ordinary incidents of 
a life in camp so far as the Third Battalion was concerned. 
About 1 November, 1863, General Whiting relieved Colonel 
George Jackson of his command at Kenansville, to assume 
charge of the intrenched camp then being constructed above 
Fort Fisher. Major J. W. Moore, with Battery A, under 
Captain Ellis, went to his new post of duty and found a little 
army embracing all three branches of military service repre^ 
sented. Two squadrons of cavalry were kept on outpost 
duty and a battalion of heavy artillery doing infantry duty 
were camped in close proximity to Battery A- This force 
was kept for the security of the Wilmington & Weldon Rail- 
road ; and also to secure Froelich's sword factory at Kenans- 
ville, that had been burned' by a raiding party some time be- 
fore and was then making sabres for the Confederate Gov- 

At the same time Battery C, under Captain J. G. Moore, 
was assigned duty at Fort Caswell, while Battery B, under 
Captain William Badham, was assigned for duty on Smith's 
Island or Bald Head. The new year of 1864 was inaugu- 
rated by an important military movement in North Caro- 


General George Pickett was sent by General Lee with 
live brigades of his veteran troops, against the United States 
forces then holding the city of New Bern. Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Martin, with two regiments of infantry, three squadrons 
of South Carolina Cavalry and two batteries of Light Artil- 
lery was sent by way of Smith's Mills across White Oak 
river, to cut railroad connections from Morehead City. The 
Third North Carolina Battalion was represented in the move- 
ment by Battery A, under the immediate command of Cap- 
tain A. J. Ellis. He and his command did noble service in 

266 NoKTH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

the battle at Newport barracks. Tbe enemy witb a force 
about equal to that of General Martin, was driven from its 
positions on both sides of the road, and besides- considerable 
loss in killed and wounded left about two hundred prison- 
ers. The same battery had by its splendid practice against 
a block house earlier in the day so dismayed the garrison that 
it was captured without loss to the assailants, who came charg- 
ing upon it across an open plain. 


Adjutant (since Judge) Aug. M. Moore contributes the 
following incident: 

"When Pickett was sent to attack New Bern in the winter 
of 1864, a small detachment of about 1,500 men, infantry, 
cavalry and artillery under General Martin was sent to cap- 
ture Moreliead, and the large army supplies collected at that 
point. Pickett failed to do anything, and in a few days with- 
drew his forces, but the expedition under Martin was par- 
tially successful, and had it not been for the withdrawal of 
Pickett's forces, we would in a few hoxirs have captured More- 

After two sharp skirmishes, the entire force of Martin, 
Seventeenth North Carolina, Forty-second North Carolina, 
Ellis' Battery A of Moore's Battalion, and about 250 men un- 
der Lieutenant-Colonel R. J. Jeffords, Fifth South Carolina 
cavalry, engaged the enemy in the afternoon about two miles 
from Newport. The enemy, as well as our infantry, was on 
each side of the straight road leading to Newport, near the 
town, and to the left and rear of the enemy was their fort, a 
strong eartliwork, mounting several guns. 

The writer was sitting on his horse on and near the left 
of the road, watching the effect of shells firing from a small 
brass field piece over the heads of the Seventeenth North 
Carolina, as that gallant regiment was advancing and engag- 
ing the enemy. Occasionally a shell came screaming from 
a rifled field ]3iece of the enemy, stationed about two thou- 
sand yards down the road and in full view of Ellis and oth- 
ers of us. For a little while it seemed as' if the enemy was 
to have all that fun to themselves, when a sudden and sharp 

Third Battalion. 267 

command from Captain Ellis attracted my attention and, 
looking around, I saw him straighten himself in his saddle, 
and with his gun dash down the narrow road towards the en- 
emy. Every once in a while he would wheel into position, 
his lead horses sometimes falling in the deep and wide ditch, 
go into battery, fire a few well-directed shots, and then he was 
again leading his gun at a gallop, only to go into battery 
and again fire. 

We were warm personal friends, and anxious to know 
what had become of him and his gallant men, the writer 
dashed down the road to learn what he could. So rapid had 
been Ellis' charge with his artillery, that two of his seven men 
were wounded along the road by the enemy's skirmishers. 
The gallant officer and men had passed the line of our advanc- 
ing troops, and when I found him, the enemy was fleeing, and 
Ellis, with the glee of a boy was standing in the road patting 
the fine gun he had captured, and laughing with his little gun 
crew that followed him in that wild, dashing charge. They 
had run the enemy's cannoneers with their horses from their 
gun, and whilst their infantry support had not fied. 

I have seen and read of many desperate and gallr.ut acts 
during the Civil War, but of none that ever surpassed, if in 
fact equalled the one I have attempted to describe. 

That was more than thirty-six years ago, and some of thr 
brave boys "who charged artillery with artillery" have doubts 
less passeid away. Captain Ellis, however, is still alive, and 
residing at Garysburg, where as an accomplished and success- 
ful physician, he has filled a useful life full of gentle acts, and 
crowned it with the esteem and affection of the people of that 


After General Pickett's failure before New Bern, there 
were no more movements of importance involving the Third 
aSTorth Carolina Battalion until about 1 November, 1864. 
Major J. W. Moore was ordered to leave his post at Kenans- 
ville, in Duplin county, and with Battery A, to report to Brig- 
adier-General Louis Hebert, then commanding the defences at 
the mouth of Cape Fear river. The battalion was thus once 

268 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

more all assembled in the same locality. Battery A being 
posted at Smithville, Company B on Bald Head, and Com- 
pany C in Fort Caswell. It had been evident for some time 
to Major-General Whiting that a great movement was to be 
made for the capture of Wilmington. It was the only post 
of importance through which the Confederate Government 
could secure foreign supplies. The immense superiority of 
the naval forces of the United- States had either captured or 
blockaded all other Southern ports sO' that on W^ilmington 
alone hung the hope of our further continuing the long and 
bloody struggle. But as the year of our Lord 1864 drew to 
its close, just as the hearts of all Christendom grew glad at 
the approach of the Christmas festivities, a great fleet bearing 
many thousands of soldiers, appeared in the of&ng before Fort 
Fisher and at daybreak began to bombard that great work, 
while hundreds of boats were bearing the soldiers from the 
ships tO' the land between Fisher and the intrenched camp, 
four miles above at Sugar Loaf. As we had no troops at the 
latter point but a small battalion under Colonel George Jack- 
son, very little resistance could be made against the landing. 

General Bragg having assumed command, ordered Major 
Moore to report to General E. F. Hoke at Sugar Loaf.' Bat- 
tery B. remained on Bald Head and Company C went to 
swell the gai-rison of Fort Fisher, where the greater part, of it 
was captured in the seeoud attack 14-15 Janizary, 1865, after 
having lost heavily in defending the doomed fort. The re- 
mainder of the battery under Lieutenant A. M. Darden, with 
the other two batteries, all reported for duty at Fort Ander- 
son 10 February, 1865. 99 Official Records Union and Con- 
federate Armies, p. 1155. 

After the fall of Fisher, Battery A had the honor of cover- 
ing the perilous retreat to Wilmington and afterwards had 
quite a lively experience in checking the Federal piirsuit when 
the Southern army was crossing Northeast river at the Her- 
mitage. Battery B, imder Captain William Badham, on the 
fall of Fort Fisher and the abandonment of the lower forts, 
did similar service for the troops retreating under General 

Lieutenant J. M. Jones, at Old Town, won high mention 

Third Battalion. 269 

for the desperate defence he made of his post and only re- 
tired when further resistance became impossible. It only re- 
mains to be told that Battery A once more did glorious service 
at the battle of Bentonville, and along with Battery B, and 
such part of Battery C as had not been carried from Fort 
Fisher as prisoners of war were surrendered at Greensboro by 
General J. E. Johnston. 

John W. Moore. 


26 April, 1901. 


(Wright's battalion.) 

By the editor. 

The battalion called the Foiirth Battalion during the war 
■was commanded by Major Clement Gr. Wright and rendered 
efficient service in Eastern JSTorth Carolina, mostly near Wil- 
mington, the details of which would be of interest, but they 
are now almost irrecoverable. Wright's (Fourth), ISTether- 
ciitt's (Eighth), and Whitford's (Eleventh) Battalions and 
indeed Evans' (later Sixty-third Regiment) were all at first 
styled Partisan Bangers. In May, 1863, Wright's Battalion 
reported 300 men present for duty. 9B (Serial Vol.) Off. 
Bee. Union and Oonfed. Armies, 107Jf-. August 3, 1863, it 
was combined with the Eighth Battalion (ISTethercutt's) 
which had rendered stirring service mostly in the New Bern 
section. The two battalions with the addition of some inde- 
pendent companies formed the Sixty-sixth jSTorth Carolina 
Begiment, of which A. D. Moore became Colonel and which 
was assigned to Martin's, later Kirkland's, Brigade. The 
history of that regiment is told by its Adjutant, George M. 
Rose, in Vol. 3 of this work. 

The battalion which is numbered Fourth in Moore's Ros- 
ter, Vol. 4, pp. 241-247, was officially known as the Twelfth, 
Battalion, under which head its services are narrated fur- 
ther on. 

There was also a Fourth Battalion (Junior Reserves) com- 
manded by Major John M. Reece, and which was in January, 
1865, merged into the Seventy-second Regiment (Third. 
Jimior Reserves.) 



By VIRGIL S. LUSK', Captain Company A. 

The Fifth North Carolina Battalion of Cavalry was or- 
ganized during the winter of 1862 at Jacksboro, Tennessee, 
by the election of A. H. Baird, of Madison County, as Major, 
who was at that time Captain of a cavalry company, thereto- 
fore organized in Madison County, and on outpost duty at 
Clinton Tennessee. 

The battalion was composed of the following five compa- 
nies: Captain V. S. Lusk's company, of Madison County, 
theretofore Captain Baird's company ; Captain Hardin's com- 
pany, from Ashe County ; Captain English's company, from 
Mitchell County; Captain Gillespie's company, from Tran- 
sylvania County; and Captain Tate's company, from Burke 
County. Captain JnO'. B. ISTelson, of Marshall, E". C, was 
Commissar)', Captain Donald McKenzie, of Morganton, 
Quartermaster, and L. IT. Smith, of Burnsville, was Adju- 

At the time of the organization, all the companies men- 
tioned were on outpost duty along the Cumberland Moun- 
tains, extending from Cumberland Gap to Huntsville, in 
Scott County. While they were in camp south of the Cum- 
berland Mountains, it was not unfrequent for them to do 
scout duty along the border of Kentucky as far north as Bar- 
boursville, Piiieville, Whitley and Monticello, and the terri- 
tory south of the Cumberland river. At this time this sec- 
tion of Kentucky was badly disputed territory. One day it 
was occupied by the Federal outpost, and the next day it was 
occupied by the Confederate forces. When we wanted a lit- 
tle amusement in the way of a fight we would go into the dis- 

NoTE. — There was another Fifth Battalion (Reserves) in 1864, Beasley's, 
which later was merged into the Seventy-First Regiment (Second Junior 
Reserves. ) The Fifth Battalion in Moore's Roster was always known as, 
and was officially styled, the Thirteenth Battalion. — Ed. 

272 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

puted territO'ry and challenge the Federal outpost for a fight, 
and generally got what we went after and sometimes more 
than we contracted for. In addition to this kind of warfare, 
the covmtry was infested with bands of irregular troops known 
to the army as "bushwhackers," and the most dangerous en- 
emy with which we were confronted. We had tO' be con- 
stantly on the lookout for this irregular force, and exercising 
all the diligence and precaution possible, we were often fired 
upon and sometimes lost a brave soldier killed or wounded. 

It does not require a great degree of personal bravery to 
go into battle when one is confronted by an open foe, but to 
be constantly expecting to be shot from a thicket or from the 
top of every hill one passes, is a condition that tries the nerve 
of the bravest soldier. This is the kind of duty the Fifth 
Battalion was called upon to do dxiring the winter of 1862-'63 
and so continued u.p to July, 1863, and tO' give some idea of 
the hardships of such service, I will add that while we had a 
commissary and quartermaster's department, we seldom had 
a ration of bacon or saw a sack of flour, a blanket or a pair of 
shoes, except such as we furnished ourselves. We were often 
fifty miles from headquarters in a section of country where it 
was impossible to carry army supplies in any other way than 
in a haversack and that was not always supplied with the 
necessaries of life. Sometimes we had something to eat and 
so'metimes we did not have anything tO' eat. Sometimes we 
had a shelter over us and then sometimes our shelter was the 
blue sky or the lowering clouds. Sometimes we slept under 
a blanket and sometimas that blanket was the driven snow. 
Many was the time that the command went into winter quar- 
ters under an oil cloth in the jamb of the fence with a chunk 
for a pillow, and awoke in the morning to find the earth cov- 
ered with snow. 

Company A (Lusk's company) was ordered forward from 
Knoxville sometime in ISTovember, 1862, and from that time 
on never saw a tent or had a day's rest. Tlie entire command 
remained on detached duty and was never together under 
one commander until some time in June, 1863, on the occa- 
sion of the Saunder's raid intO' East Tennessee, at which time 
the several companies were hurriedly called in from outpost 

Fifth Battalion. 273 

duty and joined in the pursuit of the invaders under the com- 
mand of Major A. H. Baird. At this time the cavalry force 
in the Department of East Tennessee was very light, scatr 
tered from Bristol to Chattanooga, principally guarding the 
several gaps of the Cumberland Mountains. The enemy was 
known to be in force north of the Cumberland river and a 
close vi'atch was kept up all along the line. 

Company A, of the Fifth Battalion, was stationed at Win- 
ter's Gap and being the only cavalry command between Big 
Greek Gap and Kingston, was taxed beyond its capacity in 
doing outpost duty along the south of the Cumberland river, 
covering a territory extending from Barboursville to Monti- 
cello. Being thus scattered, the cavalry force found them- 
selves in bad condition to resist a well organized force of the 
enemy of several thousand strong, consisting of cavalry, 
mounted infantry and artillery. A detachment of Company 
A (Lusk's), Fifth Battalion, was the first to encounter the 
enemy at Tluntsville, on the south fork of the Cumberland 
river. The outposts were called in as rapidly as possible and 
couriers dispatched tO' headquarters at Knoxville, notifying 
the General in command of the approach of the enemy by way 
of Wortburgh and tlae Emory river road going in the direc- 
tion of Kingston. It was thought then that the object was 
the destruction of the railroad bridge at Loudon. 


Camp at Winter's Gap was abandoned by the company and 
a vigorous pursuit of the raiding column was begun. The 
company at that time numbered about one hundred fighting 
men. We harrassed the rear and left flank of the enemy dur- 
ing the entire night, retarding his progress all that it was 
possible to do with tlae force under my command. It soon 
became apparent that Knoxville was the objective point of 
the enemy's attack instead of the Loudon Bridge. The 
raiding force forded Clinch river below Clinton, swung 
around by Lenoir Station on the East Tennessee and Georgia 
Railroad, drew up on the north side of Knoxville and opened 
a bombardment of the city. There were no defences to the 
city, and the enemy took up a position north of the railroad 

274 . North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

and commenced bombarding the city at close range. The 
other companies of the Fifth JS'orth Carolina Battalion had 
joined Company A and together with the First Louisiana 
Regiment under Colonel Scott, attacked and drove off the 
enemy before much damage was inflicted by the bombard- 
ment; meanwhile, a detachment of the enemy had been sent 
forward to destroy the railroad bridge across the Holston 
river at Strawberry Plains. The enemy then commenced a 
rapid retreat towards Cumberland Mountains, when a run- 
ning tight was Icept up during the entire day. It was evi- 
dent that the raiding column was making for Big Creek Gap 
with the hope to reach Kentucky by way of Pine Mountain 
road. During the day several bloody encounters took place 
in which the Fifth Battalion participated, notably a fight 
that took place in the vicinity of Maynardsville. The enemy 
was sorely pressed and it looked like surrender was about the 
only thing possible for tlaem to do. It was certain that they 
coiild not hold out if daylight continued, and in order to kill 
time they took up a strong position at the end of a long lane, 
coimnanding the only approach to the stronghold, and awaited 
the approach of the Confederates. A detachment of the 
Fifth Battalion led by Major Baird, and a similar detach- 
ment from the First Louisiana under Captain Scott, charged 
and drove the enemy from their selected position. In this 
charge the brave Captain Scott, of the First Louisiana, was 
killed, while Major Baird's horse was killed under him. The 
writer did not see the gallant charge, being detailed with his 
company to support a battery in another part of the field, but 
those who did witness it spoke of it in the highest terms. 

jSTight was coming on and the enemy was making heroic ef- 
forts to reach Cumberland Mountains. Clinch Mountain 
had been crossed and the enemy driven across Clinch river. 
Orders were issued to press forward with all possible speed 
and use extra exertions to overtake the enemy before night — 
with the enemy it was night, the Cumberland Mountains or 
certain capture. Company A, of the Fifth ISTorth Carolina 
Battalion, was ordered to the front and commanded to charge 
the enemy. The order was obeyed and the charge was suc- 
cessful. The enemy was rotited, scattered in every direction 

Fifth Battalion. 275 

and abandoned a battery of artillery, horses, guns, blankets 
and everything else that retarded their escape across Powell's 
river to the trackless wilds of the Cumberland Mountains. 
We followed them next morning across the mountains, but 
they had made good their escape, and we only found here and 
there an abandoned horse or a straggling soldier. 

The raiding force having been driven across the Cumber- 
land Mountains into Kentucky, we returned to Powell's Val- 
ley and went into camp near Big Creek Gap to recuperate our 
jaded horses and rest the exhausted men. This, I think, was 
the first time the battalion had all been together in camp 
during the organization. This much-needed rest was, how- 
ever, of short duration. The battalion was destined to par- 
ticipate soon in more serious and bloody warfare than it had 
been engaged in during the whole of its military career. 

Just at tliis time General Morgan had invaded Indiana 
and Ohio, and it very soon developed that the result would 
probably be the capture of his entire force unless something 
was done to relieve him of the embarrassing position by which 
he was surrounded. What I am abo'Ut to state on this subject 
is info'rmation derived from Colonel Scott. Seeing the posi- 
tion of General Morgan in Ohio', it was determined to organ- 
ize a movement from East Tennessee for his relief, and to 
that end a cavalry force from Chattanooga, another force 
from the Cumberland Gap section and a third force from 
Bristol were to be pushed forward into' Kentucky with all 
possible speed tO' the relief of Morgan, unite the three columns 
at Lexington, and if necessary to relieve General Morgan, to 
make a descent upon Cincinnati. The Fifth ISTorth Carolina 
Battalion was brigaded with the First Louisiana, Tenth Con- 
federate (Alabama) and the Fifth Tennessee, all under the 
command of Colonel Scott, of the First Louisiana Cavalry. 
Unfortunately, Major A. H. Baird was stricken down with 
a very severe attack of typhoid fever and was unable to be 
moved, much less accompany the battalion on a long and 
onerous expedition, and had to be left in the hospital at Fin- 


The battalion was placed under command of Captain Lusk, 

276 North Carolina -Troops, 1861-'65. 

Captain of Company A. After the column started and had 
gotten well on its mission towards Lexington, news of the 
capture of General Morgan's command was received at head- 
quarters and couriers sent to recall the expedition. The 
courier sent with the dispatch for Scott's Brigade never 
reached his destination, being either killed or captured by the 
"bushwhackers." In perfect ignorance of the capture of 
Morgan's command in Ohio, we pressed on towards Lexing- 
ton with all possible speed. The columns from upper and 
lower East Tennessee being recalled, left the central column 
without any support whatever. We encountered a force of 
the enemy at Eichmond, Kentucky, strongly posted on the 
road south of the town. A sharp and spirited engagement 
ensued lasting from early in the morning until noon, in which 
the whole brigade was engaged. The enemy was finally 
routed, many being captured and killed. The Fifth Bat- 
talion was actively engaged in this battle, maintaining an im- 
portant position on the left flank of our line and finally par- 
ticipating in the charge that routed the enemy from their 
strong position and drove them through the town and across 
the Kentucky river. Without halting tO' take needed rest or 
reckon the casualties of battle, we pushed on in the direction 
of Lexington, frequently coming in collision with detach- 
ments of the enemy, expecting every hour to hear from the 
Chattanooga column at the common rendezvous. Just before 
reaching the city we observed a great cloud of rising dust, 
such as is generally produced by a moving squadron of cav- 
alry, and thought full surely it was the expected column, and 
every moment looked for the arrival of a courier with a dis- 
patch announcing the approach of the expected reinforce- 
ments. Just at this time we were fired upon by a detachment 
of the enemy's outposts. Shots were exchanged, and the 
horse of the vedette killed and himself captured. We after- 
wards found in the soldier's pocket a Cincinnati newspaper 
containing a full account of the capture of General Morgan 
and his command. This was the first information we had 
received of the surrender of Morgan, but this was not the 
worst news we received from the captured vedette. We were 
told by him that we were confronted by 12,000 Federal 

Fifth Battalion. 277 

cavalry and mounted infantry, and in proof of his statement 
he pointed to the great cloud of rising dust plainly visible on 
the horizon off to our left flank. This was a condition not to 
be envied ; our force did not exceed 1,500 all told — tired men 
and jaded horses; two hundred miles from our lines in an 
enemy's country, confronted by a force many times as strong 
as our own and a force of unknown proportions lurking in our 
rear ready to assail us at the first opportunity, with the cer- 
tain knowledge that no succor was available, the surroimding 
prospects were anything but pleasing. To engage such a 
force in open conflict was like sheer nonsense, and would cer- 
tainly have resulted in the annihilation of the entire com- 
mand, then and there. True, we might have enriched the 
world's history by a display of heroic splendor commensurate 
with that of Leonidas and his invincible band of three hun- 
dred Spartans who facing Xerxes' army of a million of Per- 
f?ian soldiers, yielded up their lives in the narrow pass of 
Thermopylae rather tlian retreat, or by emulating the charge 
of the "Light Brigade" that rode down into the "Valley of 
Death" at Balaklava. The result would have been the same. 
Leonidas' display at Thermopylae has enriched the pages of 
the ^vorld's history with an act of unparalleled heroism and 
bravery, and still the Persian army invaded Greece. The 
world of modern chivalry applauds the bravery of the "Six 
Hundred" who boldly rode "into the jaws of death" at Bala- 
klava, and yet the Crimean war did not end a day sooner. 
That little band of tired and hungry Confederate soldiers 
drawn up in line of battle along the Lexington and Winches- 
ter pike possessed all the courage and bravery necessary to 
have made that "dark and bloody ground" as memorable in 
the history of the world as that of Thermopylae or Balaklava. 
They had the courage to do and die — they were Confederate 
soldiers. Discretion is said to be the better part of valor, 
and it seemed to prevail on this occasion. To risk a battle 
with a force ten times the strength of our own would have 
been inexcusable folly. We might have hurled our tired and 
exhausted squadron of 1,500 famished soldiers and jaded 
horses against the cohorts of the enemy, but it would have 
been to us what the sunken road of Ohain was to the French 

278 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

cuirassiers at Waterloo — a burial ground. While we might 
have covered ourselves with'glory, still the cause for which we 
fought would not have been advanced in the least. Observa- 
tions of military men of modern education is that one live sol- 
dier is worth a whole battalion of dead ones. 

" For he that fights and runs away 
May turn and fight another day ; 
But he that is in battle slain 
Will never rise to fight again." 


We knew the struggle must come sooner or later ; that the 
enemy flushed with victory and outnumbering us ten to one, 
would not suffer us to retreat unmolested. Our horses had 
subsisted on little more than green fodder for three days, 
while the men had had nothing to eat but green corn snatched 
from the stalks and hastily roasted. jSTight was coming on 
and we hoped during that time to find some sheltered position 
where the jaded horses and tired soldiers might find the mtich 
needed rest and refreshment. Retreat was inevitable, if in 
fact, it were possible. 

The Fifth Battalion under command of Captain Lusk, wa8 
ordered to the rear to cover the retreat, and the head of the 
column turned in direction of Winchester. Before reach- 
ing Winchester, the advance of the enemy was firing on the 
rear guard, while the main force was plainly visible pressing 
forward with great vigor and in force. We passed through 
the town under a sharp fire from the enemy just as night set- 
tled down. A fight was inevitable. The Fifth Battalion 
and the Tenth Confederate were thrown across the country 
road east of the town and took up a position on top of a hill, 
the JSTorth Carolinians holding the right of the line and the 
Tenth Confederate the left, with orders to check the advance 
of the enemy. 

Tn front of _the Fifth Battalion was a cultivated field from 
which the rye had recently been cut and stood thick in large 
shocks on the ground. The men had been dismounted and 
ordered to take shelter behind these rye shocks which offered 
a kind of breastworks. We did not have long to wait. The 
enemy very soon appeared in the field below our position and 

Fifth Battalion. 279 

opened a vigorous fire, which was returned all along our line. 
By this time it was very dark and impossible to locate the en- 
emy except by the flash of their guns, or to ascertain how nu- 
merous the force was in front of us. The enemy was doing 
a vast amount of shooting, but owing tO' the fact that our 
horses were beyond the top of the hill and the men protected 
behind the rye shocks, very little, if any damage, was being 
done. Owing to the darkness, it was impossible to ascertain 
the effects of our resistance. The fighting was kept up into 
the night and the enemy made no attempt to force our posi- 
tion from the front, but we discovered a flank movement on 
our right which we were unable to check. This forced us to 
abandon our position in the rye field and fall back on the road 
in the direction of Irvine. The night was intensely dark and 
to add hardships and discomfort to the already almost insuf- 
ferable condition, a heavy rainstorm set in and continued 
throughout the entire night. Owing tO' the darkness and 
storm it was for a time supposed that the enemy would be 
content to remain under shelter in Winchester until morning. 
The expectation was not realized. JSTotwithstanding the in- 
tense darl^ness of the night and the steady downpour of rain, 
the enemy pressed vigorously on our rear gaiard, keeping up 
a desultory fire all night long. Owing to the darkness, it was 
impossible to preserve anything like a military organization 
of the forces composing the rear guard ; one could not know 
who' was before or behind ; when tO' advance or when to fall 
back; whether your file leader was an officer or a private; 
whether you were firing on a friend or a foe, or whether the 
shot intended for the enemy might not kill a friend. There 
was a general mix-up of commands — friends and foes. Fed- 
erals and Confederates. Occasionally forces got so badly 
mixed that it was impossible to tell of a certainty whether one 
was v/ith his own command or whether he was with the Yan- 

N'otwithstanding the seriousness of the situation, some 
amusing incidents occurred which might have been funny 
under more favorable circumstances, one of which will serve 
to illustrate the situation. The enemy had just fired a vol- 
ley, seemingly at close range. A soldier at my side railed 

280 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

out an oath to quit such foolishness ; that they were shooting 
their own men. "What command is this ?" he inquired, and 
being informed that it was the Fifth ISTorth Carolina Battal- 
ion of cavalry, exclaimed: "By , boys, I'm in the 

wrong command," broke ranks and sped away. As he dashed 
away he left a pressing invitation to return the visit. Those 
of us who lived through the scenes of that awful night will 
never live long enough to blot it from their memory. The 
raging storm, the blaclmess of the night, the crashing thunder, 
the flashing lightning, the drenching rain, the roaring artil- 
lery, the bursting shells and the constant rattle of the enemy's 
small arms, the heroic efforts of the brave, tired, famished 
and drenched soldiers to beat back the aggressive enemy, will 
never pass from the memory of those who lived through it all. 
The horses of many of the soldiers had either been killed or 
disabled, while many others had given out by sheer exhaus- 
tion, and the brave riders, nothing daunting, were with the 
column trudging along the muddy road on foot always in line 
to face the enemy. The slain were left where they fell, while 
those of the wounded who could ride were mounted, and 
those who could not were thrust into a stuffy ambulance and 
sent forward, some to die, and others to fall into the hands 
of the enemy. This was war — cruel, heartless, relentless 
war, that crushes all love of humanity and sympathy out of 
the hearts of men. War, that mad game the world so loves 
to play. IJaylight dawned upon us somewhere on the road 
midway between Winchester and Irvine after an all-night's 
fight, without a morsel to eat, either for man or beast, as wet 
as a driving storm could make us, not a dry thread on us, and 
confronted by an enemy seemingly as vigilant as they were 
the preceding night. I had notified the Colonel command- 
ing that I must have reinforcements, that my command had 
been fighting all night, and was so exhausted that it was im- 
possible for them to hold the enemy in check much longer. 
In response I received as reinforcements a detachment of the 
Fiftla Tennessee and two pieces of artillery with orders to 
hold the enemy in check at all hazards. I subsequently as- 
certained that during the night the enemy had succeeded in 
throwing a force in our rear south of the Kentucky river in 

Fifth Battalion. 281 

the hope of cutting off our retreat at Irvine. This force had 
to be disposed of before the main force of the enemy reached 
that point. This force was successfully attacked and de- 
feated, losing eighty prisoners, a battery and many horses. 
The Fifth Battalion was not in this engagement, being other- 
wise engaged with the enemy on the main road leading to 
Winchester. We had taken up a position on a hill close to a 
churcli, while the battery was stationed on another hill in 
our rear and on the opposite bank of a creek with high banks. 
The creek or river or whatever it might be called, was swollen 
and out of banks. The stream was crossed by a wooden 
bridge, floored with loose planks. Our position seemingly 
was impregnable. Our line was formed along the top of a 
hill behind a rail fence, which the soldiers had torn down and 
constructed into hasty breastworks. The horses had been re- 
moved to a sheltered position on the other side of the creek. 
The enemy soon attacked us both with artillery and mus- 
ketry. Our battery replied while our men behind the rail 
pile greeted them with a well directed volley from their rifles. 
The tight lasted from early in the morning until the middle 
of the forenoon, when we were ordered to fall back to avoid a 
flank movement by the enemy on our left. We tore up the 
plank on the bridge and threw it into the stream and fell back 
on the main road in tlie direction of Irvine. 


The topography of the country lying between the place 
where we had the last fight at the creek and Irvine is uneven, 
rough and mountainous. ISTorth of Irvine (just how far is 
not known) a range of mountains run at right angles to the 
main road along which we were falling back. The main road 
followed a narrow valley for quite a distance with cleared 
fields on both sides of the road extending up on the sides of 
the moiuitains. This valley culminated at a low gap in the 
moimtain through which the main road passes to Irvine, 
flanked by a high mountain on both sides of the gap. The 
valley is also flanked by high mountains on both sides. While 
there were cleared fields on both sides of the valley, extending 
well up on the sides of the mountains, a lane fence constructed 

282 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

with heavy rails and staked and ridered extended for a consid- 
erable distance north from the low gap. The Tenth Confed- 
erate had been ordered to the front and its place supplied by 
the Fifth Tennessee, and with the exchange of forces ordered 
to hold this low gap. The Fifth jSTorth Carolina was posted 
on the right and the Tennesseeans on the left. A short dis- 
tance north of tlie apex of the gap and on the right of the road 
a deep ravine or hollow extended down the mountain tO' the 
lane, and inside of the high fence. This ravine afforded an 
excellent protection for the men and horses. The fence was 
torn down and the battalion filed into the mouth of the ravine, 
dismounted and took position along the top of the elevation 
in front. The Tennesseeans were not so well protected, how- 
ever, but owing to obstructions in their front, the position was 
thought to be almost impregnable insomiich as the high moun- 
tains on our flanks made it impossible for the enemy to force 
us back by a flank movement, as they had been doing all the 
preceding night and morning. By the time we got well into 
position the enemy was in sight down the valley. This was 
the first time we had had an opportunity to see the enemy in 
force. From our elevated position we could see for some con- 
siderable distance down the valley. It was a scene not tO' be 
forgotten especially by that little handfiil of half starved and 
bedraggled Confederate soldiers posted along the top of that 
hill awaiting the coming struggle. The storm of the night 
had passed and the bright sun shed its loving rays upon friend 
and foe. The enemy had discovered our position and like a 
gathering storm wheeled into line. To the soldier the evolu- 
tion was a premonition of the coming struggle, a precursor of 
battle ; to the scholar, it was a suggestion of the hosts of Sen- 
nacherib "Like the leaves of the forest when the summer is 

Soon a battery of artillery got intO' position and opened a 
vigorous shelling on our position, directed principally against 
the position occupied by the Fifth Tennessee on the left of 
our line. The cannonading continued for an hour or more 
and so far as doing any damage to us might have continued 
until the close of the war — our position was bomb-proof. This 
fact the enemy soon discovered and made preparations for 

Fifth Battalion. 283 

another and more aggressive attack. Our artillea-y had been 
sent to the front to assist in clearing the pass at Irvine, and 
up to this time we had not fired a shot, not being in rifle 
range. The enemy's battery ceased firing and a heavy cav- 
alry force was thrown forward and commenced a rapid move- 
ment up the valley. It was clear they were making prepara- 
tions to charge our position. The enormous squadrons be^ 
gan a rapid move. Then was witnessed a fearful sight. All 
this vast host of cavalry with sabers drawn that fiashed in the 
early sunlight of the morning like shafts of light on the pol- 
ished slcy, banners waving, bugles sounding that well known 
note that has sent dismay into the ranks since men learned the 
art of war, there was no mistaking the meaning of the move- 
ment. It was clear to every one that the little handful of 
Confederates could not withstand the mighty onset of that 
vast host. But what was to be done ? We had been ordered 
tO' hold this position, and every one who has served as a sol- 
dier knows Avhat this meant. I tried tO' take in the awful sit- 
uation. To stand still was certain death or capture. There 
are times in battle when the soul hardens a man, even to 
change the soldier intO' a statue and all his flesh becomes as 
granite. This condition seemed to have come to the men who 
stood along that hill-top with their rifles firmly grasped await- 
ing the onslaught. Not a murmur fell from a single lip ; not 
a hand trembled, and not a cheek blanched. There were no 
weak souls or cowards there. Not a man flinched from the 
pending suicide. The road was full far as we could see. 
The cleared fields on both sides of the lane fence were 
crowded with the enemy's cavalry pressing forward. When 
in range each man rose up and discharged his rifle full in the 
fafce of the charging squadron. On they came unchecked by 
the effort of the brave men in front. In front of the North 
Carolinians was an abrupt rise on the surface running down 
to the main road. This obstruction forced a right oblique 
movement into the main road at the terminus of the ravine. 


Our line was broken and the position of the Tennesseeans 
on the left of the road was completely enveloped by the enemy. 

284 North Carolina Troops, l861-'65. 

If we had ever had an idea of abandoning our position this 
movement made it utterly impossible. The road at the 
mouth of the ravine was closed by a compact mass of the en- 
emy, on our right was a high mountain, while the open space 
to our left and the road tO' our rear was all in the possession 
of the enemy in great force. The situation presented three 
possibilities — surrender, stand up and be shot down by an 
enfilading fire, or cut our way through the mass of the enemy 
in our rear. It may have been foolhardy, but we chose the 
latter. Only a moment and every trooper was in the saddle. 
I shall never forget to the day of my death the scene of that 
moment. Each soldier seemed to be impressed with the mo- 
mentousness of the task before him and rose tO' the sublimity 
of a hero. Owing to the narrowness of the gorge, it was im- 
possible to charge in line of battle, and the column was f o^rmed 
by left wheel into column of fours. Forward ! Trot ! ! Gal- 
lop ! ! ! Charge ! ! ! ! Down that narrow gorge dashed the 
Fifth North Carolina Battalion of Cavalry, riding at full 
speed to attack an enemy ten to one, riding right into the jaws 
of death. We had to pass out of the mouth of the gorge 
through that broken down fence. On dashed the squadron 
over loose stones in the bottom of the gorge, the clash and 
clang of the empty scabbards, the mighty force behind that 
forced forward the front ranks. The head of the column 
struck the broken gap in the fence and scattered the heavy 
rails right and left like a great projectile impelled by some 
mighty force. The head of the column struck the left flank 
of the enemy. It was a sudden plunge into a vortex of 
gleaming sabres and glittering carbines ; a hand-to-hand 
struggle ; a scene never to be forgotten when this fiery mass 
of living valor rolled upon the unyielding foe; rider and 
horse, friend and foe went down together like stubble before 
a consi^ming fire. I never knew how many of the battalion 
were killed and captured in this unequal contest. I know 
that the company (A) that I commanded went into the fight 
with no strong, and only 13 answered at roll-call the follow- 
ing night. I was mounted on a thoroughbred Kentucky horse, 
said to have been the horse ridden by General ZoUicoffer at 
the battle of Fishing Creek. He was a horse of wonderful 

Fifth Battalion. 285 

strength, speed and intelligence. The report of firearms and 
the smell of gunpowder made him fiarious. How to avoid cap- 
ture was the absorbing question. I knew that unless they 
could overcome the power of my horse they could not get me ; 
and I left him free to talie care of himself. Men and horses 
went down before him as if struck by an avalanche. I have 
often wondered why I was not killed nor my horse. The 
forces were so mixed that firearms could not be used without 
danger of killing friend instead of foe is the only solution. 
I reached the main top of the hill and as I turned down on 
the other side, a horse had been shot and fallen across the 
road, and just as my horse made an effort to leap over the 
prostrate horse, it made an effort to rise and tripped my horse. 
We both went down into the soft mud together. Just then 
Lieutenant Keebler came up and seeing my condition, ex- 
claimed, "My God ! Captain Lusk is killed." But I was not, 
though it looked very much like it. I pulled myself out of 
the mud, assisted by horse to rise, remounted amid a shower 
of minie balls and rode away solitary and alone to rejoin the 
command at Irvine. 

This disaster annihilated for the time the entire rear guard. 
I do not know just how far it was from the battle ground to 
the Kentucky river, but I do know that from the place where 
my horse fell in the road to just before reaching the river I 
never saw a single soldier except the ones who were shooting 
at me. Just before reaching the river I was met by a detach- 
ment of the First Louisiana Regiment, together with a num- 
ber of soldiers from other commands, posted in the road north 
of the river. Having met no resistance since the fight at the 
Gap of the mountain, the enemy was recklessly pressing for- 
ward, deeming it unnecessary to respect the small detachment 
stationed in the road and never halting a moment to ascer- 
tain whether it was convenient for us to move out of the way 
or whether it was more prudent for them to return, but 
charged pell-mell right in among us. The forces engaged 
were small, but the fighting was desperate. A thought of 
this fight in after years always brings with it a reflection of 
sadness. I never during the whole war with cool deliberation 
shot one of my fellow men. If I ever killed a man during 

286 North Carolina Troops. 1861-'65. 

the war I am ignorant of the fact. On this occasion, how- 
ever, I came nearer doing so than at any time during my 
whole experience as a soldier. One of the enemy, a cavalry- 
man, with deliberate aim, had just shot down right by my 
side one of the Louisiajia cavalry. I saw the blood gush from 
his mouth. He fell forward on his horse and with a groan 
fell to the ground. Some how the sight so affected me 
that I lost sight of the fact that the same man was in close 
proximity with a deadly revolver in his hand bent on a mis- 
sion of death to others. I raised my eyes tO' look right into 
the muzzle of a gleaming pistol barrel. His horse plunged 
forward and he missed his intended victim. I was next at 
the score with a Colt's navy. If the poor man is not dead he 
certainly is a pensioner on account of wounds received in bat- 
tle. I have always regretted this episode in my war expe- 
rience, but I console my feelings when I reflect that he had 
made it necessary for one of us to conclude our military op- 
erations for a time at least. It was a fight to the death. 
Those of the enemy who were left alive discovered their mis- 
take and beat a quick retreat to the main body of the enemy. 
By the time we got across the river close by, the enemy fairly 
swarmed on the opposite bank. The enemy was on one side of 
the river and we were on the other. We had a battery of four 
guns, two howitzers and two rifle pieces, captured from the en- 
emy in Powell's Valley. Our battery took up a position on an 
eminence south of the town, while the enemy occupied a posi- 
tion on the north of the river. An artillery dtiel was kept 
up until the middle of the afternoon, the enemy occupying 
one bank of the river and our force occupying the other bank. 
Our force was finally withdrawn in order to avoid a flanking 
colunm on our right and fell back in the direction of Lancas- 
ter. We saw no more of the enemy until about midnight, 
when we were again attacked in force, and a fight kept up all 
the remainder of the night. The next morning about sun 
lip, it became necessary to check the enemy and a stand was 
made at a place somewhere between Lancaster and Mt. Ver- 
non, Ky. 


Just at what place the fight took place, or what was the 

Fifth Battalion. 287 

final result of the fight, I never knew. I had rallied 
the remnant of the Fifth North Carolina Battalion, which 
together with detachments from other commands, constituted 
the rear guard. Just at daylight the rear guard was charged 
by an overwhelming force of the enemy and my horse shot 
dead under me. In the fall one of my feet was pinned down 
and before I was able to extricate myself, I was surrounded 
and captured. Here my connection with the Fifth Battalion 
ceased. I was never with the command afterwards, as I re- 
mained in prison until tlie close of the war, during which 
time (two years) I was imprisoned in six common jails and 
one penitentiary. The principal part of the imprisonment, 
however, was on Johnson's Island, in Lake Erie, off San- 
dusky, Ohio. The incidents connected with the two years 
of imprisonment during the war would form an interesting 
chapter in this narrative, but as I am dealing with the history 
of the Fifth North Carolina Battalion of Cavalry, the narra- 
tive must stop here so far as I am concerned.* 


From C. T. Garrett, of Hot Springs, N. C, First Lieuten- 
ant of Company A, who took command of the battfilion as 
senior officer after my capture in Kentucky, and remained 
with the battalion until after the consolidation, I have learned 
the following facts connected with the history of the remnant 
of the battalion that sTirvived the Kentucky expedition. Pre- 
ceding the fight at Mt. ^^emon, and subsequent to the capture 
of Captain Lusk, Lieiitenant Garrett rallied the survivors of 
the battalion, amounting in all to fifteen men, and was as- 
signed to the command of the rear guard, as the senior officer 
of the battalion. The enemy fairly swarmed in all direc- 
tions. Every converging road seemed to be held by a strong 
force of the enemy. Driven back on one road, they would 
appear in force on the flank. Thus the fight was kept up for 
some time against a greatly superior force, until finally a 
strona; force of the enemy succeeded in getting between Lieu- 

*Colonel John S. Scott's interesting report will be found in S4 Off. 
Rec Union and Confed. Armies 8S9 — 84S wherein he names Captain 
Virgil S. Lusk among those he thanks for "most gallant conduct." — Ed. 

288 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

tenant Garrett and the main column of the Confederates, thus 
severing the rear guard completely from the main command. 
Not being of sufficient force to cut their way through the 
enemy's lines, they were forced to withdraw to the side of a 
steep mountain. to escape capture. An effort was made to 
flank the enemy and make their way to tlie command, then 
engaged with the enemy in what appeared to be a bloody bat- 
tle somewhere in the vicinity of Crab Orchard. This effort 
was found tO' be impossible, as the whole country was overrun 
with the enemy in all directions. Our forces Avere driven 
back in the direction of Rockcastle river, and all hope of re- 
gaining the command was, therefore, made impossible. A hur- 
ried counsel was held. One of two alternatives was inevita- 
ble : either surrender ot fight their way back to our lines along 
the Ciunberland Mountain, fifty miles away and through an 
enemy's country. Viewed in any light the situation was a 
desperate one. Between them and the brigade was the whole 
force of the enemy, while between them and the Cumberland 
Mountains was a foe more dangerous than an army with ban- 
ners — that irregiilar force known to the army as "bushwhack- 
ers" — always on the alert, -and doubly sO' on this occasion. 
Tt was known that the brigade had passed through this sec- 
tion only a fev- days previous, and the whole country was 
aroused and on the lookout for our return. This section of 
Kentucky was intensely union in sentiment, and nearly everj' 
man in it was either a regular soldier, or a self -constituted 
soldier, ready for battle at a minute's notice. They were 
thoroughly organized, and while they were not always a co'm- 
pact organization in a body, the discharge of a gun, the blast 
of a horn, or the flash of a rocket in the sky at night, would 
bring together a military force, armed with the deadly Ken- 
tucky rifle, ten times the strength of the little band grouped 
on the mountain side discussing what was best to be done. 
While they talked in whispers they saw the enemy hurrying 
by along the country road, in the valley below, "and swiftly 
forming in the ranks of war," while in the distance could be 
heard the boom of the cannon as the battle raged on the dis- 
tant plain. When the vote was taken not a single voice was 
heard for surrender, but all were unanimous in the resolve 

Fifth Battalion. 289 

to fight their way to our lines south of the Cumherland Moun- 
tains. With this resolve firmly fixed in their minds they 
started on their perilous jonrney. Famished soldiers, and 
broken down horaes, their retreat was necessarily slow — slow 
because they were physically unable to make it rapid; slow 
beca\ise the safety of the detachment made it necessary to ex- 
amine every defile and turn in the road to make sure it did 
not conceal a deadly enemy. Learning that the crossing of 
the Cumberland river was guarded by the enemy, the detach- 
ment effected a crossing below the town of Barboursville, and 
after three days ceaseless toil and constant vigils, the detach- 
ment reached our lines at Big Creek Gap. Just one week 
previous the same men had marched through this narrow de- 
file with buoyant hopes and animated expectations. ISTow be- 
hold the return; starved and emaciated soldiers, with torn 
and soiled uniforms, hatless, coatless, and blanketless. Some 
of the detachment were mounted on impoverished horses that 
limped along the mountain defile, with flopping ears and 
drooping head, while others were so famished that they were 
unable to carry the tired soldier on their festering backs, and 
were allowed to stagger along as best they could, panting be^ 
neath the scorching rays of a July sun, while the hungry 
owner trudged along the weary way footsore and tired. Such 
was the return of the Fifth ISTorth Carolina Battalion of Cav- 
alry, fifteen strong, all told, which one week previous had 
marched out over the same roads with five full companies, as 
fine looking a body of soldiers as conld be found in any com- 
mand of th.e army. Thus terminated one of the hardest, and 
for the numbers engaged, one of the bloodiest campaigns of 
the war. I never knew how many we lost in this campaign. 
I read an account in a Cincinnati paper which purported to 
give an account of the several engagements, and that fixed the 
killed and captured at seven hundred. I do not intend to 
convey the idea that fifteen men were all that was left of the 
battalion after the return of the brigade from Kentucky. It 
is presumed that some of the men clung to the main force, and 
in this way returned to their several co^mpanies ; while others 
were sick in the hospital or on detail, while still others, were 

290 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

absent on leave and detached service. Judging from the de- 
pleted ranks of Company A, it will be safe to- say, that less 
than fifty men of the battalion returned from the expedi- 
tion. The battalion halted at Big Creek Cap only long 
enough to feed and rest their tired and starving horses, and 
refresh the men with something to sustain the inner man, to 
which they had been strangers for the last full week, then 
pushed on rapidly as possible and reported to General Pegram 
at Maryville, south of Tennessee river, and was ordered to 
Concord to recuperate. The recuperation was of short dura- 
tion, it was apparent at this time that the enemy was pre- 
paring a foTward movement intO' East Tennessee, as well as 
all along the front, bordering the Kenttieky line, and it be- 
came necessary to utilize all the cavalry force at the com- 
mand of the army to watch the movements of the enemy 
along the Cumberland river and the eastern Cumberland 
Mountain range. The fragment of the Fifth Battalion 
slightly increased by this time in numerical strength, under 
Lieutenant Garrett was ordered to the front to do outpost 
dnty along the border of Kentucky; to watch the enemy in 
that vicinity, and keep the General in command of the De- 
partment of East Tennessee posted as to their movement. 
The Battalion did not have long to wait. 


The enemy threw a strong force across the Cumberland 
Mountain at Big Creek Gap. The battalion hastened across 
the mountain and intercepted the enemy at Jaekslioro, and 
together with the Tenth Confederate Regiment and a Ten- 
nessee Regiment attacked the enemy on the road between 
Jacksboro and Clinton. A sharp engagement ensued. The en- 
emy greatly outnumbered the Confederate forces, and the lat- 
ter fell back in the direction of Kingston. The Federal forces 
crossed Clinch river above ClintxDn and went in the direction 
of Knoxville, while the Confederates crossed the Clinch be- 
low Clinton and fell back on Kingston, where a junction was 
formed with the remainder of the brigade, which continued 
to fall back on the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad. 
This movement brought on a fight, which was kept up until 

Fifth Battalion. 291 

the brigade crossed the Tennessee river at Loudon and de- 
stroyed the bridge at that place. The Confederates were on 
one side of the river and the Federals were posted on the other 
side. A fine opportunity was afforded for an artillery duel 
across the river which lasted for several hours. The Fifth 
Battalion was under fire during the entire cannonading. Here 
Major Baird, who had been down with a severe attack of 
typhoid fever, appeared and took command of the battalion, 
which continued to fall back in the direction of Chicka- 
raauga. A stand was made at Pea Ridge, and a fierce fight 
took place between Scott's Brigade and a brigade of the en- 
emy's mounted infantry, which lasted all the afternoon and 
into the night, when the enemy retreated in confusion. The 
Fifth Battalion participated in this battle and displayed 
gi'eat courage and bravery. 


Here I must take leave of the Fifth North Carolina Bat- 
talion of Cavalry, as it goes off the roster as a separate organ- 
ization in the military service of the Confederate Army, 
being merged into tlie Sixth Eegiment of Cavalry on 3 Au- 
gust, 3 863, by the consolidation of the Fifth Battalion with 
Lieutenant-Colonel Folk's Seventh Battalion. I was not con- 
tent to leave the reputation of the brave ofiicers and private 
soldiers who fought by ray side during the trying scenes of 
that bloody struggle and shared with me the hardships of the 
campaigns of the late war, to the pen of any one who knew 
not of the brave deeds and heroic bearing of the men compos- 
ing the Fifth Battalion of Cavalry. As a part of the Sixty- 
fifth ISTorth Carolina (Sixth Cavalry), the Fifth Battalion 
participated in the great battle of Chickamauga under the 
conunand of Colonel Folk, and bore themselves with becom- 
ing bravery and soldierly bearing through the thickest of the 
battle. After that battle the regiment was dispatched to the 
assistance of General Longstreet in his campaign against 


At Philadelphia, Tenn., a bloody encounter took place 
between the Sixty-fifth and the enemy's forces under com- 

292 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

mand of General Wolford. Lieutenant Garrett, in command 
of what used to be Company A of the Fifth Battalion, with a 
detachment from other companies composing the old Fifth 
Battalion, was sent forward to locate the enemy, supposed to 
be posted on a different road than that along which the main 
column was marching. It was soon discovered that the en- 
emy was posted on the main route in front of the Confederate 
forces. The Confederates immediately charged and routed 
the enemy which made an effort to escape by the other road, 
and in so doing got between Lieutenant Garrett's detachment 
and the Confederate column. Upon discovering the situa-- 
tion the little detachment turned upon the enemy when a 
bloody fight ensued in which many were killed and wounded 
on both sides. In this fight Lieutenant Garrett's horse was 
killed and himself captured. He remained in prison on 
Johnson's Island u.ntil the close of the war. What was left 
of the old Fifth Battalion followed the Sixty-fifth Eegiment 
intO' Eastern North Carolina, where they remained until dis- 
banded at the close of the war. In concluding this narrative 
of the battalion it is a source of regret that I am not able to 
award to each officer and private soldier his full meed of 
merit, but I will say that no braver band of soldiers ever be- 
strode a steed or drew a saber on any battlefield in any cause, 
than those who fought in the Fifth North Carolina Battalion 
of Cavalry. 

ViEGii. S. LtrsK- 


26 April, 1901. 


(armory guards. ) 

By M. p. TAYLOR, Major. 

The Sixth Battalion or "Armory Guard," was stationed 
at the Fayetteville arsenal and armory during the war be- 
tween the States. It consisted of seven companies. 


It may be well to give a brief sketch of the Fayetteville 
arsenal and armory as a matter of historical record, touching 
the construction of the various buildings, as there is not a 
vestige of them left, having been totally destroyed by 
Sherman on his famous march through the Carolinas. The 
Fayetteville arsenal and armory were located on what is 
known as "Haymount," which overlooks the historic old city 
of Fayetteville. They were constructed by the United States 
Government previous to the war, under the immediate super- 
vision of Mr. William Bell as architect, but in charge of vari- 
ous army ofHcers of high distinction as commandants of the 
post. It was one of the loveliest spots anywhere in the South, 
and was very often visited by strangers from various States 
and greatly admired. Conspicuous octagonal high brick and 
stone towers were located at the four corners of the enclosure, 
while symmetrical walls and massive iron railing and heavy 
iron gates surrounded the premises. Handsome two-story 
brick and stone buildings for officers' quarters and the accom- 
modation of the troops adorned the front and sides, while 
in the centre, rear and both sides were large, commodious 
buildings used for the storing of small arms, fixed ammuni- 
tion, commissary and quartermaster supplies. In the centre 

Note. — This Battalion thougln numbered "Sixth" in Moore's Roster was 
never thus officially designated, but was styled the "Armory Guards." 
There was a Battalion officially designated as the Sixth Battalion which 
was increased and became the Sixtieth Regiment. There was another 
Sixth Battalion (Reserves) which became part of the Seventieth Reg- 
iment — Ed. 

294 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

of the enclosure were the gun carriage and machine shops — ■ 
the former with Mr. T. S. Barrett as superintendent, who had 
served the United States Government formerly at "Old Point 
Comfort" for a number of years before the war, while in the 
rear part of this enclosvire was a large rifle factory, contain- 
ing all of the rifle works brought frpm Harper's Ferry, Vir- 
ginia, and handsome frame dwellings for various officers' 
quarters. With the exception of these last, all the build- 
ings were constructed of brick, trimmed with stone. Mr, 
Bell continued during the entire war as architect of all build- 
ings, and was a Scotchman of national reputation. 

Some one hundred yards from the rifle factory, were two 
large brick magazines for storage of powder and fixed ammu- 

Captain J. A. J. Bradford, U. S. A., was in command at 
the opening of hostilities. He resigned from the United 
States Army and was made Colonel of the Tenth North Car- 
olina Eegiment (First Artillery). In 1863, I think it was, 
he was taken desperately ill and died, and was buried with 
military honors by the battalion in the rear of the arsenal 
buildings at his particular request. I had the honor of com- 

manding the escort. 


There was stationed at the post, under command of Lien- 
tenant J. A. IDeLagTiel, a co'mpany of United States artillery, 
who held the post up to the day, when by order of Governor 
John W. Ellis, General Walter Draughon in command of the 
State militia was ordered to take possession of the arsenal. 
General Draughon gathered his forces, consisting of the Fay- 
etteville Independent Light Infantry company, under com- 
mand of Major Wright Huske; the LaFayette Light In- 
fantry, under command of Captain Joseph B. Starr, and or- 
ganized other companies from "Cross Creek," "Flea Hill," 
"Rockfish" and "Quewhifile" districts, representing branches 
of the artillery, cavalry and infantry service, numbering in 
all about 500 men. General Draughon ascended the hill and 
halted his command just outside of the arsenal enclosure, and 
made a formal demand for the surrender of this property in 

Sixth Battalion. 295 

the name of His Excellency John W. Ellis, Governor of the 

Lieutenant DeLagnel accompanied General Draughon 
where he could make an inspection of his command, when the 
following conversation took place between himself and the 
famous old "Captain Bulla:" Lieutenant DeLagnel halted 
in front of Captain Bulla's command and remarked to the 
Captain that he seemed to have arms but no ammunition, 
whereupon Captain Bulla ran his hands in both pockets of 
his pants, pulling out buckshot and powder horns and exhib- 
ited them to him. Said Lieutenant DeLagnel: "Are these 
all the men you have to capture my battery and the arsenal ?" 
"ISTo," said Captain Bulla, "the woods is full of them." 

Lievitenant DeLagnel having satisfied himself that any ef- 
fort on his part of resistance would be fruitless, surrendered 
without the firing of a gun, except the salute by his battery 
on hauling down the United States flag. Lieutenant De- 
Lagnel with his command, marched out of the enclosure with 
their small arms and equipments, and the State troops 
marched in and took possession. The State troops were kept 
on guard until the Confederate States' forces cook charge. 

Lieutenant DeLagnel took the steamer for Wilmington and 
shipped by vessel for New York, where he gave up his com- 
mand and resigned his United States commission. Return- 
ing South he joined the Confederate Army, and was one 
of the most distinguished and gallant officers in the service. 
He was severely wounded, I think, at the battle of "Rich 
Mountain," in Virginia, and for two days and nights re- 
mained in the woods within the enemy's lines for fear of 
being taken a prisoner and without any attention of a surgeon 
to look after his wound, and it was in mid-winter, which 
caused him great suffering. 

Major John C. Booth was placed in command of the arse- 
nal. He was also an old United States Army man, and thor- 
oughly versed in ordnance duties, and was selected for the 
position on that account. The task of organizing, enlarging 
the buildings and adding an armory of construction, was a 
gigantic imdertaking. Captain Booth worked incessantly, 
never considering that every day his bodily strength was 

296 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

growing weaker, until he was forced to take his bed, and in a 
few short months he died. He was buried with military hon- 
ors by the battalion. He was an officer of marked ability, a 
splendid executive officer, and was universally loved by the 
entire armory force. He was promoted to the rank of Major 
during his illness. On his death Captain Charles P. BoUes 
assumed command until Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. DeLagnel 
was placed in command, which was, I think, about three 
weeks, and who only remained at the post about six months, 
when he returned to the field again in Virginia. He was re- 
lieved at the arsenal by Lieutenant-Colonel F. L. Childs, who 
continvied in command until the close of the war. 


The companies composing this command were the ordnance 
corps of fifty men and three artificers, Joseph D. Gurley, 
JSTeill L. Monroe and Alexander McDonald. Thomas Ste- 
vens, an old United States army Sergeant, was appointed by 
Major Booth as Ordnance Sergeant and Commissary and 
Quartermaster Sergeant of the post. 

The sj^ecial duty of the Ordnance Corps was to perform 
guard duty. It was Company A, of the battalion. Captain, 
Charles P. BoUes ; First Lieutenant, Samuel A. Ashe. 

Company B — Captain, Armand L. DePosset; First Lieu- 
tenant, David J. Ray ; Second Lieutenant, Malcolm W. Mon- 
roe ; Junior Second Lieutenant, John T. Pitter. 

This command was organized and drilled at this post, and 
constituted a part of this battalion until they were ordered to 
report at Wilmington to Major-General Whiting. Captain 
DePosset left Fayetteville with 118 rank and file. 

Company C — Captain, George W. Decker ; First Lieuten- 
ant, Charles P. Banks ; Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Rob- 
erts; Junior Second Lieutenant, Alouzo Garrison. Pank 
and file, 60 men. 

Company D — Captain, William P. Wemyss ; First Lieu- 
tenant, James F. Woodward ; Second Lieutenant, Samuel J. 
Walton ; Junior Second Tjieutenant, Malcom McTnnis. Rank 
and file, Y3 men. 

Sixth Battalion. 297 

Company E — Captain, Martin VanBuren Talley; First 
Lieutenant, Robert F. Epps ; Second Lieutenant, William T. 
Battley ; Junior Second Lieutenant, James A. Aheam. Rank 
and file, 61 men. 

Company F, Cavalry — Captain, James W. Strange; 
First Lieutenant, R. H. liolliday ; Second Lieutenant, Chris- 
topher C. McMurray. Rank and file, 69 men. 

This command only remained for a few months, and was 
transferred to more active service, doing duty in Eastern 
North Carolina from Weldon to Wilmington. Captain 
Strange had commanded Company D, Nineteenth North Car- 
olina Regiment (Second Cavalry). 

Company G — Captain, James D. Buie ; First Lieutenant, 
Lauchlin W. Currie ; Second Lieutenant, George W. Gates. 
Rank and file, 61 men. 

Francis L. Childs was LieutenanihGolonel of the battalion, 
and Matthew P. Taylor Major. 

The total rank and file of this battalion was 509 men. 

The battalion was as well drilled and as thoroughly disci- 
plined as any command in the Confederate service. 

When General Butler made his famous attack on Fort 
Fisher and attempted to land his troops, all work at the arse- 
nal and armory was suspended and this entire command was 
sent to report to Major-General Whiting. The command 
remained several days near Fort Fisher, and finding General 
Butler had abandoned his purpose, this command was ordered 
back to Fayetteville and work again resumed in the various 
departments. The large majority of this battalion had been 
in many a hard-fought battle with Lee and Jackson, but being 
skilled artisans and mechanics of a high order, they were de- 
tailed from their commands for this most important duty at 
the arsenal and armory, but they were always ready to obey 
the summons to the field. 

The Confederate Government moved the Harper's Ferry 
machinery from the rifle factory there to the Fayetteville ar- 
senal and armory, together with thirty-five men with their 
families, with Mr. Phillip Burlchart as master armorer. 
The services of these skilled workmen were highly appro- 

298 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

ciated, as the work turned out by them was greatly needed by 
the troops in the field. About 500 splendid rifles were turned 
out monthly, with any amount of small arms ammunition and 
numbers of heavy-size gun carriages for sea coast defenses 
and many light artillery gun carriages and caissons. 

As this is a matter of history, as I understand it, it will not 
be amiss to give the names of these pioneers from Harper's 
Ferry who left their homes and followed the Southern flag 
and cast their lot with the Southern cause. They were 
patriots worthy of their names, and a roll of them should be 
preserved. There were six Englismen whose names I have 
been unable to get who also deserve especial mention at my 
hands for similar service. 


James Merrick, John Hewett, Otho Hewett, Wm. Martin, 
Wm. Copeland, Phillip Schayman, Wm. ISTicholson, T'oUect 
Duke, Louis Keyser, Joe Keyser, John Schilling, John Price, 
Timothy Harrington, Phillip Burldiart, Joe Biirkhart, Mc- 
Cloud liewis, Jesse Graham, John Cord, Levi Decker, Thos. 
Boswell, Joe Boswell, V. Talley, J. E. P. Daingerfield, Jacob 
Sponcellor, Richard Clowe, Hamson Clowe, John Claspy, 
Wm. Hewitt, Geo. W. Decker, Adam Brown, Jeremiah Fuss, 
Geo. Fuss, Allan Fuss, Hiram Llerrington, Herbert Herring- 
ton, Frank Herrington, Orrie Herrington, Phillip Burkhart, 
Jr. , George Burkhart, Archibald Kitzmiller, John H. Clowe, 
W. H. Clowe, Rees H. Butler, Jas. Clasby, Geo. Clasby, 
Benj. Price, Balden Johnson. 

Sergeant Stephens deserves special mention at my hands. 
He was an old United States Sergeant, and joined the South- 
ern Army at great peril. He was one of the most methodical 
and accurate accountants I ever knew — wrote a beautiful 
hand writing, was never sick or lost a day during the four 
years he was in our service. 

When Ijieutenant-Colonel Del^agnel was returned to the 
field the command of the arsenal and armory devolved upon 
me for about two months, lintil the arrival of Major F. L. 

Captain Bolles had been employed on the coast survey by 

Sixth Battalion. 299 

the United States Government for many years previous to 
the war, and was a man of marked ability. Since the close of 
hostilities he has been employed by the United States Gov- 
ernment in the Bureau of Hydrography at Washington, D. C. 
Lieutenant Samuel A. Ashe was the assistant to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Child s in the laboratory and had particular supervis- 
ion of the magazines, testing powders and making fireworks 
and ammunition. Dr. Benjamin Robinson was Surgeon 
of post; T. J. Robinson, was appointed superintendent 
of laboratory by reason of his long experience in that branch 
of business in Washington, D. C. Captain J. E. P. Dain- 
gerfield was made military storekeeper and paymaster by 
Major Booth because of long experience at the arsenal and 
armory at Harper's Ferry. 

Thomas C. DeRosset acted as secretary in Colonel Child's 
office, Mr. Robert Johnson was chief clerk, and E. P. Powers 
assistant to Johnson. In the military storekeeper's office 
was William J. Woodward, who was placed in the ordnance 
department by Major Booth and General J. Gorgas, Chief 
of the Ordnance Bureau at Richmond, and he was one of the 
most efficient officers at the post. On the approach of Gen- 
eral Sherman's army, all work was, of course, siispended, and 
the entire command after removing all the machinery possi- 
ble, together with the large amount of supplies, were ordered 
to camp at the Gulf in Moore County, and remained there 
until the surrender at Greensboro, and were included in Gen- 
eral Johnston's surrender. 


Since writing the above, I have received some very valua- 
ble suggestions relative to the "Old Arsenal" before the war, 
and very cheerfully give them, that my report may be full 
and complete in regard to this grand old place. My sketch 
above written was gathered from the best information I could 
obtain from those resident at Fayetteville previous to the war. 

The ante bellum commandants should be in the following 
order: Captain Bradford was the first commandant. The 
building of the arsenal was begun in 1835 under his com- 
mand. He was many years in command, and was siicceeded 

300 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

by Captain A. B. Dyer about 1853, who remained until about 
1857. Captain Bradford was then returned, and, after a 
brief stay, was succeeded by Captain Ohas. P. Kingsbury. 
Captain Kingsbury remained perhaps half a year, and was 
succeeded by Major T. T. S. Laidley, who remained until a 
short time before the outbreak of the war, when Captain 
Bradford was again restored ; and, the place being turned into 
a military post, a company of artillery was added under com- 
mand of Brevet Major Samuel Anderson, J. A. DeLagnel 
being First Lieutenant. 

Dyer, Kingsbury and Laidley remained on ISTorthern side, 
though Dyer and Laidley were Virginians, Kingsbury was a 
ISTorthern man by birth, though appointed as from ISTorth 
Carolina. Dyer became Major-Greneral and Chief of Ord- 
nance of the United States Army during the war. Kings- 
bury was Brigadier-General and Chief of General McClellan's 
Staff when McClellan had supreme command. Laidley be- 
came Colonel of Ordnance, and missed becoming the head of' 
the department by a turn of favoritism. 

On the Southern side Anderson became Chief of Artil- 
lery on General Huger's Staff, and afterwards Chief of 
General E. H. Anderson's Staff. DeLagnel, who was a ver- 
itable hero, after the exciting and somewhat romantic career 
already alluded to, became Assistant Chief of Ordnance of 
the Confederacy under General J. Gorgas. DeLagnel was 
the son of a San Domingo refugee, a gentleman (perhaps a 
soldier) of high position, who came to this country with Col- 
onel DeEussy, who settled in Louisiana. Mrs. DeLagnel 
was of Petersburg, Va. Bradford, Dyer, Kingsbury and 
Laidley were men of a high order of ability and of high stand- 
ing as professional soldiers.- They were officers of the Ord- 
nance Department, which ranked next to the Engineer De- 
partment, and were therefore necessarily men who had stood 
near the head, if not at the head of their classes at West 

Matthew P. Tayloe. 
Fayetteville, N. C, 

26 April, 1901. 




Captain George 'N. Folk, after serving a year as Captain 
of Company D, Ninth North Carolina Regiment, resigned 9 
May, 1862. On reaching home he immediately raised a bat- 
talion of six companies of which he was made Lieutenant-Col- 
onel, and which was ofBcially styled the Seventh Battalion. 
In the fall of 1862 it was sent to East Tennessee and was ac- 
tively engaged in the duties of a cavalry command of that 
much perturbed section. Many incidents of its career can not 
now be recalled. On 20 JSTovember, it reported 486 present. 
Vol. 30 (Serial) Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, Ji.12. 
In December, 1862, it was on service in Carter County, Tenn. 
In July, 18 ()3, it was on the raid into Kentucky, Vol. SJf., p. 
830. The Spring of 1863 it was moving about in East Ten- 
nessee and in April was reported "on scouting and outpost 
duty" attached to Colonel John S. Scott's Brigade. (Serial) 
Vol. So, p. 793, and in July was in Pegram's Brigade, same 
Vol., p. 946. (!)n 3 August, 1863, this battalion was com- 
bined with the Fifth Battalion commanded by Major A. H. 
Baird. The regiment thus formed became the Sixty-fifth 
North Carolina (Sixth Cavalry) of which Folk became Col- 
onel and Baird Lieutenant-Colonel. The history of that reg- 
iment is given in Vol. 3 of this work. The account of the 
Fifth Battalion up to the date of its consolidation is printed 
in this volume and it is to be regretted that some one of the 
command could not do the same for the Seventh Battalion. 

There was another Seventh Battalion (Reserves) com- 
manded by Major W. Foster French, which was later merged 
into the Seventy-second North Carolina. The battalion 
numbered Seventh in Moore's Roster was not so styled during 
the war, and was doubtless part of Mallett's (or Hahr's) Bat- 
talion, herein styled Nineteenth Battalion. 


(nethekcutt's partisan rangees. ) 

By the editor. 

This battalion began as a company of Partisan Kangers 
under Captain Jno. H. ISTetliercutt 9 Off. Bee. Union and 
Confed. Armies, Jf-73, but was soon increased to a battalion. 
Its conunander, Major John H. ISFethercutt, was a blunt, but 
brave and enterprising officer, and his command rendered 
service principally in the New Bern section. If all the 
stirring incidents of its career could be told it would be a 
most interesting narrative. On 20 April, 1863, it was in a 
hot skirmish at Sandy Kidge, 26 (Serial) Vol. 255. On 27 
May he had 500 men, same Vol., 1074. 

In August, 1863, this battalion was combined with the 
Fourth (Wright's) Battalion and some independent compa- 
nies and form.ed the Sixty-sixth North Carolina Regiment, 
of which Major JSTethercutt was made Lieutenant-Colonel. 
The regiment was assigned to Martin's, afterwards Kirk- 
land's, Brigade, and its story, told by Adjutant George M. 
Rose, appears in Vol. 3 of this work. On the death of Colo- 
nel A. D. Moore, in front of Petersburg, Nethercutt became 
Colonel and 15 March, 1865, was assigned to the command 
of the brigade of Junior Reserves which he held at Benton- 
ville and up to the siirrender of Johnston's army. Colonel 
Nethercutt was assassinated at his home in Jones County 
after the war while sitting at supper with his family by some 
traitor who wished to avenge punishment received during the 
war. He was a most gallant, capable officer. 

There was another Eightli Battalion (Reserves) command- 
ed by Major J. B. Ellington, which in January, 1865, was 
merged into the Seventy-second North Carolina (Third Jun- 
ior Reserves. ) 

The battalion given as the Eighth in Moore's Roster (Vol. 
4, pp. 359-872) was officially known during the war as the 
Tenth Battalion and as such its history is herein given. 

nmih BATTALIOfi. 

(first heavy artillery.) 

By T. a. McNeill, sergeant Company D. 

Shortly after the outbreak of the war in 1861, the Legis- 
lature of Iv'orth Carolina, co-operating with the Confederate 
Government in defending the entrance to the Cape Fear river 
and the harbor of Wilmington, passed an act authorizing the 
formation of a battalion of heavy artillery, to be composed of 
three companies, to man the defences then being and after- 
wards that might be, constructed for the protection of the 
coast and shores close to the Cape Fear bar at either the Fort 
Caswell or New Inlet entrance. 

One of the companies was raised by Captain, afterwards 
Major Alexander McRae, of Wilmington, composed largely 
of men from New Hanover, Columbus, Bladen and Robeson 
counties ; dnd its officers, at its organization, were Alexander 
McRae, Captain; W. H. Brown, — . — . Ryan, A. S. Harts- 
field, and afterwards John A. Gilchrist, John J. Bright and 
R. P. Allen, Lieutenants. This became Company C. The 
second company was organized by Captain Charles D, Ellis, 
and its members were mainly from Brunswick, Duplin and 
other counties near New Hanover. Its officers were Charles 
D. Ellis, Captain, who resigned 2 October, 1862, and Jacob 
W. Taylor, promoted to be Captain in the same month, with 
Z. Ellis, B. O. Bourden and Henry C. Evans, Lieutenants, 
and was Company B. The other company was raised by 
Captain Robert G. Rankin, of Wilmington, was recruited 
mainly in New Hanover, Duplin, Cumberland and Robeson 

Note. — This Battalion was known ofBcially as the First Battalion 
Heavy Artillery. It is here numbered as the Ninth merely as a conven- 
ience. There was a battalion which was officially known as the Ninth 
(Reserves), commanded by Major D. T. Millard but when the other bat- 
talions of Juniors were organized into regiments it became the First 
Battalion of Reserves whose story is told herein under the head of 
"Twentieth Battalion." 

304 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Counties. On its organization Robert G. Eankin, of Wil- 
mington, was Captain, and E. S. Martin, G. W. Kidder, Wm. 
Harris, David G. Eobeson and A. J. Galloway were Lieuten- 
ants, and in the battalion it was Company A. 

The tliree companies were at first attached to other com- 
mands, particularly the Thirty-sixth and Fortieth Regiments 
(First and Second Artillery), from about April or May, 
1862, and served at Wilmington or its vicinity, especially 
Captain Rankin's company. McRae's company was from 
May or April, 1863, at Fort Fisher, and Captain Ellis' com- 
mand was on duty about Smithville, and to the south of Fort 
Caswell and in that vicinity from the time of its enrollment 
in the spring of 1S62, until som.e time in 1863, being under 
the immediate command of Colonel John D. Taylor, Thirty- 
sixth JSTorth Carolina, at Fort Campbell. Captain McRae's 
command while on duty at Fort Fisher, was attached tO' the 
Thirty-sixth Regiment imder Colonel Lamb, and engaged 
there in ordinary garrison duty, instructed in infantry tac- 
tics, but specially exercised in the heavy artillery manual. It 
often participated in artillery duels with the blockading 
squadron lying off the fort, and also often engaged in excit- 
ing combats with the enemy in their efforts to intercept the 
daring blockade runners bringing in great cargoes of artillery, 
small arms, ammunition, provisions, and all manner of war- 
like stores, seeking the cover of the guns of the fort to enter 
the Cape Fear river through New Inlet. 

A similar service was being performed at the same time- 
by Captain Ellis' command at Fort Campbell, on the beach 
below Fort Caswell, commanding the entrance tO' the western 
bar. Captain McRae's company was on duty in Wilmington 
at its organization ; afterwards was sent to Fort Anderson and 
remained in garrison there for some time, being drilled and 
carefully exercised in the artillery manual. The government 
early saw the importance of strengthening to the utmost the 
approaches to the Cape Fear river by way of New Inlet and 
the main bar at Fort Caswell, and in 1862 Colonel William 
Lamb was put in command at Fort Fisher. This fort at that 
time consisted of new and hastily constructed earth works, 
unfitted in size and depth to resist powerful artillery, and 

Ninth Battalion. 305 

this officer ordered Captain McRae's command, along with 
several others, to Fort Fisher. From that time until De- 
cember, 1863, under Lamb's intelligent supervision, the com- 
pany, with others, was engaged in garrison duty, drilling; 
mainly in the heavy artillery manual, constructing maga- 
zines, bomb-proofs, traverses, curtains, casemates and in 
every way aiding their efficient commander, until Fort' Fisher 
was almost entirely rebuilt. Powerful batteries, traverses, 
palisades, covered ways and gun chambers were erected, Inany 
of these latter mounting rifled guns of English pattern, and 
of great calibre, with Columbiads from the Oonfederate gun 
works. 1'hese took the place of what a few months before 
were straggling redoubts connected by inefficient curtains, and 
mounting guns of old pattern and small calibre, many of 
them mounted on ship carriages. It may be here said that it 
is difficult to realize the full value of the services rendered 
the Confederacy by Colonel William Lamb and the handful 
of artillerists under his co'mmand in keeping open, one might 
almost say, the last breathing hole of the South, after the 
fall of New Orleans and the closing of the Southern 
and Gulf ports by the rigid blockade of the United States 
Navy. The amount of military stores, clothing, arms, artil- 
lery, medicines, and often purely domestic siipplies, that came 
through New Inlet and over the Caswell bar into the be- 
leaguered Confederacy was simply immense, and how far this 
aided the doubtful struggle we may not fully know, nor to 
what extent it helped the people to clothe themselves and the 
troops, can not be estimated. 

Under orders from General Whiting, then in command of 
the Cape Fear Department, detachments from Rankin's, Mc- 
Rae^s and Taylor's companies proceeded to Smithville, N. C, 
the men leaving the old companies of their own volition, and 
there organized Company D, with James L. McCormiek, Cap- 
tain; H. C. Evans, John T. Rankin and T. M. Argo, Lieu-- 
tenants. The new company at once went on duty at Smith- 
ville, detachments from it manning the guns at Reeve's Point, 
an earthwork on the south side of Cape Fear, opposite New 
Inlet, and also swelling the garrison at Fort Anderson, some 
miles higher up on the same side of the river. Company B, 

306 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Captain Brown, remained at Fort Fisher until late in 1864, 
when it was ordered to^ Fort Caswell, then under Colonel 
Jones, where Eankin's company was then also on duty. 

In 1863, the three companies were organized into a battal- 
ion, with Alexander McRae Major, the companies being 
known as Companies A, B, C and D, the last one commanded 
by James L. McCormick, being formed after McEae was ap- 
pointed Major, and were mustered regularly into the Con- 
federate service, and known thereafter as the "First Battalion 
of Heavy Artillery." 

This, with the Thirty-sixth and Fortieth JSTorth Carolina 
Regiments, and attached companies, formed Hebert's Bri- 
gade. The officers of the battalion were Alexander McRae, 
of Wilmington, Major; William Calder, Adjutant; Asa A. 
Hartsfield, Quartermaster, and R. B. Jewett, Sergeant- 

Company C, at this time commanded by Captain John W. 
Taylor, was stationed at Fort Campbell, being detached and 
acting with the Thirty-sixth North Carolina Regiment under 
Colonel John D. Taylor, and remained on garrison duty 
there until the fall of Fort Fisher in January, 1865, doing all 
the while ordinary guard and picket duty, and engaged in fre- 
quent combats with the enemy off the fort. 


On the morning of 24 December, 1864, the huge Federal 
fleet composed of iron-clads, the new Ironsides and a large 
number of frigates and gun boats, accompanied by transports, 
was seen in crescenl^shaped order of battle off Fort Fisher, 
and soon thereafter orders came directing Captain Jas>. L. Mc- 
Cormick to move Company D, First Battalion Heavy Artil- 
lery, to Fort Fisher. Boarding the transport at Fort Cas- 
well wharf and taking on other troops at Smithville, the men 
landed late in tlie afternoon of the same day at Craig's Land- 
ing, about one mile above Fort Fisher. There they were 
formed and marched towards the fort, then being heavily 
bombarded, till within a few hundred yards of the works and 
under fire, the command was ordered under cover of a sand 
bank till nightfall. They then entered the works and at once 

Ninth Battalion. 307 

were put on guard and picket duty, mounting guns and re- 
placing carriages dismounted or destroyed during the day. 

Early on the morning of 25 December, Bowles' and Rol- 
lins' Batteries on the sea face of the fort or curtain extending 
towards Battery Buchanan, at the extreme point on the river, 
which, with the "Mound Battery," and others guarded the 
entrance to New Inlet bar, were manned by Company D. 
On the resumption of Poster's attack this day the guns were 
served well and steadily, with coolness and precision, by the 
detachments under the terrific fire to which they were sub- 
jected, the enemy, under the rain of shot and shell, desiring 
to take soundings of the bar and run the batteries to gain the 
river if possible. Late in the evening, while the pieces were 
being served, the company was ordered to the left, to repel an 
attack of infantry advanced on the fort by General Butler, in 
command of the land forces, and took position in the pali- 
sading in the marsh to the right of Shepherd's Battery, and 
opened upon the enemy's sharpshooters till they retired. Af- 
terwards, with two other companies under Major Reilly, they- 
marched to the Point as infantry to resist a supposed landing 
of the enemy, but no landing had been made. The loss of 
the company was slight, only a few of the men being danger- 
ously wounded in this action, and none killed. The men 
were complimented by Colonel Lamb for their coolness and 
gallantry under fire, and Lieutenant Rankin was specially 
mentioned for gallantry. General Whiting, who in the midst 
of the hottest fire passed the guns, spoke words of commenda- 
tion to the detachments. In a few days the company was or- 
dered into garrison at Fort Caswell. Fort Fisher was erected 
to prevent the United States navy from passing the New In- 
let into the river. It was built on a sand spit, or peninsula, 
so to speak, lying between the ocean beach on the east side, 
and Cape Fear river on the west, the shape of the land being 
triangular, and at the inlet between Bald Head or Smith's 
Island and the Point, it was narrow. Battery Buchanan being 
located at the extremity. Some distance to> the east was the 
noted "Moimd Battery," nearer the New Inlet bar, and above 
this were redoubts and curtain, extending up to, and itself 
forming a part of, the main fort, and facing the sea. From 

308 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

the Point to the land face of the fort was a mile and a half, 
and along this curtain were placed the channel batteries, pro- 
tected by traverses, with the necessary bomb-proofs, maga- 
zines, etc. The land face of the work extended from the ter- 
minus of this sea face west and across the spit or peninsula, 
nearly to the river. A sallyport was located at the west end 
of the land face, into which from above, a road led into the 
fort, there being a slough and bridge near the entrance. From 
this sally-port to the river was a breast work, protected by a 
palisade, the stakes pierced for infantry fire, sand bags also 
being used along this extension. The main land face and 
angle at the sea face and for some distance towards Bowles' 
Battery, was a powerful earthwork, about sixty feet at the 
base and some twenty feet or more wide at the elevation, with 
chambers for guns at the proper intervals, protected by im- 
mense traverses, with magazines and bomb-proofs, the fort 
and batteries having forty-four guns, and two mortars, the 
best the Confederacy could afford, some of late English pat- 
tern. General Grant, disappointed at the failure of Decem- 
ber, now sent General Terry with about 8,500 men, supported 
by a formidable fleet with more than 600 heavy guns undei* 
Admiral Porter, to reduce this place and both appeared near 
Fort Fisher about 11 or 12 January, 1865. 

second attack on foet fishee. 

On this being known Compaaiy D, of the first battalion, 
then in garrison at Fort Caswell, was ordered to Fisher on 13 
January, the bombardment beginning on that day. At once 
boarding the transport it landed near Battery Buchanan after 
dark that night and was ordered by Colonel Lamb to move at 
once to the land face to meet an expected assault. It double- 
quicked to its position near the west end of the land face, but 
the enemy did not then approach. 

On the 14th, men of this company under a heavy fire, 
manned guns on the land face, unflinching amid the accurate 
aim of the monitors and iron-clads. The 15-inch shells 
landed often on the guns, knocking off trunnions, breaking 
off great pieces of the Columbiad muzzles, wrecking gun car- 
riages, and often bespattering the walls of the gun chambers 

Ninth Battalion. 309 

with the blood and brains of the men of the detachments, yet 
the gunners coolly adjusted the degrees. The men obeyed 
every order till in turn relieved, often mounting the parapet 
amid a stonn of exploding shells when necessary to sponge a 
gun, the flannel bursting into flame as soon as out of the muz- 
zle, and continuing in this way the contest throughout the 
day. At night on&-half of the picket ordered on the beach on 
the land face was composed of men of this company. Ad- 
vancing until the enemy's pickets were discovered, they 
fought by the light of the enemy's guns on the line until near 
midnight, when they were drawn in close to the fort. 

On the morning of 15 January, the attack was renewed 
with unabated fury and daylight, as near as the writer re^ 
calls, showed only two guns on the land face in condition for 
service, and one of these was manned by detachments from 
Company D, and the other by a detachment from the navy. 
A line of rifle pits having now been established by the enemy 
within range, the men at the guns were shot as they attempted 
to serve them, but this fire was returned from the parapets 
with effect. 

With the exception of some detachments at the guns, which 
participated gallantly in the repulse of the naval brigade in 
the assault on the land face. Company D was stationed on this 
day at a sallyport about midway the land face of the fort, 
until between 1 and 2 o'clock p. m., when Colonel Lamb or- 
dered the company to the extreme left, with instructions to 
keep cover as well as possible under the fort until the enemy, 
now apparently massing for an assault, should approach 
within the range of musketry, and then, rushing to the pali- 
sades, man them and contest their nearer approach. In- 
stantly the company cleared the gallery and bomb-proof, the 
fleet at this time turning their whole fire on the land face to 
cover the assault and drive the men to shelter. Captain Mc- 
Cormick moving at the base of the works. All the land face 
now looked as if wrapped in flame and smoke — the screaming, 
exploding shells tearing the earthwork, making holes in the 
traverses, and in all the history of war it is doubtful if a more 
infernal fire ever fell upon a fort. The company reaching 
the sallyport at the extreme end of the work next the river, 

310 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

halted under cover, when in a few minutes there was a sudden 
cessation of the fire, and on the instant the vidette reported 
the advance of the enemy's column. The men of this com- 
pany rushed to the palisades, and a section of a battery at the 
sallyport at once opened fire on the enemy, ajid a destructive 
fire was kept up by the battery and Company D on the enemy 
now within a short distance of the slough, and this was kept 
up until the enemy veered, or could not be seen from the pali- 
sades at all. In this time, after a few rounds from the bat- 
tery, the detachments, two or three in succession, were all 
shot down at their guns, apparently by sharpshooters, and the 
pieces were not after this served. In a very short time the 
enemy again showed himself in our front. This time the 
column advanced to the right of this company's position, un- 
der a heavy fire poured on it from the palisades between 
the sallyport and the river's edge, moving as if to- effect a 
lodgment on the fort to the right of the position held by 
Company D, but to some extent exposed to its fire now being 
delivered in volleys. In the midst of this fire, it was found 
that the enemy were inside the palisades, to the right of Com- 
pany D, and then a desperate struggle snceeeded almost hand- 
to-hand, some of Company D to the left of the sallyport club- 
bing their muskets and fighting with the width of the palisade 
only between ttem and the enemy. But to the right of the 
sallyport and on that angle of the fort, the enemy in this as- 
sault got possession of the exterior slope, a lodgment was ef- 
fected, the parapet gained, and the men were surrounded. A 
large number of the company were taken at the palisade, a 
few retreated down the lines of the fort, others to slight en- 
trenchments near the river at right angles to the land face, 
and there fought and held possession until oveirpowered. 
Those who retreated joined the other commands in resisting 
the enemy from the traverses to- the west of the middle sally- 
port, the enemy's line now enveloping the land face on both 
sides. At length the enemy reached a traverse defended by 
detachments of Company D, which had been left serving the 
guns when the company went to the left. Here these men 
made a deadly struggle with tlie foe fo.r the traverses, the 
enemy and they firing into each other's faces at a few paces 

Ninth Battalion. 311 

distance. Our men yielded the traverse only when all or 
nearly so, were killed or disabled. Some of the men joined 
Colonel Lamb, who conducted the charge on the enemy shortly 
afterwards, and were close to that gallant officer when he was 
shot down, and continued to resist until the works were occu- 

In the assault on the palisading on the extreme left ex- 
tending from left angle of the fort to the river's edge. Com- 
pany D, together with the section of a light battery, repelled 
the enemy, their line on the second rush apparently obliquing 
to the right of this position, moving over the Wilming- 
ton road, and from a redoubt above the fort. General Whit- 
ing in referring to the assault in a dispatch after the battle 
and while a prisoner, said : "A portion of the troops on the 
left had also repelled the first rush to the left of the works." 
This Company D, of the First Heavy Artillery Battalion, 
carried into the action seventy to seventy-five men, and in the 
three days' fight lost forty men in killed and wounded, and 
those left were taken prisoners. It is not here intended in 
any way to say that other commands in this action did not act 
as gallantly in this terrible fight, but only to state the facts in 
connection with the part borne in it by one of the companies 
of the First Battalion. After the fall of Fisher all the pris- 
oners were sent North, the works at Bald Head, Fort Cas- 
well and Fort Campbell were blown up or abandoned, and 
Companies A, B and C, together with some men from Com- 
pany D, who were not captured because on detached duty at 
other points, were placed under command of Colonel John 
D. Taylor, of the Thirty-sixth North Carolina. At Fort 
Anderson, or in that vicinity, they participated in the defence 
of that place and of other places on the west side of the Cape 
Fear river, when pressed by the enemy, now advancing from 
Smithville. At Town Creek Lieutenant John T. Rankin, in 
charge of a light battery, greatly distinguished himself, fight- 
ing his guns until shot down and his section and men sur- 
rounded and captured by the enemy. 


The battalion was on d^ity on the retreat from Anderson, 
and after the evacuation of Wilmington in February, marched 

812 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

with the army to Kinston, N. C, being attached to Hagood'? 
Brigade after tlie fall of Fort Fisher. At the battle of 
"Southwest Creek" (or "Wise's Fork"), below Kinston, 8-10 
March, 1S65, the battalion was engaged slightly with a por- 
tion of Schoiield's Corps, suffering some loss. It was in the 
retreat to Smithfield and thence marched to Bentonville. In 
that battle 19-21 March, the battalion was on the extreme 
right of Hagood's Brigade, which formed the left of John- 
ston's Army. In the assault on the enemy's works Sunday 
evening, 19 March, the battalion captured the first line of 
the enemy's works in their front, their supports getting to 
the work but falling back. The supports consisted of Ha- 
good's and Colquitt's Brigades, but the battalion held the 
works taken for about an hour. The troops on the right and 
left falling back, the battalion then retired. 

In this charge Colonel John T). Taylor was wounded, Cap- 
tain Rankin mortally wounded. Captain Taylor killed, all 
the Lieutenants except Allen wounded, and the command was 
now brought off in charge of Lieutenant J. A. Gilchrist, him- 
self wounded, the command falling back under fire. In this 
last desperate charge in the last battle of Johnston's army, in 
the last battle on North Carolina soil, Lieutenant-Colonel 
John D. Taylor carried the First Battalion in 257 strong, 
and it lost on the field in killed and wounded 162 men, or 57 
per cent, of its strength. 



On the second day after the actio'U, ajid in the night, the 
position of the battalion was flanked, and it was moved for- 
ward to the left, and the works held until Wednesday morn- 
ing after the battle. The battalion was then attached to 
Whitford's command and ordered to TarboTO. The com- 
mand remained there about a week. From there it was or- 
dered to a point on the railroad below Weldon, checking an 
advance of the enemy in that quarter. From there it was 
ordered to Elizabethtown, in Bladen County, for outpost duty 
on the upper Cape Fear, when tlie surrender of General John- 
ston was reported. It was one of the organizations that was 
never formally surrendered, and upon the receipt of this news 

Ninth Battalion. 313 

the commanding officer disbanded the battalion and the men 
were sent to their homes with their arms. Major MoRae and 
Adjutant William Calder went to Wilmington, and were 
paroled in May, 186.5. 

The above is an imperfect narrative of this command. It 
was not on the fields of carnage and^ g^orj in Virginia, it was 
not at Gettysburg nor at Chancellorsville, nor in the deadly 
tangles of the Wilderness; but in garrison services which 
stayed the Confederacy, in coolness when it stood for battle, 
in courage when it met the enemy's onset, and in gallantry 
when it stormed his works and forced his lines, its members 
may claim a place well up in the record of North Carolina 
in the "heroic period," as men who equaled in valor their com- 
rades of any other arm, in faithful service to the State and in 
loyal devotion to the South. 

T. A. McNeill. 


3 May, 1901. 


1. Woodbury Whepler, CaptaiD, Co. D. 

2. H. M. Barnes, Captain, Co. B. 

3. C. S. Powell, Adjutant and 1st Lieut. 

4. F. C. Frazier, 1st Lieut., Co. A. 



By WOODBURY WHEELER,* Captain Company D. 

This sketch, is written in pursuance of the following letter, 
a copy of which I learn was seAt to all the historians, about 
100 in number, selected for these volumes : 

Ealeigh, IST. C, 19 November, 1894. 
Captain Woodbury Wheeler, 
My Comrade: 

At the last meeting of the Confederate Veterans' Associa- 
tion, I was appointed a committee to secure one soldier from 
each regiment and battalion to write a brief histo'ry of his 
command with a view to publication by the State. I have 
selected you for your command, and respectfully, but earn- 
estly request that you acept the duty thus imposed on you at 
the instance of your surviving comrades. The length and 
tenor of the sketch is left to your judgment; but an average 
of thirty pages for each regiment, will give us four volumes 
of 750 pages each of very valuable matter which in a few 
years would otherwise be lost to the 'world. You are very 
busy, and that is one reason you are selected. Only busy 
men have the energy and the talent to do work. You have 
doubtless forgotten much, but you can get access to the Official 
Records Union and Confederate Armies, published by the 
United States Government, and Moore's Boster, printed by 
our State. You can also refresh your memory by correspond- 
ence with those of your command who are fortunately still 
living. Your record as a soldier satisfies me you will not de- 

•The author of this sketch was a son of the late Jno. H. Wheeler, author 
of a history of North Carolina. His MSS. of Reminiscencies of Eminent 
North Carolinians were printed by this son after the death of the author. 
Born in Lincoln, N. C, the writer of this sketch, at the age of 19, en- 
tered the service of North Carolina and served four years. He died like 
several others, who are authors of sketches herein, pending the delay of 
the Legislature to authorize the publication of these volumes. — Ed 

316 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

cline this post of duty. Send me the manuscript if possible 
by 1 March, next. 

I respectfully request that you writ© the history of the 
JSTorth Carolina Battalion in which you served in the war. 

Please acknowledge your acceptance of this assignment to 
duty, the last which the Confederate soldiers can ask of you, 
that I may enter your name on the list to be filed with the 
Veterans' Association. Believe me to be, with highest re- 
gard and esteem. Fraternally yours, 

Waltes Claek. 

The above courteous request of Comrade Walter Clark to 
prepare this sketch would be equivalent to an order from 
headquarters that must be obeyed. Moore in his "Roster" 
of JSTorth Carolina troops, who served in the armies of the 
Confederacy, calls this the Eighth Battalion, (IV, 359) and 
gave our number to the battalion of men detailed as artisans 
(395) ; how the error occurred in the War Department Rec- 
ords, he does not explain. But from the foundation of the 
battalion, in May, 1865, it was always known and mustered 
as the "Tenth Battalion of North Carolina Artillery." 

The engineer ofiicers of the Confederate Army were prob- 
ably as fine a body of experts as ever existed ; whenever they 
projected lines of defence around any important point we 
might rest assured that these had been planned and completed 
according to the most approved system. At the entrances 
of the Cape Fear river and also around the City of Wilming- 
ton, every point was made as impregnable as possible. When 
these entrenchments were finished several artillery regiments 
were formed for the special garrison of the same; as Presi- 
dent Davis remarked, he had sent his most skillful officers to 
the defence of the place — referring then more especially to 
that knightly soldier. General W. H. C. Whiting, who died 
21 January, 1865, from wounds received at the second attack 
upon Fort Fisher. 

To this necessity of creating a force for the defence of 
Wilmington does the Tenth Battalion owe its formation. In 
February, 1862, we find the first enlistments were made for 
the battalion, and on 13 May of that year, the Major (Wil- 

Tenth Battalion. 317 

ton L. Young, of Wake County), was commissioned to com- 
mand the three companies then comprising the organization. 
Subsequently, in April, 1863, Company D was formed and 
Woodbury Wheeler made its Captain. Captain Wheeler had 
served during the first six months of the war as Adjutant of 
the Sixteenth Eegiment, under General Eobert E. Lee, in the 
campaign around Cheat Mountain, Virginia. The men were 
nearly all from the Western counties of our State. The 
duties of this battalion at that time were important, but not 
brilliant ; in the summer season they were ordered out of the 
city either to the forts at the mouth of the Cape Fear or to 
the "Sound," to prevent any inroads from that direction. 


It was whilst the battalion was stationed at Tort Caswell 
that a raid was made by the enemy, from th'eir fleet to the 
headquarters of our General at Smithville, which for daring 
could hardly be surpassed. Following the channel, which 
was necessarily left open to admit our English friends, in 
their blockade-running steamers, these raiders, commanded 
by the same Lieutenant Wm. B. Cushing, who afterwards 
destroyed the ironclad "Albemarle," with equal intrepidity, 
came within pistol shot of our sentries ; passed batteries that 
could have hurled tons of shot and shell upon them, and land- 
ing at the Smithville wharf, went immediately to General 
Heberf s quarters. He fortunately was at Wilmington on that 
night; but when his chief of staff raised the window to find 
out the cause of the commotion on the porch, the front end of 
a revolver was thrust in his face with a demand for his sur- 
render. Tbe result of this raid was the capture of that 
officer only. The alarm was promptly given, all the batteries 
opened fire on the channel-way- — dark as Erebus although it 
was. Cushing fled to his gunboat, lying in as near as she 
could to the fort, and then putting on a full head of steani, 
turned his vessel seaward. In his great haste he ran into 
another gunboat, the "Peterhoff," and she sank in less than 
ten minutes. 

The next day one of the fleet came in near the fort again, 
but its white flag at the peak was not observed. Our Whit- 

318 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

worth gun was unlimbered and made ready for action; the 
command to^ fire was on the lips of the Lieutenant in charge, 
when the vessel stopped and turned her broadside towards the 
fort, and not until then was the flag of truce at her masthead 
spread out by the breeze so we could see it. A small boat 
came ashore for the captured ofiicer's personal effects and 
brought a note of adieu from him to his late comrades. Wo 
never saw him again. 

Since the war the writfr has bten told by Federal officers 
who were on the fleet that lay off Fort Caswell, doing block- 
ade duty, that our "WhitM'orth" would slioot clear through 
their vessels when they came in range. One of its projectiles 
cut the thi'oat of a quartermaster as clean as if done by a 
razor, the shot doing no other damage. 

Tbey said Lieutenant Gushing frequently spent days in 
ambush on the banks of the Cape Fear and would often cap- 
tare our army couriers passing from Wilmington tO' Smitli- 
ville ; he would compel theon to exchange clothes with one of 
his men, whom he would send into Smithville after dark, on 
horseback, to get the correspondence ready to be returned to 

The old line ofiicers on the fleet looked with contempt on 
all such raids as guerrilla warfare and frowned upon such as 
eccentricities of Cusbing. 

The spirit of this brave young officer chafed under the re- 
straints enforced by a retTim to peace, and he ended his days 
within the -avails of "St. Elizabeth," the United States hospi- 
tal for the insane of the army and navy, near Washington 
City, a raving maniac. War's dread alarm alone had charms 
for him. 

The Whitworth gun mentioned was a terror to the enemy ; 
its range was immense, its accuracy that of a sharpshooter. 
The blockading fleet was by it compelled to keep so far from 
the fort that the English steamers easily made the port. Our 
great war governor, Zebulon B. Vance, appreciated the im- 
portance and necessity of using these English-built steamers 
to supply his brave troops with the sinews of war, as well as 

Tenth Battalion. 319 

blockade eunning. 

It had been the policy of President Davis to put an em- 
bargo on cotton and thus make the great powers of Europe 
raise the Federal blockade to obtain a supply of this great 
product of the South ; so the inland cities of the South had 
about this time great rows of cotton bales, making cumber- 
some curb-lines for their streets, awaiting this raising of the 
blockade of the enemy. The Governor of North Carolina did 
not believe in this policy and determined to supply his men 
with what they needed as soldiers, and by exchanging cotton 
for meat and bread so help them and their families. One 
of the largest vessels which ran the blockade at this point was 
purchased by our State, and she was christened the "Ad- 
Vance." By her many cargoes of the priceless necessities of 
life were brought to Wilmington, and the JSTorth Carolina 
troops heaped blessings on their Governor's name for this evi- 
dence of his care and tender regard. 

The "Sumter," the great Admiral Semmes' first ship, once 
came into this port and brought on that trip two "Blakeley" 
guns, of such great size, that they were stood on their end in 
the forward part of the vessel and around their muzzles some 
of the larger ropes of the ship were wound. These guns were 
put on the battery at Charleston, an interior line, and al- 
though costing many thousands of dollars, never had the op- 
portunity of firing a shot at the enemy. 

In the winter the lines of entrenchment around the City 
of Wilmington Were picketed by this battalion ; so long were 
these linfes, the duty was most arduous. During the winter 
the battalion also became the provost guard of the city. Wil- 
mington was the last port held by the Confederacy, and the 
fleet of English blockade runners on the river front became 
very numerous, with them came many JSTorthern spies. The 
city was patrolled constantly, every "suspect" was himted 
down and brought in with a file of soldiers at his back, and 
the rough element, male and female, adventurers of every 
class, were kept in subjection as far as possible. The duties 
of a provost-guard whilst most necessary are nevertheless irk- 

320 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

oedebed south. 

The battalion, however, had work enough from December 
1864, to the end of the war to satisfy the most ambitious sol- 
dier, and during the next five months there was hardly a day 
"which they could call their own." Geoaeral Sherman had 
"cut loose" from his base of supplies. The plan to divert his 
raid across Georgia was frustrated by the repulse of Hood's 
army at Franklin, Tenn., and Federal forces moved across 
the State of Georgia with comparatively little opposition. 
So soon as Savannah was found to be the "objective point" 
of Sherman's march, its defence was assigned to Lieutenant- 
General W. J. Hardee, a most gallant officer of world-wide 
reputation, and this battalion was put into the trenches 
around that city. The writer was in hospital suffering from 
rheumatism, when the command left Wilmington. The 
lines of entrenehm.ent around Wilmington which the com- 
mand had picketed for so many days and nights and guarded 
so zealously, were to be left by them to other hands to de- 
fend when assaulted by the enemy. The writer came with 
the command to Augusta, Georgia, and there all soldiers 
who had already seen service at the front, but were now 
doing "post duty," once more volunteered to return to the 
field and defend the State. The enthusiasm was intense and 
the writer, although in hospital, reported for such duty as he 
might be able to perform. 


The Tenth Battalion went into Savannah just as Sherman 
appeared before that city, and here for nearly twenty days it 
was almost continuously under fire. 

The army commanded by General Sherman was well nigh 
invincible, rude and truculent though it seemed at times, but 
made up as it was of the brawn and muscle of the great North- 
west, it became a "scourge of God," a dire punishment to the 

For days and days of that cold December (1864) Sher- 
man's men would form in skirmish line, on the edge of the 
woods, and move across the "opening" right up to the range 
of our canister and grape shot before they could be driven 

Tenth Battalion. 321 

back to cover. During the weeks of siege, our General found 
out that the coil was being tightened around his devoted com- 
mand. Fighting for "home and fatherland," his small force 
was doing all that could be done to save the lovely city en- 
trusted to them, and yet we all began to think that before the 
winter closed we would be in prison at Fort Delaware or on 
Johnson Island ; still we stood to our guns and did our duty. 


Inside of these lines there was an infantry battalion whose 
officers were some of our best young men, noble in heart and 
in spirit, cadets of some of the oldest families in the Caro- 
Unas, but the rank and file were made up of men who had 
been captured by our armies in various battles. These we 
called "galvanized Yankees." True they were nearly all 
foreigners, mostly Irishmen, who cared for neither side es- 
pecially, but had been first regularly enlisted in the Federal 
army. If captured, they knew they would be tried for de- 
sertion, for they now "wore the gray." Amongst them was 
a young Sergeant, a native of Delaware, he came with the bat- 
talion, thus made up. They soon "took in the situation," 
and almost felt like the rope was around their necks. Who 
could blame them for their desire to escape such a fate ? 

One night a gigantic Irish Corporal in this command, be- 
cause he had become so devoted to one of the Confederate of- 
ficers over him, revealed a plot which had been formed to 
spike the guns of our main battery, kill or capture the officers 
near by and go over into Sherman's lines. The young Dela- 
ware Sergeant was the originator of the plot. Several regi- 
ments from another portion of our line surrounded this un- 
happy band and their guns were speedily taken from them. 
A drum-head court-martial was held, and in less than an hour 
our young Delaware Sergeant and six others, at the hour of 
midnight, were duly executed by sentence of this court; the 
residue of the command was passed through our lines to the 
rear. Our General was tried after the war under orders of 
the War Department at Washington for the execution of 
these conspirators, but of course he was acquitted. 
, 21 

322 North Carolina Troops, 1861 -'65. 


The end of the siege came at last ; one evening, long into 
the dark, we shelled the woods in front of our batteries, and 
kept the enemy from having any fires at all,- but when our 
headquarter's band finally struck up "Dixie," they all yelled 
at us, "Played out! Played out!" For some cause or other 
they did not return our fire on that night at all, and it was 
about 11 o'clock when we silently marched down the City 
road, lined by the great live oak trees, with their long festoons 
of waving moss and vines which swung backward and for- 
Avard, in the pale moonlight, and seemed to be ghosts of our 
departed hopes. We passed through the city and just as the 
clocks in the steeples struck "one!" our command had reached 
the centre of the dikes in the rice fields, which border the Car- 
olina side of the Savannah river. 

No pursuit of us was attempted. The enemy was perfectly 
willing to "play quits" aft«r weeks of constant duelling. 

At our first halt the Georgia troops being "Home Gruards" 
insisted that they should be returned to their State. And as 
a legitimate operation of the doctrine of State's rights, they 
were returned. This forced General Hardee to uncover 
Charleston and that great citadel fell. 

Then came the campaign of the Carolinas, under the com- 
mand of General Jos. E. Johnston. It was on 19-21 March, 
1865, that there occun'ed the three days' contest at Benton- 
ville, which for fierceness and vigor might be well honored 
with the title of one of the greatest battles of the war. It 
was the last fought in the eastern portion of the Confederacy. 

General Johnston finding that the wings of Sherman's 
army were widely separated, precipitated his whole command 
on the Federal corps commanded by General Slocum at Aver- 
asboTo 16 March, and gave that distinguished ofiicer a pretty 
thorough scare; with about 14,000 men, he captured three 
guns, many prisoners and drove the enemy back several miles. 
He certainly taught the commander of tliat wing that our shot 
and shell were not yet all gone; but the other portion of Sher- 
man's army coming up, we fell back to Bentonville where for 
three days with less than 20,000 men, we held at bay Sher- 
man's united command of near 70,000 men. 

Tenth Battalion. 323 

the eeteeat. 

The retreat across our own native State next followed. 
The only hope we had was to make a junction with General 
Lee's army and make a combined assault on either one of the 
armies of the enemy. That hope was not realized, and so on 
1 May, 1865, at Greensboro, IST. C, the writer was duly 
paroled with the battalion and became once more a civilian, 
"in accordance with the terms of the Military Convention, 
entered into on 26 April, 1865, between General Joseph E. 
Johnston, commanding the Confederate army, and Major- 
General W. T. Sherman, commanding the United States 
Army in IsTorth Carolina, and he was permitted to return to 
his home, not to be disturbed by the United States authorities 
so long as he observed this obligation and obeyed the laws in 
force where he may reside." This parole is signed by T. B. 
Koy, A. A. General, C. S. A., Commissioner, and Wm. Hart- 
suff, Brev. Brigadier-General and A. I. G., U. S. A., Special 

Washington, D. C, 

26 April, 1898. 


By F. C. FEAZIEE, First Lieutenant Company A. 

The Tenth Battalion, after its organization, was encamped 
some three months at Salisbury in the early part of 1862. 
Company A was mostly from Kandolph County. The writer 
of this sketch, was first a member of Company I, Tenth JSTorth 
Carolina (First Artillery), and was in the battles around 
Kinston and GoldsBoroi, at the time of General Foster's raid 
on the Wilmington & Weldon Kailroad in 1862. The North 
Carolina troops at that juncture had nearly all been sent to aid 
General Lee in Virginia, who was hourly expecting an attack 
by Burnsideat Fredericksburg. The same time was selected 
by General Foster to make his attack in the eastern part of 
the State that Burnside made his assault on Lee's forces. 
His force numbered some 20,000 men and 36 pieces of artil- 
lery. All day the 12 December Colonel Pool, commanding 
six companies of the Sixty-first Regiment, Bunting's Battery, 
and Starr's, fought and held them in check between Southwest 
creek and the Kinston bridge across the ITeuse river, assisted 
late in the evening by a part of General Evans' Brigade. On 
15 December, General Evans' Brigade, with Mallett's Battal- 
ion and the troops engaged the day before, formed a semi-cir- 
cle around the bridge on the south side of the ISTeuse and held 
them back until 1 p. m., when a great part of the ammunition 
being exhausted and no prospect of any more reinforcements, 
our forces attempted to reoross the bridge and bum it, partial 
arrangements having been made for that purpose, but the en- 
emy got near the bridge before our troops could get over. Only 
a part being over when it was set on fire, some men ran 
through the fire, some fell in the river and some six hundred 
were captured. Two guns of our battery were lost at the 
bridge. Our forces fell back to the rear of town, to Washing- 
ton's Hill. The Federals next morning recrossed the river 
and marched up the river on the south side. The 15th they 

326 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

fought the Eleventh Regiment at White Hall across the river, 
the bridge being burned down. The 16th they fought our 
forces, on the Wilmington & Weldon Eailroad south of Golds- 
boro and south of the ISTeuse river, burning the railroad 
bridge. At the same time a part of their forces fought Bunt- 
ing's Battery and the Forty-fourth Regiment, Major Sted- 
man commanding, across the river at Spring Banli. Bunt- 
ing's Battery in the three days' lighting, lost nineteen men 
killed and wounded; at the writer's gun, of six cannoneers, 
one was killed and two' badly wounded ; three horses out of 
four at the gun shot — no men captured. General Foster 
paroled all his prisoners. He was formerly Superintendent- 
of the Fentress copper mine in Guilford County, ~N. C. 

In February, 1863, the writer was transferred to the En- 
gineer Corps with rank of Lieutenant, soon thereafter v/as 
elected Lieutenant in Company A, Tenth Battalion (Second 
Heavy Artillery), and reported for duty in April, 1863, at 

Malarial fever prevailed around the city; yellow fever in 
1862. Company A buried twenty-nine of her men at and 
near Wilmington. When a cavalry regiment of Federals 
'from ISTew Bern made a raid on the Wilmington & Weldon 
Eailroad, burning the depot at Burgaw,. the Tenth Battalion 
pursued down below Richlands — ^heavy artillery pursuing 
cavalry — the cavalry came in on the "home stretch" by all 
odds ahead. 

The battalion was at Fort Caswell some months in 1863. 
While there the "Ad-Vance," State blockade runner, 
grounded on the bar, off the fort one and a half miles. The 
writer, Sergeant Harris and fifteen men were sent aboard 
to keep the Federal g-un boats off; a storm coming up 
we were not relieved for three days. The steamer was 
loaded down with stores for our ISTorth Carolina soldiers ; we 
did not know for some time whether we were going to Hart's 
Island or "Davy Jones' locker." While out there a blockade 
runner passed by and entered the Cape Fear at ] a. m. Gov- 
ernor Vance presented the writer with a suit of English grey, 
a small fortune at that time. 

There being yellow fever in Bermuda, in the fall of 1864, 

Tenth Battalion. 327 

Company A was detailed to do quarantine duty at Fort An- 
derson ; all blockade runners having yellow fever on them 
were unloaded there; the officers had to go aboard and ex- 
amine their manifest. ISTo soldier was allowed to leave the 
fort on furlough during this time. 

In November, 1864, the battalion, with half of the Fortieth 
Regiment (Third Artillery), was ordered to Augusta, Ga., 
which Sherman was then threatening on his march from At- 
lanta to Savannah. We remained only a few days ; he did 
not come nearer than Millen. The Confederate powder mill 
was being torn up and moved to Columbia, S. C. The writer 
was placed in command of Battery ISTo. i, near the mill. 
Then the battalion was moved to Charleston, thence to Sav.iii- 
nah and up the Central Railroad forty-five miles towards 
Macon, was engaged with Sherman's advance at Jenks' 
bridge, had a few men wounded and the writer and twenty- 
four men captured ; part of Company A was placed two miles 
out to watch the Ogeechee river, fearing the Federals would 
cross on pontoons to our rear, and were not ordered in until 
the rest of the command had gotten on the train and moved 
back to Savannah ; was at Fort McAlister soon after it fell. 

There mines had been made and powder placed which did 
execution when the fort was charged. Was then sent with 
other prisoners to Hilton Head, there was confined two 
months with 160 Confederate officers on "retaliation" — one 
pint of corn meal a day and some pickles, no meat, no fire in 
the buildings, meal old and bitter, bran and bugs in it. One- 
third of the officers could not walk when moved north to Fort 

Little has been said about that "retaliation," but it will 
never be forgotten by those who suffered at Hilton Head. 

This battalion kept to the rear for two years, faithfiiUy 
obeyed all orders, guarded millions of dollars worth of stores 
for the army at the front, and with sleepless vigilance watched 
and -kept the enemy back at the mouth of the Cape Fear 
(when for a long time it was the only port a blockade runner 
could enter) so rations and munitions of war could be brought 
in for Lee's brave men. No better guards were in our army ; 
nothing was taken or lost, though often short of rations and 

328 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

clothes themselves, and when placed in front of Sherman's 
victorious army in Georgia, they fought and moved back stub- 
bornly at Jenks' bridge, Savannah, through South Carolina to 
middle North Carolina, doing their whole duty, and when the 
whole army could see the cause was lost, ready tO' do their 
duty as well-drilled soldiers, regardless of results, they went 
intO' the last battle, 19-21 March, 1865, at Bentonville, with 
the same dash and rebel yell as Stonewall Jackson's and Jeb 
Stuart's men, flushed with victory, did in 1862. Company A 
was iDaroled at Bush Hill, N. C, 2 May, 1865, each man and 
each officer being paid $1.25 in silver for faithful service for 
three years. 

F. C. Feaziee. 

Trinity, N. C. 

26 April, 1901. 



By C. S. POWELL, Adjutant. 

The Tenth JSTorth Carolina Battalion was known as Heavy 
Artillery, and were drilled and skilled in the use of both 
artillery and small arms. The officers, non-commissioned 
officers, and many privates, could name the nomenclature of 
a Columbiad or Whitworth from knob to tompion, could cut 
fuses for blank or point blank range, understood the uses of 
the quadrant and sextant, and drilled with muskets until the 
index finger of the right hand crooked like a hawk claw while 
the barbette carriages on the parapets, and the mounted field 
pieces were as play things for them to handle. While they 
did not see so much carnage and bloodshed as many others in 
the main armies, their services were nevertheless dangerous, 
arduous, necessary and important and helped to make the 
record of the grandest army that ever mustered on this earth. 

This battalion was organized some time in 1862 at Wil- 
mington, N. 0., and consisted of four companies. A, B, C and 
D, and was commanded by Major Wilton L. Young, of Wake 
County, with T. W. Bickett, of Union County, Adjutant; 
Simpson Russ, of ISTew Orleans, La., Surgeon ; W. Gr. Toomer, 
Mobile', Ala., Quartermaster; B. S. Traywick, of Union 
County, Sergeant-Ma j or; T. G. Cureton, of Union Co'imty, 
Ordnance Sergeant. 

Company A was commanded by Captain H. J. Harriss, of 
Randolph Coimty ; S. A. Young of Wake County, F. C. Fra- 
zier (the best gunner in the army), and 'S. L. McCoin, of 
Randolph County, being the Lieutenants. 

Company B by Captain H. M. Barnes, of Harnett County ; 
W. L. Hockaday of Harnett, Y. J. Lawhorn and C. S. Pow- 
ell of Johnston, Lieutenants. 

Note. — This battalion was officially known always as the Tenth Battal- 
ion. It is erroneously given in Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, pp. 359-372 as 
the Eighth Battalion.— Ed. 

330 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Company C by Captain C. M. T. McCauley, of Union 
County; J. A. Grady, T. W. Bickett and S. S. McCauley, of 
Union County, Lieutenants. 

Company t) by Captain Woodbury A^Tieeler, of Lincoln; 
E. B. Goelet, of Wayne County ; J. M. Terrell and Calvin 
Dickinson (county not known) Lieutenants. 

There were over one hundred men in each company, and 
about all the mechanics, carpenters and skilled workmen in 
these companies were almost continually on detailed, de- 
tached extra work without extra pay. 

This was substantially the formation of the battalion when 
I joined it in 1863. There were subsequent changes, among 
which was the promotion of Adjutant Bickett to Assistant 
Surgeon in some North Carolina Kegiment; C. S. Powell to 
Adjutant; B. S. Traywick to Assistant Surgeon; D. A. 
Young tO' Sergeant-Major, and many minor changes among 
the non-commissioned officers and privates'. This battalion 
operated mostly in and around the city of Wilmington, at the 
forts below, and on the Cape Fear river at the inlets. 


A semi-circle of three or more miles around the city was 
entrenched and protected by skilfully erected dams across 
water courses, entrenchments and traverses in the intervals 
and high places, surmounted by heavy ordnance. In the city 
itself, on the bluffs on the river, were batteries of ten-inch 
Columbiads and magazines stored with ordnance supplies. 
Along the river front were immense sheds with government 
supplies stored for shipment to the various armies in the field. 
These guns, magazines, dams, government stores and line of 
entrenchments were constantly guarded, day and night, with 
a new guard every day, commanded by a mounted commis- 
sioned ofiicer of the day whose duty was to inspect every point 
twice in twenty-four ho'Urs and make written report of the 
same to headquarters on being relieved. This arduous duty 
coupled with the exposure to the malarial sAvamps of the 
ponds made by the dams, and marshy borders of the river, 
the yellow fever, the smallpox scourge of 1862-'63, the 
sand flies, mosquitoes and bad water was about as serious and 

Tenth Battalion. 331 

mortal as shrieking shells and the inquisitive minie balls. 
This duty lasted two long years and many noble men went 
down to rise no more till resurrection day. We had one little 
picnic excursion up to Kenansville, Duplin County, to inter- 
cept a Yankee raid from somewhere on the coast. They did 
not come, and the boys got fat on good country grub sent to 
camp by the blessed ladies of the town and country. I turned 
a plumb fool aboiit then and went back there after the war 
and fooled one of them off home with me and she is sitting in 
eight feet of me now. 

Ten days ended our picnic and our same beat was filled 
again until one other little outing of a coiiple of weeks to the 
sound, eight miles off, to protect some salt works that was 
being annoyed by the Yanliee gunboats. A few shots from a 
Whitworth gun stood thena off and they gave no more trouble. 
The fall of 1864 we were sent tO' the forts on the river below 
Wilmington. A short time at Fort Anderson, which was 
mostly a quarantine station for incoming vessels, and then to 
Fort Caswell and later to Campbell. 

It may be of interest to some to say that Wilmington is on 
the Cape Fear river, thirty miles from its entrance into the 
ocean, which was then through two outlets or channels. Fort 
Fisher guarded one and Caswell the other, with Campbell 
two miles down the beach on the right flank. These forts 
were manned by heavy gvms and commanded the inlets, and 
were the principal defences for the city. 

The inlets were besieged by a niimber of Yankee gun boats 
forming a semi-circle four or five miles out at sea. Their 
object was to prevent vessels passing in or out, but many, 
called blockade runners (not the moonshine, hillside fellows), 
did do so, bringing valuable stores of clothing, rations, muni- 
tions of war and medical supplies as well as an occasional 
calico dress for the ladies Sunday wear, etc., and so on, on 
their return carrying out cotton which was sold at fabulous 
prices. The ships could pass only on dark nights, and signal 
lights at the forts, to point out the bar, were kept constantly 

Our great and noble Govcimor Vance caused one of these 
vessels, the Ad- Vance, to be boug'ht and operated by the 

332 NoKTH Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

State. She made many successful and valuable trips for Con- 
federate and ISTorth Carolina soldiers, but was finally cap- 
tured. A well equipped Whitworth gun of tremendous range 
and great accuracy of shot, patrolled the beach from Campbell 
to Lockwood's Folly, some twenty miles below, and was a ter- 
ror to the gun boats if they ventured too near. Its sudden 
appearance from behind a sand hill would instantly make 
them show their heels. This gun was operated with as much 
promptness and speed as our modem city fire engines. 


One of these blockade runners, the steamship Spunkie, in 
coming in, got among the gunboats and her officers got so rat- 
tled that they ran her ashore right under fort Campbell, after 
the danger had all been passed. The Captain and every man 
deserted the ship and came ashore. Instantly Lieutenants 
Dickinson, Goelet, Terrell and Powell took a boat and boarded 
her through the rough waves several feet high, green as we 
were, but young and vigorous with a desire for excitement and 
adventure and without orders or any particular object in 
view. We found everything good to eat and drink — rum, 
brandy, champagne, canned goods, cheese, "shore 'nuff cof- 
fee," tropical fruits, cigars and many more good things. We 
had a royal time for three hours, then Colonel Jones, com- 
mander of the post, had his say next. But we cared little. 
The vessel soon went to pieces and the cargo was greatly dam- 
aged. Many wrecks were long after to be seen on the coast 
from the same cause. 

While at Fort Campbell a detail of five men, with a row 
boat was sent out to supply the post with oysters that 
abounded in the sound near by. This crew deserted and 
rowed out to the gun boats and the next night a squad of Yan- 
kees came through the channel in a row boat and went to 
Smithville (now Southport), two miles in rear of Fort Cas- 
well, evidently piloted by one of the deserters, to the General's 
headquarters and quietly took the Adjutant-General out of 
bed to the gun boats. A flag of truce next day explained all. 
The General happened to be o&. 

Tenth Battalion. 333 

a nice fike-dog. 

This boat crew used a 42-po'Uiid shell for an anchor while 
gathering oysters, and left it at their boat landing. Think- 
ing it would make a nice fire-dog (it being apparently empty) 
I put it in my fireplace and in about six hours she went to 
pieces. It knocked the chimney down, turned a six-foot table 
legs upwards, opened what windows were shut and closed 
those already open, see-saAved the doors until they would 
neither open or shut, knocked brick dust into Reuben Stu- 
art's, my Orderly's hand, and turned me heels upward flat of 
my back in the sand in a dazed condition. The long roll was 
sounded, the parapets were instantly manned and when called 
upon to explain, I felt like the boy that fell out of the hind 
part of the cart. That thing had the right name. 


In K'ovember, 1864, news reached that region that some- 
thing had "broke loose in Georgia." We bid those old Bar- 
bette carriages and Columbiads, so grimly pointing at those 
old black hulks on the ocean, good-bye. Same at dear old 
Wilmington. We did not have a band, but the boys sang as 
they boarded the train "The Girl I Left Behind Me," and 
in due time we landed at Augusta, Ga., and at once com- 
menced entrenching on the western suburbs, but were soon or- 
dered to Savannah as Sherman and his bummers were steer- 
ing, stealing and burning on a line for that city. We went 
via Charleston, S. 0., and somewhere between there and Sa- 
vannah, either at Coosawhatchie, Salkehatohie, Pocotaligo, 
Honey Hill (or some other hill), we were taken off the train 
and in about twenty minutes beat the stufiing out of a small 
force of Yankees (negroes, I think), that had landed and were 
approaching the railroad. They re-embarked and were soon in 
the dim distance. Our casualties were s.light and theirs un- 
known. They were surprised and awfully frightened. This 
being our first cartridge biting, I saw a few "Goo-Goo" eyes 
among our boys. 

On our arrival at Savannah we were sent up the Central 
Railroad to the 45-mile post, and there deployed as skirmish- 
ers across the railroad and the county road leading to the 

334 North Carolina Troops. 1861-65. 

Ogeecliee river bridge, made temporary rifle pits and in two 
days, the dark, blue lines showed np and the business pro- 
ceeded. We were soon brushed away by a line of battle, not, 
however, until that said crooked finger got in some work. 
What their loss was we never knew. We lost several, among 
them Sergeant-Ma j or Daniel Young, a brother of the Major. 
Captain McCauley was in command of the skirmishers and 
afterwards remarked that according to tactics he took posi- 
tion eighty paces in rear and got behind a big stump (as the 
tactics said cover when convenient), when the firing com- 
menced he looked out on one side and zip ! came a ball ; pretty 
soon he looked on the other side and zip ! came anothea-, as 
the firing increased he thought he would look over and see 
what the boys were doing and he thinks there came three or 
four baskets full of bullets all around and over him. About 
tbat time he saw the boys coming back right lively and not 
desiring to go contrary to tlie tactics, maintained his distance 
pretty well. Tbe Yanks did not push fast, but just came 
gradually and moved us a little every day clear back to near 
Savannah, which was nicely entrenched on an old canal. 
Here commenced a siege which was kept up for several days, 
and a head could not show above the works without danger. 
Tbe boys soon got used to it and were soon old veterans. We 
were here brigaded with the Fiftieth North Carolina Eegi- 
ment, a part of the Thirty-sixth or Fortieth (tliey also were 
heavy artillery from Wilmington), some Georgia Reserves 
and the Seventh Regiment North Carolina Senior Reserves 
(or Seventy -seventh North Carolina), and commanded by 
Colonel Wash. Hardy, of the Sixtieth North Carolina, who 
had been (I think) captured in some of the up Georgia battles 
and exchanged. We all learned to love him for his bravery 
and kind-heartedness. He always called us his "people." He 
appointed on his staff Lieutenants W. H. Borden and J. W. 
Edmonson, of the Fiftieth Regiment, and occasionally I had 
the honor of so serving. I do not think he knew what fear 

This organization was maintained, practically, to the sur- 
render at Greensboro. Some changes were made at the re- 

Tenth Battalion. 335 

organization of the army by Johnston, at or near Smithfield, 
J^. C. 


About 22 December, 1864, Savannah was, in the night time, 
quietly evacuated undisturbed. We crossed Savannah river 
on a long, shaJjy pontoon bridge that felt dangerous, and I 
think some unnily horses and cannon went overboard. The 
next morning found us among the great rice fields of South 
Carolina on our retreat, to be followed by the withering and 
devastating tramp of Sherman and his bummers and robbing 
camp followers. The courses of his three corps could be dis- 
tinguished by the columns of dark smoke from burning dwell- 
ings and other property by day and weird lights from the 
same by night. The glorious Palmetto State was in the coils 
of the Python. Her citizens Avere insulted and outraged and 
their homes destroyed. Her beautiful capital, Columbia, the 
pride of the State, was laid in ashes and its charred remains 
and silent chimneys left to mark the destroyer's vengeance. 
This is war, and Sherman said war was hell and it was such, 
with him. There was little fighting on this mighty retreat. 
When Johnston made a stand, Sherman just came up, sat 
down with part of his army and just simply outstretched us 
on one side or the other and we had to fall back or be sur- 

At Salkehatchie bridge 3 February, 1865, we were so 
closely pressed that we failed to set fire to the kindling to burn 
it. A hot fire was kept up by the Yankees and General Mc- 
Laws asked for two volunteers from the Tenth Battalion to 
bum the bridge. Sergeant J. E. Harriss, of Company A, and 
Private H. M. Underwood, of Company D, promptly stepped 
out and said "Here we are." The General gave them orders, 
and at the same time ordered a battery to "shell the woods." 
These men walked as straight to that bridge and fired it, a^ 
they would to a dinner table. On their return they were 
cheered and General McLaws complimented them and pre^ 
sented them with a thirty days' furlough with transportation 
attached, on the spot. They went home and returned in time 
for the battle of Bentonville where both were wounded in my 

336 North Cakolina Troops, 1861-65. 

presence. This retreat was through a swampy region and 
our thinly clad and almost barefooted men suffered untold 
misery from wading and cold. We slowly retreated across 
the State of South Carolina and not until we reached Averas- 
boro, 'N. C, did we have much skirmishing and no pitched 
battle. At many plantations on the route peanuts by the cot- 
ton basketful were placed for us along by the side of the road 
by order of the ladies up at the "big house." 


At Averasboro 16 March, 1865, the fight was short and hot. 
We did not fool with them long and they did not try to keep 
us from going on. At Bentonville in the three days' fight, 
19-21 March, we got pretty badly mixed. We got after the 
Yankees and they just fired and fell back ; we chased them on 
Sunday evening until after dark. I think we went in twenty 
feet of one of their lines, when they suddenly fired a volley, 
broke and ran. If the fire had been well directed not a man 
of us could have escaped. The sheet of fire was blinding. 
Many were wounded and a few killed on our side. There 
was a mighty rattling of canteens and tin cups in those woods 
when the enemy fell back in haste. This battalion had 
thirty-eight men killed and wounded, every officer in the bat- 
talion was wounded save Captain Barnes and myself. I car- 
ried a spade in this fight and held it right in front of my 
"cracker box." After two days in the trenches amidst con- 
stant picket firing and occasionally a shelling frolic, we again, 
unmolested, evacuated, falling back in the direction of Smith- 
field and Sherman going to Goldsboro, neither troubling the 
other, one going up l^euse river, the other down. After two 
weeks' rest at or near Smithfield and a reorganization of the 
army, we were again in trim for lighting or retreating, which 
last we did up to near Greensboro, when on 26 April, the end 
came. We were paroled 2 May, 1865, each man being paid 
$1.25 in silver. 

I have met many of these old comrades at our annual re- 
unions since, and some times I think we get our war stories a 
little mixed and rather shaky. Now in conclusion, I desire 
to say to the survivors of this battalion, that this imperfect 

Tenth Battalion. 337 

sketch has been written by request and on short notice. I 
know it is not a complete record, but I have had only my own 
personal recollections and "Moore's Roster of ISTorth Carolina 
Troops" to draw from. Not a single member of the battal- 
ion has been consulted since I undertook this task, but I have 
given it my best consideration after a lapse of thirty-six years 
or an ordinary life time. I may and most likely have, left 
out much that should appear, but nothing has been over- 

If I have failed to give due credit in any sihape to any mem- 
ber, it was an unintentional oversight. Every member was 
my friend and I had naught but the highest regard for them 
all, those we buried by the wayside as well as those living to- 

0. S. Powell. 

Smithfield, N. C, 

26 April, 1901. 



(whitford's battalion.) 

By the editor. 

The origin of this battalion was a company of Heavy Ar- 
tillery raised for the defence of Xew Bern. After its fall, 
this comjjany and three others (Mayo's, Leecraft's and Her- 
ring's) in like predicament, were organized into a tempor- 
ary battalion under Captain John X. Whitford 17 March, 
1862, 9 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, Jf-Jf-S. He soon 
raised a permanent battalion and General Pettigrew 17 
March, 1863, complimented the men and especially their 
commander as "a gallant and efficient officer." Vol. 26, p. 
194. In May, 1863, he was at Coward's Bridge with 400 
men, same Vol., p. 1074. The battalion was conim.anded by 
him as Major, and did efficient and daring service in scouting 
and in driving back predatory expeditions of the enemy. In 
45 (Serial) Vol. Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, Gen- 
eral Peck reports that on 25 jSTovember, 1863, his men had 
surprised two of Whitford's companies, capturing 52 men 
(killing some) and 100 horse and arms, etc., but we do not 
know how true this was, but in VoL 49, at p. 856, it is re- 
ported Confederate authority as a loss of "twenty men cap- 
tured at Haddock's Mills, near Greenville." In 1863 the 
battalion was recruited to six companies, of which Major 
Whitford became Lieutenant-Colonel, and was at Kinston 
December, 1863, with 627 present, 49 (Serial) Vol. of same 
work, p. 906. On 18 January, 1864, it was raised to a full 
regiment, the Sixty-seventh, of which he was made Colonel 
and whose history has already been told in VoL 3 of this 




By the editor. 

This battalion is giv^en in Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, pp. 241- 
247, as the Fourth Battalion, but it was always styled offici- 
ally the Twelfth Battalion. It consisted of three companies 
of cavalry, two from J^orthampton and one from Bertie and 
Hertford. It was raised for duty in the peninsula between 
the Roanoke and the Chowaii and its service consisted mostly 
of picketing on the Chowan. All three companies had been 
raised in 18(52 and had been serving as independent compa- 

On 3 May, 1803, they were organized into a battalion by 

Saivluet, .T. "\7jjioeij5I4^ Major. 

WiLiJAM A. PuGH was appointed Adjutant. 

OoMi-'ANY A — Northampton — Captain, H. E. Hoggard; 
First Lieutenant, -Tames V. Sauls ; Second Lieutenants, G. 
W. Joyner and William Vann. 

Company B — Bertie and Hertford — Captains, Joseph O. 
Cherry, Geo. I"). Ward ; First Lieutenant, Geo. D. Ward ; 
Second Lieutenants, David C. Arthur and C. C. Lovejoy. 
The latter of Wake County. 

Company C — Northampton — Captain, E. A. Martin; 
First Lieutenant, J. B. Boon; Second Lieutenants, Jesse T. 
Britton and James D. Odom. 

The battalion come in collision with the enemy 2 July, 
j.863, on their advance to Boon's Mills and they report some 
captures from the battalion, J^.l^ (Serial YoL) 0^. Rec. Union 
and Confed. Armies, 89Z. It was sent to Kinston, but was 
ordered to Garysburg early in January, 1864, 60 {Serial) 
Vol. Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 1083. It con- 
tinued the duty of picketing the Chowan with occasional skir- 

340 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

mishes with the enemy until 11 July, 1864, at which date by 
orders from Richmond Companies A and B were transferred 
to the Fifty-ninth North Carolina (Fourth Cavalry), and 
Company C to the Sixteenth North Carolina Battalion which 
was afterwards the Seventy-fifth North Carolina Regiment. 
82 (Serial Vol.) Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 763, 
thus terminating the existence of the TweKth Battalion. 


1. J. B. Starr, Lieut.-Colonel. 4. Halcott P. Jones, 1st Lieut.. Co E 

•i. LewisH. Webb, Captain, Co. A. .s. T. C. Fuller, 1st Lieut , Co. B. 

3. J. D. Cumming, Captain, Co. C. 6. John Henry Curtis, Sergeant, Co E 

7. A. B Stronach, Private, Co. B. 


(stahr's battalion of artillebt. ) 

By J. H. MYROVEE, First Lieutenant Company B. 

The 2'hirtcent'h Battalion was organized 1 December, 1863. 
It was composed of six batteries of light artillery, i. e. : 

Company A — Gu^aberland, Richmond and Perquimans — 
Captain, Lewis H. Webb. 

Company B — Cumberland — Captain, Joseph B. Starr. 

Company C — New Hanover — Captain, Jas. D. Cumming. 

Company D — Beaufort — Captain, Z. T. Adams. 

Company E — Orange — Captain, Wm. Cameron. 

Company F — Craven, Beaufort, Wake — Captain, Alex. 
C. Latham. 

Joseph B. Stakr^ of Company B, was elected Lieutenant- 
Colonel. He had been Captain of Company F, "Bethel" 
Regiment, and in September, 1861, had been promoted to be 
its Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Captain Columbus L. Chestnutt^ of Sampson, was ap- 
pointed A. Q. M. 

Jno. C. Mor.i.EY, Surgeon. 

G. A. NicoLLAssoN^ Assistant Surgeon. 

The companies composing the battalion had each been 
raised nearly two years before, serving in different assign- 
ments to duty, and in fact the battalion, as a whole, at no 
time served together. In Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, pp. 248- 
268, this command is styled the Fifth Battalion, but that was 
(as the note thereto states) merely for convenience, for it was 
always known, and styled officially, the Thirteenth Battalion. 

Owing to the detached services of the several companies, 
I am able to give details of Company B only. 
company b. 

This battery was formed on Company F (the LaFayette 
Light Infantry) of the First ISTorth Carolina Volunteers (the 
Bethel Reffimentl as a nucleus, which had returned to its 

342 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

home in Fayetteville after six months service on the Penin- 
sula at Yorktown. The work of enlistment began almost im- 
mediately, and it was made up of members of that company 
with the addition of sturdy farmers from Eobeson, Cumber- 
land and Harnett. 

In January, 1862, the following officers were chosen: Jos. 
B. Starr, Captain; Thomas C. Fuller, First Lieutenant; 
John Whitmore, Second Lieutenant, and Benjamin Eush, 
Junior Second Lieiitenant. The roll of non-commissioned 
officers and privates will be found in Vol. 4, Moore's Roster, 
pp. 252, 255. 

On account of the difficulty experienced by the Confeder- 
ate aiithorities at Richmond in fitting out the companies of 
light artillery with field pieces, Starr's Artillery was ordered 
to Fort Fisher for its first service, and on 21 January, 1862, 
took the steamer for Wilmington. There the men were 
equipped in uniforms and other furnishings for camp life, 
arriving at Fort Fisher on the day following, where Captain 
Starr reported for diity to Major John J. Hedrick, command- 
ing the post. 

At this post, afterwards so celebrated in the stirring events 
of the Civil War, Starr's Battery faithfully performed the 
duties devolving upon it in manning the heavy guns of the 
fort, guarding the shore batteries, moamting guard, etc., 
through the remainder of the winter, the spring and part of 
summer. It was Avhile here that T. E. Wardell, then acting 
as Sergeant-Major of the post, mysterioiisly disappeared one 
night during a very heavy storm. The if act that Wardell 
was a ]Srorthern man by birth, and that he had been for some 
time despondent of the success of the Southern cause, availed 
to give circulation to the report that he had deserted, and 
found means to reach the blockading vessels of the Federal 
fleet lying off the coast. But no credence was given to this 
nefarious rumor by his comrades in arms; and information 
from his family after the war disproved this theory, and the 
mystery of his fate remains unsolved. 

In those days there was little to enliven the monotony of 
camp life at Fort Fisher save the lazy turn of some leviathian 
Union gun-boat forming the. blockading squadron, and then a 

Thirteenth Battalion. 343 

puff of smoke, with a hurtling, shrieking shell over the case- 
mates. This would call the men to the guns, and the fire 
woiild be returned. But this was heavy artillery play of a 
harmless kind, which caused not a head to "duck" or a pulse 
to take an extra beat. 

An event later on pu.t it into the power of a part of Starr's 
Battery to show their mettle as soldiers and their skill as 
marksmen. "The Modern Greece" (whose skeleton hulk, 
inbedded in the sands, can still be seen to-day) a blockader, 
superbly furnished in stores of a varied and extensive kind, 
making iip a costly cargo of medicines, fine liquors, shoes, 
clothing, etc., finding herself hard run by her Yankee foes, 
while attempting to make the port of Wilmington, was 
beached under shelter of the guns of Fort Fisher, and the 
greater part of her valuable freight was landed by boats. 

In the "Modern Greece" was a battery of Whitworth guns, 
superb breech-loading, rifled steel pieces, carrying a long con- 
ical ball, and endowed with a reach and precision of fire in 
action little short of marvelous. Two of these guns were as- 
signed to Starr's Battery, were mounted, and sent, under 
charge of a Sergeant, to Fort Caswell at the mouth of the 
river — a little bunch of fosse, rampart and casemate, badly 
served with old time siege pieces, which the Federal block- 
ading cordon daily insulted with its superior armament. 

During the night masked batteries were skilfully prepared, 
and by sunrise the detachments were ready for work with 
their Whitworth guns. All that day and the next there was 
an intensely exciting duel between the sea and land forces, 
the latter spitting forth its terrible volley of conical projec- 
tiles from two clumps of bushes. Again and again the block- 
aders shifted their position — only to find it apparently impos- 
sible to get beyond that deadly range. ISTorthern papers, 
coming into the hands of the men a few days afterwards, gave 
them a gratifying triumph in the information that the Whit- 
worth guns had wrought havoc — the Miantanomah having 
been so badly crippled as to reqiiire towing out of the line of 
fire, while another gun-boat was struck no less than three 

The next most exciting incident in the few months of ser- 

344 North Carolina Troops, 186l-'65. 

vice at Fort Fisher, was the animated chase of a Confeder- 
ate blockade-runner by the ever vigilant ships of the enemy. 
The vessel, commanded by the late Captain John N. Maf- 
fitt, was saved only by the skill and bravery of this famous 
commander, and a detail from Starr's Battery was sent off in 
boats to aid in talking oft' part of the cargo, that Captain Maf- 
fitt might proceed up the river. 

About this time Colonel Wm. Lamb, now of Norfolk, suc- 
ceeded Lieutenant-Colonel John J. Hedrick in the command 
of Fort Fisher, and a short time afterwards Starr's company 
went into camp outside the walls of Fort Fisher, a short dis- 
tance tip the beach. 

Throughout the whole of the late summer and early fall 
of 1863, the yellow fever raged with unabated violence in the 
city of Wilmington; so that when, in September, orders were 
received by Captain Starr to report immediately with his 
command to the commanding officer at Kinston, N. C, it was 
necessary to make a detour of the plague-stricken city, and 
to march overland to North East, a station on the Wilming- 
ton & Weldon Railroad, to take the train for Kinston. 

But the men made the long march through oppressive heat 
and heavy sands with cheerfulness, nay, alacrity. They were 
going into active light artillery service for which they had 
enlisted, and their zeal was intense. And here the historian 
deems it but just to say that while Starr's Light Artillery was 
condemned to service throughout the war to the eastern part 
of North Carolina, it over and over asked to be transferred 
to the sphere of action in Virginia. It rests content with 
having done its duty where its country called for the exercise 
of its self-denial and patriotism. 

At Kinston the company found a battery of six-pounders, 
with a full complement of excellent horses, and went into 
camp, taking quarters in what was known as "The Old Cas- 
tle," a huge ruinous, half dismantled building in the southern 
part of the town. 

On lY Decemlier, 1SG2, took place the battle of Neuse 
river bridge, a short distance below Goldsboro, General G. W. 
Smitli commanding the Confederate forces. About sunrise 
the enemy were reported by scouts to be advancing in heavv 

Thirteenth Battalion. 345 

force from the direction of Kinston on the county road, and 
Colonel Marshall, of the Fifty-second Regiment, North Car- 
olina Infantry, was ordered by General Clingman to proceed 
with his command to the railroad bridge, and hold it at all 
hazards. Immediately on taking position this regiment was 
attacked by the enemy in such heavy force, by two simul- 
taneously approaching columns, that our left was hurled 
back and doubled ujj on itself, while the Federal infantry 
rushed on, and applied the torch to the railroad bridge. The 
Fifty-second Regiment was then moved rapidly up the bank 
of the river in the direction of the coimty bridge, half a mile 
above, where Starr's Battery was in line a short distance from 
the county road. Jnst before reaching this point the gallant 
Fifty-second, which had fought so bravely, was fired into by a 
company of the Fifty-first North Carolina Infantry, who 
mistook their comrades for the enemy. 

The Union troops, having effected the destruction of the 
railroad bridge, fell back to a position on a commanding hill 
on the east side of the railroad, about 600 yards above the 
(bridge. This position, during the afternoon, was assailed 
by General Clingman with a column of the Fifty-first and 
Fifty-second Regiments, under the immediate command of 
Colonel Marshall, while those in reserve in the skirt of woods 
were subjected to a galling artillery fire from a Federal bat- 
tery of four guns. 

At about 4 o'clock General Clingman ordered two pieces of 
Starr's Battery to proceed on the right, supported by Colonel 
Shaw's Eighth Regiment, down the county road, and attack 
the enemy in flank, while Colonel Marshall was instructed to 
advance at a charge on the enemy's right as soon as Starr's 
artillery should open firg. In the meantime, the enemy's ar- 
tillery on the hill had been reinforced by four other guns, 
making in all eight pieces, which raked the road along which 
our section of the battery was advancing, making the fire so 
heavy that the gun under the immediate command of Lieu- 
tenant Rush did not advance, that ofiicer halting it some dis- 
tance from the scene of action. 

In the meantime, General .Evans, of South Carolina, had 
ridden up on the left of our line; and, seeing that part of 

346 North Carolina Troops, 1861 -'65. 

Clingman's Brigade which had been halted in the skirts of 
the woods, resting on their arms, ordered an immediate 
charge, notwithstanding the explanation given to him of Gen- 
eral Clingman's plan of attack ; and, as he was the ranking of- 
ficer, the command was obeyed with disastrous results to the 
6rigade. While the infantry was attacking on the left Lieu- 
tenant Thos. C. Fuller brought one piece of Starr's Battery 
into position just where the county road crosses the Wil- 
mington & Weldon Railroad, and went into action under 
the heavy fire of the enemy's eight gims. The fight at this 
point was short but bloody. Andrew Weir was killed at the 
piece by a ball through the head, and his comrade, Linebery, 
stepped over his dead body and took his place. Sergeant 
Myrover received ^ scalp wound from a piece of shell. Cor- 
poral McLean, and Privates IX J. Harrell, W. H. Pearce and 
McLauchlin were woimded ; indeed, so great were the casu- 
alties in this engagement to the small detachment about this 
one devoted piece of artillery, that Liexi tenant Fuller himself 
served the gun, bringing ammunition, cutting fuse, etc. 

At sunset the fight was over, the enemy's fire slackened, and 
finally ceased, but Colonel Shaw's Eighth Regiment and 
Lieutenant Fuller's piece of artillery held the position until 
a late hrur in the night, when orders were given to fall back 
to the county bridge. During this time General Thos. L. 
Clingman passed down the line, and warmly complimented 
Lieiitenant Fuller and his men for the excellent work which 
they had performed, in sustaining a fight against odds so 
tremeudotis. On the approach of Lieutenant Push, who 
had by this time come up — the reception accorded to him by 
the General was very different. 


In May, 1863, couriers brought the news to Kinston that 
a large force of the enemy was approaching by the road at 
Wise's Fork, and the Confederates, under General D. H. 
Hill, with General Robert Ransom second in command, took 
a position on the borders of Gum Swamp, eleven miles below 
Kinston. A piece of Starr's Battery, with a detachment, 
commanded by Lieutenant Whitmore, was placed in position 
on the right center of the line, supported by a part of the Fif- 

Thirteenth Battalion. 347 

ty-sixth North Carolina Regiment of infantry and other 

During the previous night either through the treachery of 
disaffected citizens living in the neighborhood, or through the 
vigilance of the scouts in making the discovery, the enemy 
found a way through a part of the swamp, up to that time 
deemed impassable, and a volley of musketry poured into 
their ranks gave to the Confederates the first startling intima- 
tion that they were siirrounded — trapped in a veritable cul 
dp. sac. 

This unfortunate affair, which may charitably be placed 
among the accidents of the war, cost the life, among others, 
of the gallant Jarvis B. Lutterloh, of the Fifty-sixth, and the 
capture, together with a part of the infantry, of Lieutenant 
^Vhitmore and the artillery detachment under his command. 
The men were exchanged in a few days, but the officer never 
returned. It must be remembered that Lieutenant Whitmore 
was a non-commissioned officer of the Union forces which 
surrendered with the arsenal at Fayetteville iii April, 1861, 
under Major Bradford and Lieutenant D'Lagriel; that, con- 
cealing himself in the suburbs of the city, he failed to depart 
with his command, and enlisted in the Confederate Army. 
He was of course, recognized immediately after his capture at 
Gum Swamp, and he stood before his captors guilty of a most 
serious offence. He could doubtless make peace, and save 
himself from grave punishment, only by recantation, and the 
historian must deal leniently with him, in consideration of 
the critical peril in which he stood. He was a man of lim- 
ited intelligence, but a superb drill master, a machine who 
knew n alight biit obedience to the orders of a superior of- 
ficer — a Dugald Dalgetty on a reduced scale. 

Lieutenant Whitmore's military apostacy — when some 
time made it certain that it could be considered naught 
else — left a vacancy among the commissioned officers which 
was filled by the election of Sergeant G. B. Atkins to the po- 
sition of Second Lieutenant, whose merits were to make 
themselves felt with his contimiance in office. 

The election of Lieutenant Thos. C. Fuller to the Confed- 
erate Congress in 1863 was followed by the appointment of 

348 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Orderly Sergeant J. H. Myrover to the position of Second 
Lieutenant. Mr. Fuller qiiit the service and the field to 
enter upon that public career which his matchless abilities 
rendered a succession of brilliant triumphs nearly up to the 
close of his life a few days ago, as judge of the Court of 
Claims. He was a good private soldier and a still better of- 
ficer. He loved danger for danger's sake ; he was the friend 
and confidant of his men, while he enforced discipline ; and, 
though the soldiers crowded about the ballot box to vote his 
political preferment eagerly, they bade him farewell from 
the mess table and the tent with sorrow. 

The company bore an honorable and conspicuous part in 
the several engagements around Kinston, up to the final aban- 
donment of that position by our forces. In the second fight 
at that place, where the battery held the left of the line, and 
aided in successfully repelling repeated charges of the enemy, 
two Parrott guns had been placed in the hands of the com- 
pany, which so badly crushed the shells that many of our own 
men, in their advance upon the enemy, were wounded by the 
broken pieces of the flying missiles. In this battle the Napo- 
leon field piece served by Sergeant Hall and his detachment 
wrought fearful execution on the enemy, as was admitted in. 
their subsequent reports. 

For some time in the summer of 1863 the battery was sta- 
tioned at Fort Hamilton, in Martin County. It will thus 
be seen that its field of duty extended from Goldsboro east- 
ward of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, and embraced 
a large area of territory. In truth, though the sorely pressed 
Confederate government coiild spare bxit a handful of men 
for Fastern North Carolina, its retention was of prime im- 
portance to us, for it was one of the granaries whence were 
drawn the supplies for the Southern armies. Quartermas- 
ters J. B. Smith, John McEae and Charles R. Arey pene- 
trated away into Hyde and other extreme eastern counties 
with their wagons, bringing away great quantities of corn and 
forage, and on every expedition they were imminently ex- 
posed to incursions of the enemy as well as to the treachery of 
the "Buffaloes." On 2Y November the battery reported 137 
present, }^9 Off. Bee. Union and Confed. Armies, 851. 

Thirteenth Battalion. 349 

On 1 December, 1863, Captain Joseph B. Starr was pro- 
moted to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Thirteenth Bat- 
talion, North Carolina Troops (Light Artillery), and the 
command of the company devolved on Lieutenant Benj. Rush 
as the senior commissioned officer. The affection of the men 
led them to feel no little gratification at the well-merited 
honor tendered to Captain Starr, but this feeling filled their 
hearts, also, with genuine grief at his departure as their com- 
manding officer. Generous in heart, devoted to the welfare 
of those who had so long served with him, concealing under 
an occasionally brusqvie manner warm sympathies, endowed 
with unflinching courage and inflexible flrmness, his soldiers 
trusted him implicitly and loved him cordially. 

The vacancy on the commissioned staff of the battery was 
flUed by the election of Sergeant J. D. McLean to the Second 
Lieutenancy, a gallant soldier of irreproachable standing 
among his comrades, ever faithful to his duties both in the 
camp and on the field. 

At Greenville, in the winter of 1863, Colonel Roger Moore, 
commanding the post with a small force of cavalry and Starr's 
Battery, was informed that the enemy, consisting of a squad- 
ron of cavalry, had made a reconnoissance from Washington. 
At 7 o'clock at night 30 December, he sent one company of 
cavalry and a piece of artillery from Starr's Battery, under 
command of Lieutenant Myrover, down the Washington road 
to find the enemy — which they did, marching into a cleverly 
planned ambuscade where the road led through a swamp, and 
was fringed by dense undergrowth. The surprise was com- 
plete, a heavy volley from the cavalry carbines of the enemy 
apprising us of the trap into which we had walked. The Con- 
federates, utterly bewildered, ignorant of the size of the force 
pouring its fire into them, retreated, and the gun — though 
Private John LI. Dobbin even then made great efforts to fire 
it — fell into the hands of the enemy, together with a great 
part of the detachment, among whom were Cannoneers Dou- 
glass Sandford, J. A. Brown, Garvin Wightman, James and 
Isaac Dodd, the brave Southern soldier now in the Home at 
Raleigh. The Federal account of this event will be found in 
J^8 Off. Bee. Union and Confed. Armies, 4.9S. 

350 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Starr's Battery took part in the investment of Washington, 
N. C, under command of General D. H. Hill, and, after the 
evacuation of that place by the Federals, formed part of its 
garrison, with Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Vanhook, of the 
Fiftieth Regiment, commanding the post. During that time 
a disastrous fire, which broke out about midday, destroyed 
nearly one- half of the beautiftil town. 

For the last year of its service Starr's Battery (Company 
B) was under the admirable command of Captain G. B. At- 
kins — for })art of the time before he received his captain's 
commission, Captain Benj. Rush was suspended of his com- 
mand, kept under arrest in camp, and finally deprived of his 
commission. The vacancy thus caused in the commissioned 
staff Avas filled by the promotion of Sergeant Isaac Jessup to 
the Second Lieutenancy. In September, 1864, the battery 
was at Wilmington. 88 Off. Eec. Union and Confed. Armies, 

At the last battle of Kinston, 8 March, 1865, one part of 
the battery was stationed on the banks of the Neuse river be- 
low the town, while the other held a position southwest of the 
place, across the river, on the brow of the hill, where the brunt 
of the Federal attack was made in overwhelming force. Here 
Private George Gee was killed, and his body was borne from 
the field, on the ammunition chest of the gun, in the arms of 
Sergeant Jessup. Gee was one of "the bravest of the brave." 

The Federals poured into Kinston on the very heels of the 
retreating Confederates, and in a few moments fires were 
burning in the streets in the destruction of cotton and other 
government stores. The forces holding the left of our line, 
including part of Starr's Battery, iinder command of Colonel 
Stephen D. Pool, retreated to Goldsboro, destroying the 
bridges behind them as they advanced. 


On lY March, 1865, the battery reached Smithfield, IST. C, 
as part of Hoke's Division, and on the 18th that command 
formed a junction with that part of General Joseph E. John- 
ston's armv under General Hardee, which was marchins: 
from Fayetteville. Sherman was moving from the latter 

Thirteenth Battalion. 351 

place towards Goldsboro in two sections of his numerous and 
finely appointed army, the columns about a day's march apart, 
and General Johnston's plan was to attack Sherman's left 
wing, separated from the right. On the 19th Hoke's Divis- 
ion reached Bentonville, Johnston County, and took position 
on the left of a large and deserted old plantation, heavily 
wooded on each side, through which one main road ran, and 
along which the division was stationed, with a part of Lieu- 
tenant-General Hardee's Cor])s. Starr's Light Artillery, 
after remaining in column in the road for some time — during 
which the gallant John Murphy was struck down by one of 
the enemy's shells, and one arm torn to pieces, he afterwards 
dying in hospital — took the right center of the line on the 
edge of the field, supported on the right by Colonel John W. 
Hinsdale's Junior Reserves, the whole Junior Brigade being 
under command of Colonel J. H. ISTethercutt. The battery 
was commanded by Captain George B. Atkins, as brave a sol- 
dier as ever entered the Confederate service, who, although 
in fearfully bad health and always racked by physical suf- 
fering, was ever at his post of duty. This officer, finding a 
wooden house in front of a North Carolina Regiment 
serving as a shelter for this enemy's sharpshooters, dislodged 
them by a few well-directed shots from two Napoleons, and 
they were seen hurrying out from the building, amid the 
cheers of the Confederates. Diiring the afternoon of the 
19th the enemy repeatedly charged our line, where it was held 
by Hoke's TJivision, but was as often repulsed, though the 
never ceasing artillery fire was ca\ising many casualties in 
our ranks. 

On the morning of the 20th, couriers broiight the news that 
the two wings of the Federal army had been united, and that 
the left, once driven back, was coming up heavily reinforced, 
on Hoke's Division. This necessitated a change of position, 
and that officer reformed his line, parallel to the county road, 
to wliich he had before been aligned at right angles. From 
11:30 to 4 :00 o'clock the whole united columns of Sherman 
made attack after attack upon this part of the line, composed 
of 6,200 men, v/ith only such intrenchments as could be 
thrown up with the bayonet, but were driven back with seri- 

352 North Carolina Troops. 1861-'65. 

ous loss. Throughout the 21st the skirmishing was very 
heavy, and late in the afternoon a large force of the Federal 
Seventeenth Army Corps, by a superhuman effort, broke 
throuffh our line on the extreme left, and hurled it back in 
dire confusion. The moment was critical; the loss of the 
bridge (jver the creek in our rear would deprive Johnston's 
army of its only line of retreat. A section of Starr's Battery, 
under command of Lieutenant J. D. McLean, was rushed 
from the right of the line to the scene of the contest, and, sup- 
ported by General Wade Hampton with the force of cavalry 
and infantry massed to strengthen the threatened point, gal- 
loped to a position on the field. The enemy's stubborn effort 
was foiled, and one division of the Seventeenth Union Corps 
especially suffered heavily. 

In the battle of Bentonville the Confederate losses were 
nearly 2,400, while those of the enemy could not have been 
less than 5,000. General Wade Hampton has said of this en- 
gagement that, as it was almost the last, it was one of the 
most remarkable of the Civil War, and that its conception and 
conduct by General Joseph E. Johnston was a masterly stroke 
of military genius — where less than 15,000 men under three 
commands successfully held the field against 60,000 of the 
finest equipped troops in the world. 

Prom the 22d of March Starr's Battery remained in camp 
near Smithfield for some days, dtiring which there was a 
general review of the troops, and a notable event of camp life 
was a visit, 6 April, from Governor Vance, with one of his 
wonderful speeches to the veteran soldiers. 

Starr's Battery marched from Bentonville, via Baleigh, in 
the hospital of which John Murphy died, arrived at Haw 
River on 18 April, and thence proceeded to a point near old 
Centre Meeting House in Randolph County. While in camp 
Lieutenant-General Hardee's Quartermaster-General divided 
equally among the Confederate soldiers there assembled a 
quantity of silver sent from Greensboro, which gave to each 
one, officers and men alike, $1.25. At that time the battery 
was attached to Hoke's Division in a temporary battalion 
commanded by Major Basil C. Manly. 100 Off. Rec. Union 
and Confed. Armies, 7SS. 

Thirteenth Battalion. 353 

On 26 April, General Joseph E. Johnston formally sur- 
rendered to Sherman and on the 29th the officers arid men of 
Starr's Battery, mournfully leaving guns and caissons in 
park, betook themselves to their desolated and impoverished 
homes, most of them taking the route over the old Western 
Plank Road to Fayetteville, and carrying with them many an 
old war-horse, afterwards condemned to ignoble toil at the 
plough in the corn and cotton fields of Cumberland and Robe- 
son coimties. 


Was raised originally in Beaufort County by Rev. Charles 
P. Jones, who became Captain. After a few months service 
the battery was reorganized 21 April. 1862, by electing Z. T. 
Adams, Captain; C. H. Latham and Samuel H. Forbes, 
First liieutenants ; Jos. B. Bryan and Geo. W. Bryan, Sec- 
ond Lieutenants. 

The battery was at Tarboro in March, 1862, and thencefor- 
ward served in Eastern North Carolina, taking part in the 
various expeditions against Washington and JSTew Bern and 
aiding to repel the raids made by the enemy in return. In 
July, 1863, it was ordered to Wilmington and served in that 
vicinity. On 26 June, 1864, it was permanently assigned to 
Starr's Battalion and in September, 1864, it was at Kinston. 
88 Off. Bee. Union and Confed. Armies, 822Jf. 

The company was at Batteries Purdie and BoUes 
near Fort Fisher in the first attack 24 and 25 December, 

1864. In the second attack by General Terry 15 January, 

1865, most of the company and all their guns and horses 
were captured at the fall of Fisher. The few men left were 
attached to Hagood's Brigade and fought as artillerymen 
at Bentonville and surrendered with Johnston's army. 


This company was raised in Orange Coimty, in the early 
Spring of 1862. William Cameron was Captain; James F. 
Cain and Alex. M. Kirkland, First Lieutenants ; Henry Dick- 

354 North Cakolina Teoops, 1861-65. 

son and John Malone, Second Lieutenants. The battery- 
was ordered to Eastern North Carolina and for a while garri- 
soned Fort Branch near Hamilton. In April, 1863, the bat- 
tery reorganized with Henry Dickson, Captain; Halcott P. 
Jones and John C. Webb, First Lieutenants, and F. L. Dam- 
eron. Second Lieutenant. On 27 November, 1863, it re- 
ported 126 present for duty, being then at Kinston. It ren- 
dered service continuously in Eastern North Carolina and 
Christmas day, 1864, aided at Poplar Point to drive back 
the enemy's fleet, who were endeavoring to ascend the Roanoke 
river. The battery was supported, in that fight, by the Sev- 
entieth North Carolina Regiment (First Junior Reserves). 


Was raised in 1862 principally in Craven and Wake with 
some men from Beaufort and other coimties. Its Captains 
were successively Alexander C. Latham, of Craven, 1 Sep- 
tember, 1862 ; John R. Potts, of Beaufort, promoted from 
First Lieutenant 16 September, 1863, and Henry G. Plan- 
ner, of New Hanover, originally Second Lieutenant. 

The First Lieutenants were successively Jno. R. Potts 
(promoted to Ca]itain) and John M. Perry, of Beaufort 
County; Henry G. Planner, of New Hanover, and Geo. W. 
Bryan, of Craven. The Second Lieutenants were in succes- 
sion Henry G. Planner, Martin L. Stephenson, of Lenoir 
County ; Bennett Planner, of Richmond County, and James 
A. Collins. A section under the last named officer served in 
the winter of 1863-'64, and spring of 1864, attached to Mac- 
Rae's (Eighteenth) Battalion in Western North Carolina. 

This battery was ordered to Virginia in 1862, and served 
continuously, with above exception, in Lee's Army. In Oc- 
tober, 1864, it was in Haskell's temporary battalion of artil- 
lery attached to the First Corps and served on the lines 
around Petersburg with great credit and was surrendered at 
Appomattox 9 April, 1865. 

J. H. Mteovee. 
Fayettevillb, N. C, 

26 April, 1901. 


By captain LEWIS H. WEBB. 

This company was raised in Richmond County and was 
organized in April, 1862, by the election of Lewis H. Webb, 
Captain ; Malcolm D. McNeill and Thomas W. Moody, First 
Lieutenants, and H. R. Home, of Cumberland, Second Lieu- 
tenant, who later became Junior First Lieutenant. 

The State being unable to equip a battery of Light Artil- 
lery, the company was ordered to Richmond for equipment 
and left 7 Ma_y, 1862, with 83 men and 4 officers. It reached 
that city 11 May, such being the slowness of communication 
in those days for Rockingham was not then on a railroad. 

On 15 May a Battalion was formed of four artillery com- 
panies, ours being Company D, and though nearly one-half 
of the personnel was from this State, it was styled the 
TAvelfth Virginia Battalion and Francis J. Boggs, of that 
State was made Major. Geo. H. Gregory, of Martin County, 
and Thos. G. Skinner, of Hertford, were Lieutenants in one 
of the other companies, and some forty of the men in that 
company alone were from ISTorth Carolina. 

On 25 May we were moved to Battery No. 7 near Mechan- 
icsville, and assigned to duty at the siege guns already 
mounted and were put to work mounting others. Here we 
were during the battle of Seven Pines in hearing and almost 
in sight of the firing. Measles soon after broke out from 
•^vliich we had 40 men down at one time and lost 13 by death. 
We were without any medical officer or any medicine except 
that bought with our own means, and but for the skill and at- 
tention of Lieutenant H. R. Home, the sick men would have 
fared badly indeed. 

Soon an order came to disband ours, together with several 
other artillery companies and transfer the men to infantry. 
The officers of our company went to the Secretary of War to 

356 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

protest against this breach of faith, but found our men had 
been before us, whose pleading was so, effective that eventu- 
ally the order was rescinded. When Stonewall Jackson, 
coining down from the Valley, struck the enemy on the flank, 
the Captain and Lieutenant Home were ordered to report, 
with part of the company, at Crenshaw's battery, on Charles 
City road and by a rapid march of twenty miles reached it 
about sunset. The next morning we marched with that bat- 
tery in rear of the attacking column towards Malvern Hill, 
though not in the fight, and the next day were in pursuit of 
the enemy to Harrison's Landing, where McClellan took 
refuge under the guns of his fleet. 

In the Spring of 1861, when Governor Ellis took posses- 
sion, by means of the Ciimberland militia, of the Fayette- 
ville arsenal, he found there a complete field battery of 12- 
pound howitzers. These were given to Company A, Tenth 
North Carolina Regiment (First Artillery), commanded by 
Captain Stephen D. Ramseur, and on his promotion by Cap- 
tain Basil C. Manly. After the "Seven Days" battles that 
company having received one of the many batteries captured, 
their old guns which had been turned in to the Ordnance de- 
partment were given to us and we were at last equipped on 
20 September and furnished with horses. We were soon 
after transferred to the Twentieth Virginia Battalion of 
Heavy Artillery and an order was later procured changing us 
into infantry to be attached to a regiment being raised for an 
aspiring young Virginian who wished to be made Colonel. An 
energetic protest by Captain Webb caiised him to be placed 
in arrest, and the other officers of the company were forbid- 
den to communicate any complaints to the War Department, 
bxit a note sent by a negro servant to Hon. Thomas S. Ashe^ 
member of Congress from our district, brought that gentle- 
man and some of his colleagues to our camp to investigate 
with the result that Captain Webb was promptly released 
from arrest and the battery ordered to report to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Chas. E. Lightfoot, commanding Field Artillery at 
Seven Pines, below Richmond. 

Major Boggs returned and assumed command of our com- 
pany and one other and early in November we were ordered 

Thirteenth Battalion. 357 

to report to General Pettigrew near Petersburg, later the 
company went to Ivor Station, on the Blackwater, with the 
Forty-second North Carolina, thence to South Quay, re- 
porting to Colonel P. P. Paison, of the Pifty-sixth North 
Carolina. Here we remained six months on outpost duty, 
guarding the several crossings of the river against raiding 
and foraging parties which were frequently sent oiit from 
Suffolk and accompanying expeditions from our side sent out 
by General Eoger A. Pryor, who commanded that line, for 
purposes of reconnoitering and procuring supplies. In one 
of these a section of the battery under Lieutenant Home was 
engaged for several hours at Kelly's Farm. We were with 
General Longstreet in his siege of Suffolk. 

In June, 1863, we were ordered back to Petersburg and 
saw arduous service under General D. H. Hill, commanding 
defences of Richmond during the Gettysburg campaign, 
marching back and forth to Hanover Junction, and the Chick- 
ahominy and up and down the Pamunkey, York and James 
rivers, being continually on the move to meet threatened at- 
tacks of the enemy. On 3 October at Fort Clifton, near the 
mouth of Appomattox river our horses were taken from us 
and turned over to the artillery of General Longstreet, who 
was on the move to Chattanooga. 

Soon after we were supplied with horses that had endured 
much service, but which we grazed and restored. The North 
Carolinians in the other company in the battalion procured 
in November, 1863 a transfer to our battery, 39 men from the 
Albemarle country thus coming to us, among them Lieuten- 
ant Thomas G. Skinner, who resigned his commission and 
came to us as a private that he might stay with his men. 
Soon after the Thirteenth North Carolina Battalion was or- 
ganized, of which this battery was made Company A. 

On 1 January, 1864, we were ordered to Weldon and 
thence in a few days to Fort Fisher, and were assigned to Bat- 
teries Gatling and Anderson 6 or 8 miles from the fort. Here 
we remained on coast guard duty and protecting blockade 
runners till 12 May, when we were sent to Masonboro, where 
the enemy was threatening a second destruction of the State 
salt works. On 15 May having taken our position before 

358 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

day and being hidden by the low growing coast vegetation we 
opened fire at daylight with two 3-inch rifled guns upon one 
of the blockaders lying as near in as it was safe, disabling 
her so she signalled for a consort some miles away who com- 
ing in towed her out of range. A week later the same vessel 
was fired on from Fort Fisher and sunk. 

On 23 May, ordered to ISTortheast (railroad) bridge. Leav- 
ing Lieutenant McISTeill with one section there, Captain Webb 
with the other, proceeded next day to Bannerman's bridge and 
thence on the Holly Shelter road where, being joined by a 
company of cavalry, we advanced to a position at a bridge 
over Shaking Creek to repel a threatened raid from New 
Bern. In a few days were ordered (5 June) to Weldon, men 
and guns going by rail and horses under Lieutenant Home by 
country roads, reaching Weldon 12 June. Here we were 
kept on outpost to protect the extreme right of Lee's army 
for ten months, our own line being on the north side of the 
Roanoke from Gaston to Halifax. 

On 31 January, 1865, Colonel John H. Anderson, with 
the Seventy-first North Carolina (Second Junior Reserves), 
and Millard's Battalion of Juniors, a squadron of cavalry 
from the Nineteenth North Carolina (Second Cavalry),, and 
our battery were ordered to Coleraine on the Chowan to drive 
back a force which the enemy had landed, but on oar arrival 
after a rapid march found the enemy had re-embarked and 
gone down the river. 

We returned to Weldon, thence the battery went to Golds- 
boro, only to be speedily sent back to the Blackwater, thence 
in a few days back to Weldon. 

On 4 March ordered to march by countr}'^ road to Golds- 
boro, but had only gotten twelve miles when an order brought 
by courier caused us to return to Weldon, thence by rail to 
the Blackwater, thence back to Weldon. 

On 31 March one section was sent to Tarboro, Captain 
Webb being in command of post at Weldon, and on 2 April 
that section returned and without disembarking went down 
the Seaboard Railroad with the Sixty-seventh North Caro- 
lina. The enemy retired again and Colonel Jno. N. Whit- 
ford on the return of our troops was himself riding in the 

Thirteenth Battalion. 859 

cab of the locomotive, when just after passing Seaboard he 
discovered several hundred men up the track. He had hardly- 
time to stop the train when he found the track was being torn 
up by a party of the enemy's cavalry. 

Hastily disembarking the infantry, among whom half our 
men took their places armed with Enfield rifles, he ordered 
the train back to Seaboard to disembark the artillery, guns 
and horses, the infantry at once attacking the enemy who 
after a few moments' hot firing, mounted their horses and 
sought safety in fiight. The artillery now coming up, we 
pursued the enemy to Jackson, where we found that they had 
distanced us going in the direction of Murfreesboro. Colo- 
nel Whitford then took position near Jackson, covering both 
Halifax and Weldon. 

But tlie end was now rapidly approaching. Fort Fisher 
had fallen in January and the enemy occupied Wilmington, 
closing our only outlet to the world. Johnston was now about 
to commence his last retreat and on 7 April directed the troops 
withdrawn from the north side of the Roanoke. On night of 
13 April, General L. S. Baker evacuated Weldon, destroying 
the bridges there and at Gaston and we started over the coun- 
try roads to join General Johnston at Raleigh. At Ridge- 
way we found the tr^ck filled with cars which had been with- 
drawn from both ends of the road, including those with our 
own stores of provisions and ammunition and here first 
learned of the evacuation of Petersburg and the surrender of 
General Lee, and also of the battle of Bentonville, in which 
two batteries of our battalion had been engaged, that Sher- 
man had occupied Raleigh while Johnston had fallen back to- 
wards Greensboro, and that a large cavalry force from Grant's 
army was moving on our right, threatening to get in the rear 
of Johnston. 

Being thus surrounded on all sides. General Baker called a 
council of war of all the officers, and in view of th"e impossi- 
bility of our reaching Johnston it was decided to disband, but 
a small force of volunteers, mounted on cavalry, wagon and ar- 
tillery horses, would try to pass around Sherman's left and 
reach Johnston. On the call for volunteers more stepped 
forward than we could supply with horses, but finally seventy- 

360 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

five were selected who were transforined. into cavalry. Dis- 
mounting and spiking onr guns and taking three days' ra- 
tions, we started under General Baker's lead. Twenty of 
these men were from our company. For two days we wan- 
dered up and down Neuse river seeking a passage, all fords 
being guarded by Sherman's cavalry pickets. 

On the evening of the second day being then in 14 miles 
of Raleigh, we found our supplies exhausted, and there being 
no chance to get through to Johnston who, besides, we were 
reliably told had surrendered, after a council of war we sent 
in a flag of truce and our surrender was formally accepted, 
General Baker being directed by General Sherman to surren- 
der our arms and parole the men and officers. 

General Baker issued a commendatory address to the bat- 
tery, which together with the names of those of the battery 
then present are printed (from data furnished by the writer) 
in the article in this volume, "The Last Fifteen Days of 
Baker's Command," by James M. Mullen, who was a mem- 
ber of the battery and hence need not be repeated here. 

Lewis H. Webb. 
Franklin, Va., 

20 April, 1901. 


By captain JAMES D. GUMMING. 

This company was organized in February, 1861, with John 
J. Hedrick Captain, James M. Stevenson and Dugald La- 
mont as First Lieutenants, James D. Gumming and James 
B. Huggins Second Lieutenants. When Governor Ellis, in 
1861, ordered the militia to seize the forts at the mouth of 
the Cape Fear river, this company, under orders of Colonel 
Cantwell, occupied Fort Johnston, at Smithville, N. C, thus 
being among the first troops to place hostile foot on the United 
States possessions in North Carolina. After serving at 
Forts Johnson and Caswell until December, 1861, the com- 
pany was ordered to Federal Point and assisted in the con- 
struction of Fort Fisher, jST. C. Remained in the fort until 
April, 1862. The company then reorganized and re-enlisted 
for the war with James I). Cumming as Captain, John W. 
Galloway and J. M. Rowe First Lieutenants, and S. H. Ev- 
eritt and later A. D. Brown Sexjond Lieutenants. A battery 
of field artillery was assigned to it and the company was 
equipped for field service. After remaining in the camp of 
instruction until November, 1862, it was ordered to Eastern 
North Carolina where it remained until the Spring of 1863. 
During this time the battery had varied service, participating 
in the several raids and movements against New Bern and 
Washington, N. C, under Generals Hoke, D. H. Hill and 
Pettigrew. Was in the engagement at Bloimt's Creek and 
- the battery was mentioned by General Pettigrew in General 
Orders. When the assault on New Bern was arranged this 
battery was selected to lead the artillery. 


In May, 1864, a section of the battery was ordered to Pe- 
tersburg, Va., and assigned to Moseley's Battalion of Artillery, 
joining the forces that bottled up Butler at Bermuda Hun- 

362 North Carolina Troops, l861-'65. 

dreds ; was in the engagements at Ware Bottom Church and 
Clay's Farm. Here under a heavy fire a 32-pound shell fell 
among a detachment of the men at one of our guns. Private 
Jas. P. Pierce, with great presence of mind, picked up the 
shell with its biirning fuse and threw it over the entrench- 
ment. The next day General Beauregard in G-eneral Orders, 
complimented "Private Jas. P. Pierce, of Cumming's Bat- 
tery, for his bravery and coolness," commending his example 
to the army. When Grant crossed the James river the com- 
mand was ordered to Petersburg, Va., and was actively en- 
gaged 16, 1-7 and 18 June on the Jerusalem Plank E.oad; was 
then moved to the trenches around Petersburg, occupying the 
salient on the Norfolk Railroad, and supported by General 
Gracie, of Alabama. The battery was daily and nightly un- 
der heavy fire by artillery and mortars and was actively en- 
gaged in the battle of the Crater 30 July, 1864. In Septem- 
ber, 1864, the company was ordered to the north side of the 
Appomattox, enfilading the enemy's line up to the Hare 
house and was under heavj' fire about every day and night. 
The battery continued in service until the evacuation of Pe- 
tersburg, sharing in the privations and fighting from Dea- 
tonsville and Sailor's Creek to Appomattox Court House; 
was not engaged at the surrender of Lee for want of ammuni- 
tion. At that time it formed a part of Blount's Battalion. 


The second section of the battery under Lieutenant Kowe, 
continued in North Carolina where it was engaged in the bat- 
tle below Kinston, 8 March, 1865. Lieutenant Eowe was 
killed; was also engaged at the battle of Bentonville, N. C, 
19-21 March, in Starr's Battalion. This section was in John- 
ston's retreat, surrendering at Greensboro, N. C. 

The battery was thus in constant service from April, 1861, 
to the surrender at Appomattox Court House, losing a num- 
ber of men in battle and by disease, one hundred and fifty 
men having enlisted in the entire company. 

Jas. D. Cumming. 
New Yokk City, 

26 April, 1901. 


(hbnky's battalion.) 

By S. V. PICKENS, Adjutant. 

This battalion which grew out of Woodfin's Battalion, was 
itself tventnally increased and merged into the Seventy- 
ninth JSTorth Carolina Regiment (Eighth Cavalry.) The 
history of both these battalions has been given in the history 
of that regiment ante and need not be repeated here. 


Hendkbsonville, N. C, 

30 May, 1901. 



1. J. M. Wynns, Lieut.-Colonel. 

2. Baldy Ashburn Capehart, Captain, A. Q. M. 



By JAMES M. WYNNS, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

This battalion of cavalry was organized in July, 1863. It 
was originally intended to comprise six companies, but from 
the pressing needs of that section two companies at Wilming- 
ton never joined us. After the lapse of so many years I 
can only give a partial list of the officers, as follows : 

J. M. WyititSj Lieutenant-Colonel, commissioned 22 July, 
1863; formerly Captain Company C, Second North Caro- 
lina Cavalry. 

Lieutenant J. W. Pebry^ Adjutant. 

Captain B. A. Capeiiakt, A. Q. M. 

Staeky Shaep, S'urgeon. 

Captains — J. G. HoUiday, M. M. Wise, J. T. Beaman, 
— . — . Evans, — . — . Taylor. 

Lieutenants — J. F. Branch, H. J. Jenkins, A. J. Cobb, 
J. A. Allen. 

This battalion and the Sixty-eighth Regiment of infantry 
were organized for the purpose of protecting Eastern North 
Carolina, and first went into camp of instruction at Murfrees- 
boro, thence to Weldon, where it remained in active service 
during the fall and winter of 1863, taking part in the raids 
made by troops under General M. W. Ransom on South Mills 
and other points in Eastern North Carolina in the territory 
held by the enemy, bringing out much needed provisions, and 
inflicting more or less injury on the enemy. On one of our 
raids we pursued the enemy to very near Deep Creek, on the 
Dismal Swamp canal, in a most exciting chase of six miles. 
Our horses being jaded, the enemy outstripped us, and we 
only made a few prisoners We killed and wounded quite a 
number, most of whom were left in the swamp. Our casual- 
ties were small, and the commissary stores brought out on 

366 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

that occasion amply compensated for the trouble and expo- 

Owing to the pressing demand for troops in Virginia, the 
command was transferred to the Blackwater line with head- 
qiiarters near Franklin. Extracts from a letter received 
from Captain B. A Capehart, A. Q. M., will be of interest 
and. at the same time give a vivid account of the operations 
of the command and its arduous duties. 

"I have no dates. The operations of the command after 
being ordered to Virginia, were confined to the Blackwater 
line. I well remember the sharply contested engagements 
and the uniform courage and determined spirit with which 
our officers and men disputed the enemy's advance in force. 
I think it was Dodge's JSTew York cavalry, supported by sev- 
eral pieces of artillery, which gave us such a tussle when you, 
with a handful of men held them in check from 11 a. m. till 
about nightfall — the moon giving full light. So determined 
were they, that dividing their forces, a part (and I dare say 
the best) went up through the pocosin and constructed a raft 
upon which they crossed; again divided, part following the 
water line to the left of our trenches, our men pouring it into 
them. When to our surprise the other division charged down 
on our rear, nothing was left us to do but get to our horses as 
best we could and fall back, they in hot pursuit, after which 
they got possession of the ferry boat over which we had such 
a tug in the first of the engagement. After getting their 
horses across the Blackwater, we were pressed to the ISTotto- 
way Bridge on the Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad, where we 
succeeded in checking them. That kind of warfare was car- 
ried on during the fall and winter of 1864-'65, our duty being 
tO' hold the enemy in check and prevent their crossing the 
Blackwater, and protect those bringing provisions from the 
territory across the river within the enemy's lines. 

On the morning the enemy made their last attack upon us 
at South Quay, I was ordered to Raleigh on business for the 
command, and from my friend, Colonel W. F. Martin, of the 
Seventeenth JSTorth Carolina, then in command at Weldon, 
obtained permission to stop at my home for a day with my 
family, which I did, reaching there the next morning, 2 

Fifteenth Battalion. 367 

April, 1865, about half an hour before my oldest son was 
bom, and by the way about the very hour President Davis 
was summoned to retire from the church at which he was wor- 
shipping that day in Richmond. 


There was one transaction with which we were connected, 
and which was most humiliating to me, and to which I have 
yet scarcely felt reconciled. You remember receiving orders 
from General R. E. Lee to allow a steamer giving certain sig- 
nals to pass the pickets and proceed up the river unmolested 
and by the way you had a similar experience early in the war 
on the coast between 'Re\v Bern and Wilmington, when in 
command of a squadron of the Second ISTorth Carolina Cavalry. 
I refer to the landing of the Yankee steamer about 400 yards 
below Nottoway Bridge, on the Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad 
with a cargo of hospital supplies for which she was to receive 
in return cotton. Being the Quartermaster, it devolved on 
me to discharge and reload the craft, my first duty on board- 
ing the steamer was to look after the credentials, and I was 
shown by the Captain papers of agreement signed by Gen- 
eral Lee's Adjutant-General, Walter H. Taylor, and General 
Benjamin F. Butler. This is a bit of war history, but little 
known. I dare say most or all of it is fresh in your memory. 
One circumstance connected with it I remember. I had 
charged the Captain not to give liquor to the guard I had 
placed there to protect the steamer, Avhich he promised, but 
did not fulfill, for during my absence he filled their canteens 
and giving the men a barrel of shell oysters to eat, they were 
soon in an irresponsible condition, and quarrelled. One man, 
Joe Askew by name, struck another man( Davis) with his 
canteen, whereupon Davis caught up Askew's own carbine and 
fired, shooting him through the body, the ball going through 
another trooper's arm above the elbow, White. In conse- 
quence of this, Davis ran away. Askew died and White was 
disabled, a loss to us out of our command of three of its best 
men. It was dreadful in the extreme to be reduced to the 
condition of want in everything but courage and valor, but 
to feel that we had to look to and traffic with our enemy to 

368 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

relieve our poor suffering troops in hospitals as well as their 
own men (our prisoners) caused a feeling generally expressed 
that being reduced to this extreme, it was time the war should 

The services of the battalion were hardly appreciated, ex- 
cept perhaps by General Lee, who would not allow it to be 
moved, knowing the important work it was accomplishing in 
protecting, as it did, the many passes, particularly South 
Quay, thereby enabling our people to bring out from our 
eastern counties such supplies as could be spared from our 
non-combatants within the enemy's lines. 

In our engagements we lost but few comparatively, having 
breastworks to protect us most of the time, but we never failed 
to punish our opponents with some severity. Their casual- 
ties woulc^be reported to us by citizens living on the opposite 
side of the Blackwater. No braver or better officers were in 
our array than Adjutant J. W. Perry, Captain J. G. Hol- 
liday. Lieutenant Branch, to say nothing of yourself and 
other officers, commissioned and non-commissioned. 

The operatio'us of the other part of the command were con- 
fined to that territory east of us, the Meherrin river and down 
the Chowan as far as Colerain and even farther. I was with 
them less of the time, but always found them on the alert and 
prompt to communicate any advance of the enemy by land or 

As before stated, I was on my way to Raleigh on the morn- 
ing of 1 April, 1865, and learned the enemy had advanced 
and were making a determined attempt to cross at South 
Quay, and it was at that time and place as brave and gallant 
a soldier as ever wielded saber (Joe Watford) fell on the 
banks of the Blackwater, his comrades, pressed as they were, 
endeavored to place him in the saddle, but "Wo," he said, "T 
am done for ; save yourselves" — then died. 

Do you remember young Wood, as daring and handsome a 
boy as ever wore the gray, how he dropped back to be the last 
to cross Lenow's Bridge, when we, so pressed by the enemy, 
tore it up, and wheeling in his saddle as the enemy reached it, 
being thereby checked for the time, he took deliberate aim and 
unseated his man. In fact, the battalion was a gallant set of 

Fifteenth Battalion. 369 

men and deserve more than a mere mention. I hope you 
■will bestir yourself and writ© what you know, and if these 
paragraphs serve to refresh your memory, I shall have dis- 
charged a pleasant duty. 

There is one fact, that from the fall of 1864 till General 
Lee surrendered, the enemy never got nearer Weldon than to 
press us to Nottoway Bridge and fall back the same day, nor 
did they get into the country west of the Chowan until the 
struggle between the armies of the States was in its last 
throes. You know we never surrendered, but were pressing 
on to join Johnston. After hearing of General Lee^s surren- 
der, then learning of the surrender of the latter when at 
Ridgeway, we sadly wended our way through the desolate re- 
gion to our homes. 

B. A. Oape^bt." 

To what has been tbus said by Captain Capehart, I can 
add but little. The battalion was raised tO' protect North 
Eastern North Carolina from the enemy's raids and as he 
has stated, we did it — toi the very best. When the end came 
we took no parole, but went home and took our guns and 
horses with us. 

James M. Wynns. 
muefeebsboeo, n. c, 

30 May, 1901. 




By JOHN T. KENNEDY, Colonbl. 

This battalion was formed in 1864 of the five North Caro- 
lina companies which till then had served in the Seventh 
Confederate (Cavalry) Eegiment. By General Orders from 
Eichmond 11 July, 1864, there was added to this battalion 
the three companies from this State in the Sixty-second 
Oeorgia and Company C from the Twelfth JSTorth Carolina 
Battalion^ and the command was therein styled the Sixteenth 
Batalion, the writer being its Lieutenant-Colonel command- 
ing. It tiirned out, however, that the authorities had over- 
looked the fact that the North Carolina company which had 
been carried by the writer into the Sixty-second Georgia had 
been recruited largely and had been made into two companies 
commanded by J. A. Richardson and Geo. Dees. Adding 
this additional company the Sixteenth Battalion was really 
a regiment, which was soon recognized as the Seventy-fifth 
Worth Carolina Eegiment, the writer was made its Colonel, 
Jno. B. Edelin Lieutenant-Colonel, and F. G. Pitts, Major. 
In the pressure and hurry of events it was, however, stili car- 
ried in the ofiicial reports up to the surrender as the Sixteenth 
Battalion. But under its proper title of the Seventy-fifth. 
North Carolina Regiment (Seventh Cavalry) its story has 
been already told ante and need not be repeated here. 

J. T. Kbnnedt. 


9 April, 1901. 



(aveey's battalion.) 

By A. C. AVERY, Major. 

When Longstreet's Corps moved JSTorth, and reunited with 
Lee's Army in the midst of the battle of the Wilderness, the 
whole of East Tecanessee was immediately occupied by the 
Federal army, and JSTorth Carolina would have been invaded 
by a separate army, had our Western railroad been built, and 
possibly, if the high mountains on our Western border had 
been traversed by such turnpikes as had then been constructed 
across the mountains in- Virginia. After Longstreet went 
North, most of the troops that were left to guard the frontier 
of the State were posted from a point almost due west from 
Asheville tO' the southwestern border of the State. The coun- 
try north of Madison County was patrolled at most by a com- 
pany of cavalry, and picketed by small squads of that com- 
pany. Major Harvey Bingham had two full companies in 
camp in Watauga and Captain Price, who had been dis- 
charged from the First Cavalry, commanded a small, but ac- 
tive company in Ashe County. These troops rendered effi- 
cient service by driving back small predatory bands, who 
were continually coming into the State from upper East Ten- 
nessee. The approaches covered by the borders of Mitchell 
and Yancey were comparatively unguarded. 

General R. B. Vance had been in command of the district 
composing Western lirorth Carolina; but had been captured 
while making a raid into Cocke County, Tennessee. Colonel 
J. B. Palmer, who had been detached from his regiment, the 
Fifty-eighth l^orth Carolina, then in the Army of Tennessee, 
at his own request, for the purpose, succeeded General Vance 
as commander of the district. 

Colonel George W. Kirk, who, afterwards acquired an un- 
enviable celebrity by his connection with the Holden-Kirk 

Note. — This Battalion consisted of two companies of Infantry (A. and 
C.) and one of Cavalry Co. B, Captain Miller.— Ed. 

372 North Cabolina Troops, 1861-65. 

war, and who had been allowed by the Federal Government 
to organize a regiment, composed for the most part of North 
Carolina deserters, in Jime, 1864, led an incursion across this 
unguarded portion of our frontier and surrounded a conscript 
camp at Berry's Mill Pond, six miles below Morganton, just 
above what was then the terminus of the Western North Car- 
olina Eailroad. He surprised and captured at that place 
dver one hundred of the Junior Keserves, who had been gath- 
ered there to be organized into a battalion. While the militia 
and citizens who did not belong to the Home Guards were 
gathering on the day of the capture at Morganton, 28 June, 
one of Kirk's scouts was shot but a half mile from Morganton 
by R C. Pearson, a leading citizen of the town. On the second 
day thereafter a small squad of mounted men fired into the 
van of Kirk's command at the foot of the Brown Mountain, 
but he eluded them and reached the Winding Stairs, a nar- 
row path near the top of Jonas Eidge, where he posted a 
strong detachment, while his prisoners were being moved on 
into East Tennessee. Here he was attacked by a body of 
men, composed of a few regular soldiers on furloug:h and sev- 
eral hundred militia, hurriedly gathered together from the 
counties of Burke, Caldwell, Catawba and Kowan, the whole 
body being under the command of Colonel H. A. Brown, of 
the First North Carolina Regiment, who had just recovered 
from a wound and turned out of his way to his command at 
Salisbury to help his neighbors. In the attempt to take this 
narrow path, Hon. W. W. Avery was mortally wounded and 
Calvin Houk and a number of others were seriously injured. 
The excitement caused by this invasion induced the War 
Department at Richmond to order General Martin to estab- 
lish headquarters at Morganton and assume command of the 
District of Western North Carolina, The writer, who was 
serving on the staff of Lieutenant'General Hood at the Chat' 
tahoochee river, first secured a leave of absence by the kind- 
ness of General Hood, and was then transferred to the De- 
partment of North Carolina in consequence of the death of all 
of his older brothers and the desperate illness of Ids father, 
and ordered to report to General Martin as Adjutant-General 
of the district. In the fall of the same year, when the writer 

Seventeenth Battalion. 373 

was about to resign, and General Martin was contemplating 
the removal of his headquarters to Asheville, the General in- 
sisted that a number of local companies then formed and 
being formed, should be organized first into a battalion and 
then into a regiment, and obtained authority from the War 
Department for the writer to organize a regiment of moun- 
taineers to protect the northwestern frontier of the State. 

Major Gordon, in his history of the organization of troops 
(North Carolina Eegiments, Vol. 1, page 22), accounts for 
the organization of the battalion and the proposition to en- 
large it into a regiment as follows : 

"The War Department, at the suggestion of General Mar- 
tin, who commanded this district at the close of the war, sus- 
pended the conscript law, and there were no more runaways. 
Major A. C. Avery was also authorized to raise a regiment for 
local service. Some progress was made in recruiting several 
companies for this regiment, but the Major was captured dur- 
ing Stoneman's raid. The regiment was never organized, 
and, as far as known, the Major did not get his Colonel's com- 
mission. This was the last effort made to raise troops in the 
State before the war closed." 

x\ccordingly, in February, 1865, Captain John Carson's 
company (Company A, of Avery's Battalion) ; Captain Nel- 
son A. Miller's company (Company B), of Caldwell Coun- 
ty, and Captain W. L. Twitty's company (Company C), 
from Rutherford, were ordered to assemble at Morganton, 
where they were furnished with arms, ammunition and equip- 
ments, which Governor Vance had shipped at the request of 
the writer from the State arsenal at Raleigh. At the same 
time the Governor had forwarded a sufficient number of im- 
proved arms to supply the companies of Major Bingham in 
Watauga, and a few weeks later, the battalion composed of 
these three companies was ordered to go to Watauga County 
and provide Bingham's companies with the arms and muni- 
tions shipped for them. It was a part of the plan to organize 
Price's company, another company in Mitchell, still another 
in Madison, and a second company in Rutherford County, out 
of the body of young men just reaching the age for service 
and those persons exempt from service, some of them having 

374 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

been discharged on account of wounds and others not being 
liable because they were State officers, but all of whom were 
willing to do duty in defense of their State and their own im- 
mediate homes. 

In fact many officers and soldiers of the battalion had ren- 
dered efficient service in the armies in the field and had re- 
signed or been discharged because of disability caused by 
wounds. Captain John Carson had been a First Lieutenant 
in Company D, of the Sixth Regiment, and was lamed by a 
wound received at Sharpsburg. He had partially recovered 
and had become anxious to serve the cause again somewhere 
and in some capacity. He was but a type of the older men 
who belonged to these companies. The boys, who had passed 
beyond parental control because of their liability under the 
17 year conscript act, were the very best material for making 
good soldiers. Had the war lasted another year they would 
have been better known. 

While Avery's Battalion was en route for Watauga, and 
before it reached there, a detachment from Franklin's Divis- 
ion of the Federal army, which had been sent from upper 
East Tennessee, had surprised Bingham's camp and captured 
all of his men, who did not at the time happen to be at their 
homes. While the battalion was camped in Watauga, infor- 
mation was received of a proposed incursion from Tennessee 
into the upper part of Burke County, and after sending a de- 
tachment direct to Mitchell County, the battalion was moved 
through the upper part of Burke and went to that county. 
The invaders were a small predatory band, some of who-m 
were overtaken by the men sent in pursuit and a portion of 
their booty was recaptured. About this time Franklin's 
whole Corps moved up to Bristol and Major-General Stone- 
man, with a Division of splendidly equipped cavalry, passed 
up the Watauga river near Valle Crueis, along the turnpike 
by Blowing Rock, burned the cotton mill at Patterson, passed 
down through Taylorsville and then moved north towards 
Virginia. Meantime Kirk with two regiments of deserters 
had established an outpost of Franklin's command on the 
turnpike at Blowing Rock. Avery's battalion was moved 
back across the mountains. It had from its organization up 

Seventeenth Battalion. 375 

to that time been able to protect the upper mountain counties 
from constant robberies and had driven out of the State and 
into the Federal Army some organized bands of raiders. But 
in the face of a division of Federal soldiers, with outposts oc- 
cupied by regiments, the battalion was withdrawn to the foot 
of the mountains. Kirk sent out but one raiding party from 
Blowing Rock. That party had gone but a short distance 
below the head of Johns river when they found that a squad 
(Miller's Cavalry) of Avery's Battalion could beat them at 
their own game of bushwhacking. 

Meantime, after receiving information as to the number 
and disposition of Kirk's men at Blowing Rock, and after 
reading a dispatch from General Lee to General Martin, in 
which the former expressed the opinion that Stoneman's raid- 
ers woixld return to upper East Tennessee by way of the lead 
mines, in Smith County, Virginia, the writer boarded the 
train for Salisbury with the purpose of pressing an applica- 
tion previously made to have a battalion detached from the 
garrison at Salisbury and moved up on the train at night to 
aid his battalion in a proposed night attack upon Kirk's camp 
at Blowing Rock. When he reached Salisbury, he found that 
General Bradley Johnson had gone to Greensboro, and Gen- 
eral Gardner, in command there, was preparing to meet an 
attack from Stoneman's Division, which had crossed, the 
Yadkin at the Shallow Ford and was then moving on Salis- 
bury. The result was that the writer was captured with 
Colonel Stone of the Second Mississippi (since three times 
Governor of his State) and seven or eight hundred other of- 
ficers and men, and was marched by Taylorsville, Lenoir and 
Blowing Rock under guard. 

Meantime, upon the return of Stoneman's Division, Mil- 
ler's company, a portion of whom were mounted men, met the 
vanguard of the division near the Caldwell line and skir- 
mished with them till they reached the town of Lenoir. They 
narrowly escaped capture in the town itself by riding up to 
the top of Hibriten. A portion of Stoneman's command 
was sent across the mountain to deliver the prisoners to Col- 
onel Kirk, but most of his division moved to the west in two 
bodies, one by way of Beattie's Ford and Lincolnton to Ruth- 

376 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

erfordton, and thence across the Blue Eidge ; the other by way 
of Lenoir and ]\iorganton to Swanannoa Gap. 

Major-General McGowan, of the Confederate Army, hap- 
pened to be at Morganton about this time. The citizens had 
obtained, through Governor Vance, a small field piece and 
had erected some breastworks and placed this piece so as to 
command the crossing of the river at the Rocky Ford, on the 
road from Lenoir to Morganton. Lieutenant George West, 
previously Aide-de-Camp on the staff of General D. H. Hill, 
had hurriedly organized and drilled a squad of young men 
who had charge of this gun. Captain Twitty's company of 
Avery's Battalion, removed from the western part of Burke 
County, when Stoneman's command approached Morganton 
and occupied some rifle pits along the bank of the river near 
Rocky Ford. The home guard, under Colonel T. George 
Walton, were posted higher up the hill, and were supporting 
the field piece. This field piece, with the help of the in- 
fantry under General McGowan, chiefly that of Twitty's 
sharpshooters, prevented Stoneman's men from crossing at 
that point for several hours. Captain Twitty finding that 
the Federals were going up the river, took a squad and went 
up to Fleming's Ford. When information was received that 
Stoneman had sent men tO' a ford still farther tip, all of the 
soldiers on the river retreated and evaded capture. Twitty's 
men fought with the coolness and courage of veterans in this, 
their only skirmish, with trained troops. A portion of Car- 
son's company watched from the hills and mountains the ad- 
vance of Stoneman to Swanannoa Gap, and pounced down 
upon detached squads of Federals, where they saw that they 
would not be outnumbered. 

In May, 1865, the whole mountain and Piedmont country 
was infested with robbers claiming tO' have been enlisted in 
the Federal army and it became absolutely necessary for the 
boldest among the returned soldiers of the Confederate Army 
to organize and strike terror into these bands of marauders. A 
party of desperate robbers were pursued by a number of Ex- 
Confederate soldiers, and took refuge in a sort of block house 
in Wilkes County, which was called Fort Hamby. In a 
charge upon this house, when it was captured Second Lieu- 

Seventeenth Battalion. 377 

tenant Henly, of Milleor's company, was killed. There 
was not a more daring man in any army. The storming of 
Fort Hamby 14 May, 1865, is the subject of an interesting 
article by Hon. R. Z. Linney in this volume. The men who 
fought and fell there imperiled their lives for the protection 
of their friends and families and moreover incurred the risk 
of being punished by the Yankees, at the instance of their 
irregular soldiers, who were in sympathy with such robbers. 

A. 0. AVEET. 

30 May, 1901. 


( Macrae's battalion.) 

By major J. 0. MACRAE. 

In the summer and fall of 1863, the condition of affairs in 
the mountains of Western E"orth Carolina became so disor- 
dered by reason of the withdrawal of most of the men who 
were loyal to the Confederacy for service in the two great 
armies of Northern Virginia and of the West, that it was nec- 
essary for the government to organize the military district of 
Western North Carolina, under Brigadier-General E. B. 
Vance, and to send General Hoke with several of his regi- 
ments to Wilkes and adjoining counties. 

The troops at the disposal of General Vance, on the other 
side of the Kidge, being insufficient to protect the people in 
that section, in November, 1863, this battalion, composed of 
picked men and experienced officers, then known as Mac- 
Rae's Battalion, was mustered in for temporary service by 
General Hoke at Morganton. 

It was composed of three companies of infantry, one com- 
manded by Captain Thomas IT. Haughton, then of Chatham ; 
another by Captain John W. Mallett, then of Cumberland, 
and the third by Captain Alex. McMillan, of Ashe. To this 
command was attached a section of artillery under Lieutenant 
Collins, Company F, Starr's Battalion and two companies 
of cavalry, one commanded by Captain A. B. Hill, of Hali- 
fax, who soon resigned and was succeeded by Captain John 
S. Plines, of Raleigh ; and the other by Captain Hugh L. 
Cole, of New Bern. Having no access to the rolls, I am un- 
able to give the names of the other officers of these companies, 
except Lieutenants Robb, of Iredell ; Hal. Fetter, of Orange, 
and John Hanks, of Chatham, of the infantry. Captain 
Albert M. Noble, of New Bern, was Commissary and Quar- 

Being apprised of a threatened attack upon Asheville by a 

380 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

notorious bushwhacker and partisan leader named George W. 
Kirk, who afterwards became more notoriovis as Colonel of 
Governor Holden's First North Carolina Eegiment in the 
Klu-Klnx campaign, this command proceeded by a forced 
march to Asheville and reported for duty to General Vance, 
and the threatened attack upon Asheville being averted, 
went on down the French Broad to Marshall and Paint Rock, 
where it remained in bivouac for some time patrolling that 
section and making occasional excursions into East Tennessee 
for the protection of the people. 

Later in the winter, headquarters were established at Ashe- 
ville, from which point the different companies, or detach- 
ments of them, were sent to such points from Yancey to Clay, 
as required their service. 

No general engagement between the whole force and the 
enemy ever occurred, but there were frequent encounters be- 
tween detached companies and parties of bushwhackers who 
infested the mountains, the largest organized body of them 
being Kirk's command. 

General Vance made a brilliant movement with a portion 
of this battalion and other troops, crossed the Great Smoky 
and dropped down into Tennessee in the neighborhood of 
Dandridge capturing a large wagon train which belonged 
to the I'ederal army operating near Knoxville — ^but unfortu- 
nately, before he could get out of the country with the train, 
he was set upon by a large force of the enemy's cavalry, and 
was himself captured with most of his command. 

Colonel John B. Palmer, of the Fifty-eighth North Car- 
olina, and Palmer's Legion, succeeded to the command of the 
district, the troops under him consisting of parts of the Sixty- 
second and Sixty-fourth North Carolina, a battery of artil- 
lery from Charleston, S. C, Lieutenant-Colonel J. L. Henry's 
Cavalry (Fourteenth) Battalion and several companies of 
Thomas' Legion of Cherokee Indians. 

From the nature of the service these commands were placed 
at all important points in that section^ and moved from place 
to place as occasion might require. 

Captain Haughton was for a time at Indian Grave Gap, in 
the I7neka Mountains. 

Eighteenth Battalion. 381 

The whole battalion with a part of the Sixty-second, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Clayton, operated on Big 
Laurel and Shelton Laurel in Madison County, to the top of 
the Bald and back to Warm Springs and Marshall. 

Once, some companies of this battalion relieved a company 
of the Sixty-fourth which was on the island in the French 
Broad near Marshall, surrounded by sharpshooting bush- 
whackers, and drove off the bushwhackers. 

Captain Mallett operated for a time in Henderson and 
Polk, and Captain Cole and afterwards Captain Hines were, 
stationed on the French Broad above Brevard near what 
is now Toxaway and the beautiful Sapphire country ; and by 
the way, when Captain Hines was withdrawn from Transyl- 
vania, many of the loyal people left their homes, where they 
were no longer safe from ravage and murder. 

The whole command passed through Haywood, Jackson 
and Macon to Franklin, and Captain Hines' Company, find- 
ing the road blocked by great stones, near Monday's, crossed 
the "Chunky Gal" Mountains by a trail and went into Clay 
County, that now peaceful Utopia, and spent some time on 
Shooting Creek, whose name was not an inappropriate one 

The service, while it afforded no field for glorious achieve- 
ment, was arduous and important, requiring constant watch- 
fulness, quickness of movement and energy; and while the 
danger was not great it was of that hidden kind which ad- 
mitted of no direct and vigorous attack upon an embodied en- 
emy, the bullet of the bushwhacker not unfrequently laying 
low some gallant fellow who was worthy to have died upon the 
field of battle. 

There were many stirring adventures and brave and ven- 
turesome acts by these men, whose history ought to have been 
better preserved, but the memorj^, from which I write en- 
tirely, of the details of that winter spent upon the Blue Eidge 
and along the slopes of the Great Smokies, across the Balsam, 
over the CuUowhee and the ISTantahala has passed away like 
the other dreams of the young Confederate soldier. 

This battalion was enabled to do good service in protecting 
the people who were true to the Confederacy from marauding 

382 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

attacks of bushwhackers and deserters from both Confederate 
and Federal armies who then found hiding places in the 
mountains, but some of whose names may not now be un- 
known to the pension rolls of the United States. 

But the overpowering necessities of the Army of iN'orthern 
"Virginia in the Spring of 1864 recalled all who could be 
spared and many more, from the defence of the homes of 
these western counties. This battalion was called to Ral- 
eigh and disbanded, its officers and men were sent to Virginia 
and absorbed into its fighting, struggling, suffering, but 
never despairing army, and shared its sad, but glorious, fate. 

I was assigned to duty on the staff of General L. S. Baker, 
and followed him in Georgia and South Carolina and in the 
eastern district of North Carolina and Southern Virginia to 
the end of the war. 

Scarcely had this battalion reached Raleigh before Colonel 
Kirk swept through the passes which they had guarded and 
fell upon the conscript camp at Morganton, commanded by 
Major Jesse E. McLean, capturing 28 June, 1864, over one 
hundred Junior Reserves and carrying those who were not 
killed on the way to the prison in Ohio. 

It was in the hasty piirstiit of Kirk by the citizens of Burke 
and the attempt to rescue the prisoners that the lamented 
Waighstill W. Avery lost his life. 

It very soon became necessary at all hazards to replace this 
command with other troops for the protection of the lives and 
property of the good people of Western N'orth Carolina. 

Jas. 0. MacRae. 
Chapel Hill, N. C, 

13 October, 1901. 


(mallett's or hahe's battalion.) 

By the editor. 

This was a battalion of "Light Duty" men, five companies, 
commanded by Major F. J. Hahr, a gallant Swede who had 
been disabled by wounds. L. L. Prather was Adjutant. It 
was originally styled Mallett's Battalion. The rolls of the 
command have been lost, or if in existence, are among the 
other captured Confederate rolls in the Record and Pension 
Bureau at Washington and not accessible until an act of Con- 
gress is passed for their publication. It is probable (but not 
certain) that the rolls of the five companies published in 
Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, pp. 284-292, are those of Hahr's Bat- 
talion. Mallett's Battalion was reported present in the Kin- 
ston-Mosely Hall engagements 13-17 December, 1862, under 
General IST. Gr. Evans, 207 strong, 26 (Serial) Vol. Off. Bee. 
Union aad Confed. Armies, IIS, 807. 

They were used at first as a camp and provost guard at 
Raleigh, but on 1 June, 1864, they were at Weldon and re- 
ported 349 present. 108 Off. Bee. Union and Confed. 
Armies, 988. 

On 28 October, Hahr's Battalion was sent to Wilmington 
and remained there or in that vicinity till after both attacks 
on Tort Fisher (2^ December, 1864, and 15 January, 1865.) 
On 31 January it was still in Wilmington brigaded with the 
Seventy-eighth North Carolina under Colonel George Jack- 
son, 96 Off. Bee. Union and Confed. Armies, 1187. What 
was left of these t'W'o commands were at Bentonville where 
they fought as "'Jackson's Brigade" and the remnant surren- 
dered with Johnston's army. 



1. D. T. Millard, Major. 2. E. R. Hampton, Hospital Steward. 



By E. R. Hampton, hospital Steward. 

One who writes history ought to be familiar with all the 
facts necessary to^ give a complete narration of such events, in 
their varioiis details, so that by methodical arrangement one 
harmonious and consistent whole may result. In attempting 
to write a sketch of the First Battalion of North Carolina' 
Junior Ecserven* and the part it took in the Civil War, I am 
forced to admit, in the beginning that I am not thus fully 
equipped for the undertaking. But in the absence of some 
one better qualiiied to do justice tO' the memory of the brave 
young men that composed it, I have consented to undertake 
this patriotic and, 1 may say sacred duty. In an humble way 
I hope to contribute something to rescue and preserve from 
obscurity and oblivion the memory of my comrades. I shall 
give the organization of our battalion, and recite, as far as 
in my power lies, the part it took in the great struggle be- 
tween the States of the North and the South, in the latter part 
of the conflict. I will narrate such facts as I can from my 
own knowledge and from whatever other information I have 
been able to collect. 

Major John W. Moore, in compiling his "Roster of North 
Carolina Troops in the War Between the States," fails to as- 
sign it a place in his work as an organization, but the compa- 
nies composing the battalion have been improperly placed by 
him as composing a part of the Seventieth Regiment. The 
Field and Staff officers which he gives of that regiment on 
page 293, Vol. 4, of his Roster, never had any command over 
the five companies that follow from pages 294 to 303, but 

*The First Battalion was the one commanded by Major C. W. Broad- 
foot which was merged into the First Regiment of Reserves. When the 
other battalions were organized into Regiments this which had been the 
Ninth Battalion of Reserves became the rirst.--ED. 


386 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

those five companies in fact constituted the First Battalion 
(originally the Xinth) of Junior Eeserves. Evidently, 
Major Moore in getting up his work had to deal with a great 
deal of confusion, as is shown in this particular instance, and 
which accounts for the note he appends in which, after giving 
what he suj^posed to be the first five companies of the Seven- 
tieth Regiment, he sajs : "The rolls of the remaining com- 
panies of this regiment have not yet been found, but I am in 
hopes of yet receiving them in which event they will be in- 
serted further on in this volume." 


The First Battalion, composed of young men or boys be- 
tween the ages of 17 and 18 years, was organized into com- 
panies at Camp Clingman in the town of Asheville, at a point 
now in the heart of the city of Asheville, near the present resi- 
dence of the Hon. Thomas D. Johnston, on Grove street, in 
May and June, 1864. At first the battalion was composed of 
only three companies. 

Company A — Buncombe and McDoirell — Captain, Chas. 
M . Hall ; First Lieutenant, J. J. Culberson ; Second Lieuten- 
ants, N. ^. Sumner and B. F. Young. 

Company B — RidJierford, Folic and Henderson — Captain, 
J. L. Eaves ; First Lieutenant, G. W. Suttle ; Second Lieu- 
tenants, S. T. Blanton and L. M. Gross. 

Company C — Haywoodj. Henderson, Jachson, Macon, Polk 
and Rutherford — Captain, William P. Lane; First Lieuten- 
ants, S. E. Smith, A. J. Liner, A. C. Webb and T. E. Gray. 

Dr. D. T. Millard, of Asheville, was elected Major 27 
June, 1864; Lieutenant Thos. E. Brown, of Abingdon, Va., 
was appointed Adjutant ; Alonzo Rankin, of Asheville, Ser- 
geant-Major; and Samuel D. Burgin, of Swanannoa, Bun- 
combe County, was a]>pointed Commissary Sergeant. After- 
wards, at Wilmington, the writer was appointed Hospital 

After the organization of the first three companies into a 
battalion at Asheville, it remained there in camp of instruc- 
tion, and on police and guard duty as a part of Colonel Pal- 

Twentieth Battalion. 387 

iner's command until the latter part of the summer of 1864, 
when it was ordered and moved to Camp Vance, near Mor- 
ganton, where it remained for several weeks on garrison duty. 
3 ust previous to its going to Camp Vance a portion of Kirk's 
command had made a raid on that camp 28 June and cap- 
tured the small garrison stationed there and had carried them 
away prisoners, back through the mountains into East Ten- 
iiL'.^ace. /7 Ojf. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, SSJ/., 239, a 
very full account. Part of the company of Captain Conrad, 
afterwards of Company E, which was in camp there, was cap- 
tured. The remnant which escaped capture afterwards made 
up a part of Company E. Captain Conrad was himself 
among the captured, hut hy some good fortune escaped from 
his captors and afterwards had the Davie County boys added 
to the remnant of his company, which escaped from Camp 
Vance and on a reorganization at Salisbury, he was again 
elected Captain and was attached to the battalion as Company 
E. After the Bentonville fight Captain Conrad resigned 
and returned to his home in Yadkin County and was twice 
captured by General Stoneman's command, but succeeded in 
again making his escape in both instances. 


From Camp Vance -we were sent to Salisbury, 4 October, 
1864, to perform guard duty over the Federal prisoners who 
were in the Confederate prison at that place, and were en- 
camped a few hundred yards east of the Federal cemetery. 

At that place 17 October we were joined by Company D, 
commanded by Captain J. A. Stephenson, composed of boys 
from the counties of Alexander, Ashe, and Wilkes. The 
First Lieutenant was E. F. Prather, Second Lieutenants W. 
C. York and G. W. Wilcox ; and, as already stated, we were 
also joined by Company E, commanded by Captain S. F. 
Conrad, composed of boys from the counties of Davie, Surry 
and Yadkin. The First Lieutenant was James B. Douthit, 
of Davie, (killed at South West Creek) ; Second Lieutenants, 
G. W. Sain, of Davie, and Edwin C. Lineberry, of Yadkin. 

The battalion remained on duty at Salisbury as a part 
of the prison guard until about the last of October, when it 

388 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

was ordered to Wilmington and went into quarters at Camp 
Lamb. We were on no active duty, except drill, for a 
few weeks while at this place and had a comparatively easy 
time, except that bread stuff at one time got very scarce in the 
Commissary Department and for several days our rations 
consisted of one pound of rice and a half pound of Nassau 
bacon brought intO' Wilmington by the blockade runners. 
It was only a month or six weeks after our arrival at Camp 
Lamb until the boys entered upon their active and earnest sol- 
dier life in the field, which continued until the end of the war 
and during which period they received their "baptism of 
fire" with that heroic fortitude and patient endurance that 
has ever characterized the sturdy, gallant and intrepid moun- 
tain boys of the "Old North State." 


On 8 December we received marching orders to a more ac 
tive field of duty. We were put aboard a freight train and 
hurried off tO' Belfield, Va., tO' meet and help drive back a 
force of the enemy under command of General Warren, that 
was approaching the North Carolina border from the direc- 
tion of Stoney Creek and Petersburg for the purpose of de- 
stroying the Petersburg and Weldon Railroad and cutting off 
that line of communication with Petersburg and Richmond. 
By some accident our train was partially derailed at Wilson, 
N. C, and our progress toward Belfield was delayed for some 
hours. We were after this delay got back on the track again 
and proceeded on toward Belfield, arriving at Hicksford on 
the south side of Hicks' Run opposite the town of Belfield, 
about noon on the 9th. When we reached Hick's Run our 
train crossed slowly over the bridge into Belfield, but the 
approaching line of the enemy's skirmishers and sharpshoot- 
ers made it necessary to back the train tO' the south side 
of the creek at Hicksford, where we were ordered to dis- 
embark and take up our position along the south bank of the 
stream on the left of the railroad line, and immediately set to 
work to throw up a line of trenches. The enemy's skirmish 
line, still advancing, soon put us in range of their fire, which 
continued almost incessantly the entire afternoon and until 

Twentieth Battalion. 389 

late in the night. We were somewhat protected by a battery 
which from an elevation a short distance in our rear, opened 
fire over our heads upon the enemy's skirmish line, holding 
them in check until our trenches were so far completed as to 
afford shelter from their fire. On our left and joining to 
our battalion was a battalion of Louisiana Zouaves, and on 
our right and on the opposite side of the railroad from us was 
a regiment of Junior Reserves. It was a raw, rainy day and 
in the afternoon turned into a heavy, disagreeable sleet. 
Being in range of the enemy's fire made it necessary for the 
boys to keep pretty close in their fresh dug trenches during 
the afternoon and the greater part of the night, without much 
fire ; with only a very scant supply of blankets and rations, it 
rendered their experiences ever memorable in the minds of 
our boys who watched and waited in the rain and sleet, on 
that dreary De-cember night. 

The enemy succeeded in reaching and burning the depot 
and a considerable portion of tJbe town of Belfield that after- 
noon and night, having torn up and destroyed the railrofii 
track as they advanced, by burning the rails on piles of crO'=s 
ties and twisting them around trees and telegraph poles into 
almost every conceivable shape. After accomplishing this, 
their skirmishers withdrew and with their main force en- 
camped about five miles north of that place toward Peters^ 

Although relieved from the danger of being struck by the 
enemy's bullets by their withdrawal, the terrible weather 
alloAved the boys little or no sleep that night. The casual- 
ties among our boys were few that afternoon. Sylvester 
Peirson, of Company A, fell mortally wounded by the pre- 
mature explosion of a shell thrown over our heads from our 
own battery, and died that night, and George MeCormick, of 
the same company, was wounded in the arm ; Corporal Leon- 
ard and a private of Company E, were slightly wounded. 
There were no others killed or wo'unded in the battalion that 
I remember. 

Early on the morning of the 10th we were started out on 
the march in pursuit of the enemy along the line of railroad 
which they had laid in ruins the day before. A part of Gen- 

390 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

eral Wade Hampton's command came in from our left, among 
them the Ninth North Carolina Eegiment (First Cavalry), 
and passed by our line, crossed Hicks^ Run and began the ad- 
vance. Our battalion, the Louisiana Zouaves and other cO'm' 
mands took up the line of march through the mud and sleet, 
following after the retreating enemy about ten or twelve 
miles. General Warren's forces having succeeded in destroy- 
ing the railroad for the time being, as far down as Belfield 
and being met there with such resistance as to render further 
advance difficult, if not impossible, were now hurrying back 
tO' the shelter of the main body of the Federals in the neigh- 
borhood of Stoney Creek. About seven miles north of Bel- 
field a part of General Hill's Corps came in upon the left in 
advance of us, and a sharp engagement took place for a few 
minutes. The enemy was soon in full retreat back to their 
stronghold and we went intO' camp for the night. The expe- 
riences of that day were indelibly impressed upon my mind 
as one of the bitterest of my life, and never to be forgotten. 
Because of very badly inflamed heels, caused by trying to 
wear a pair of coarse, stubborn new shoes', drawn from the 
quartermaster's store just before leaving Wilmington, I was 
unable to wear them on this march and foimd it more endura- 
ble to march all day through the sleet and mud barefoot, 
with the slices thrown across my shoulders, than to attempt 
to do so. 


Next morning, the 11th, we were ordered back to Bel- 
field and we returned to that place, going to our old camp at 
the trenches which we had occupied on the 9th and morning of 
the 10th. By this time the weather had somewhat moderated. 
Here we got the first rations since leaving Wilmington, 
Owing to the great haste with which we had been carried 
away from there our supply was very meagre, so much so 
that we were practically without rations for nearly three days. 
It was a great relief to our hungry, chilled and worn out boyg 
to get where they could get a little rest and rations once more. 
After resting a few hours and getting our dinner we again 
boarded our train and that evening went down to Weldon and 

Twentieth Battalion. 391 

encamped there for the night. An accident occurred that 
night which resulted in the wounding of two men, both of 
Company A. A stack of guns, which had been hurriedly 
and carelessly stacked, fell down, by which one of them was 
discharged and shot Dobson, of McDowell, through the knee, 
from which he died, and Matthews, of the same county, was 
painfully, but not dangerously, woimded in the leg. Next 
morning, 12 December, we again boarded our train and re^ 
turned to our old quarters at Camp Lamb. We had done no 
hard fighting but we had been exposed to the enemy's fir© for 
the first time. We had gained some knowledge of soldier's 
life. We had endured fearful exposure in wind and rain and 
sleet in want of blankets- and food. We had from the 8th to 
the 12th travelled over 400 miles by rail and spent two days 
marching and a day in the trenches. This gave us our first 
real insight into the life of a soldier. 


Active soldier life had now begun and our rest at our old 
quarters at Camp Lamb was destined to be of short duration. 
On account of exposure encountered in the Belfield campaign, 
some of the boys were taken sick. I was of that number and 
was sent to the hospital in Wilmington. About 20 December 
the battalion was ordered to break camp and move down to 
Masonboro Sound, near Fort Fisher. It went into- camp 
there about two miles from the fort and remained there a few 
days, until the attack on the fort began on the 24th, when 
General Butler's fieet appeared and opened the bombardment. 
The boys were ordered out of camp and aftei* patroling and 
watching along the coast for the enemy to land, until late in 
the night, went into the fort. 

The next morning, Sunday (which was Christmas day), 
the bombardment was renewed by the enemy's fle«t and kept 
up all day. In the afternoon the enemy effected a landing. 
The boys were then ordered out of the fort to the front to as- 
sist in repelling any attack upon it or the field gTins. They 
took their position in front of the rifle pits. Some of the field 
artillerymen for some reason left their guns, and by command 
of Major Reilly, Lieutenant Liner, of Company C, with a por- 

392 JSToETH Caeolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

tion of his company, undertook to man tlie guns, which they 
did very successfully and did good service. In about an hour 
the coast was cleared, the enemy returning to their vessels, ex- 
cept a captain and a few men who had been captured by the 
boys. The battalion remained under arms in a cold rain all 
night. The enemy after that night abandoned the attack on 
the fort and drew out to sea. Adjutant Brown was wounded 
in this engagement and was never with the command any 
more. Private Chapman, of Company A, and Private Carri- 
gan, of Company D, were wounded. 


The enemy having abandoned their attack and withdrawn 
from before Port Pisher, the battalion returned to Camp 
Lamb on the 27th, where they had another short respite from 
active service. It lasted but a short time, however. The en- 
emy had possession of JSTew Bern and were threatening to 
overrun all of Eastern North Carolina. Along in January, 
1865, they had entered Albemarle Sound and had gone up 
Chowan river with one or more gun boats and a small force 
had effected a landing at Coleraine. The battalion was again 
ordered to leave Camp Lamb, for the last time, and were sent 
by train to Halifax. It was a cold, uncomfortable trip. For 
want of room inside the cars some of the boys were compelled 
to ride on top the train and it was so cold that one of the boys 
froze and fell off the car on the trip. Arriving at Halifax 
we were placed with the Seventy-first Kegiment (Second 
Juniors) and some other troops, under Colonel John H. An- 
derson, of that regiment and marched down the Roanoke and 
across the country to Coleraine, encountering flooded streams 
and other obstacles, to meet the enemy at that point. They 
did not hold their ground to give our boys the glory of an en- 
gagement with them, but at our approach they went back 
aboard their gun boats and evacuated the place. 

Prom Coleraine the battalion returned to Goldsboro and 
took up camp there for a few weeks. On or about 12 and 13 
January, while in camp at Goldsboro all the boys in the bat- 
talion over 18 years of age were transferred to regular Con- 
federate regiments to fill up their depleted ranks. 

Twentieth Battalion. 393 

battle of south west creek. 

A short time after this the enemy coming out from New 
Bern was advancing toward Kinston. The battaJion was 
ordered away from Goldsboro tO' move to Kinston and was 
attached txj General Hoke's Division. A few miles below 
Kinston General Ploke's force met and engaged the enemy, 
whom they repulsed. Some 1,500 or more of the Federal 
forces were taken prisoners. In this fight, 8-9 March, the 
battalion was actively engaged and sustained considerable loss 
in killed and wounded. While supporting General Hoke's 
left wing a portion of the enemy's force advanced upon and 
engaged our boys. In the morning we held a position on the 
south side of the railroad, but in the afternoon were ordered 
to change position to the north side, crossing very near where 
the enemy were advancing. As soon as we crossed over the 
enemy attacked our boys, to which they promptly responded 
and a sharp engagement followed. Here for the first time, 
the boys were ordered to make a charge, which they did ef- 
fectively, and drove the enemy back. Companies and E 
were particularly exposed by being in the road without any 
shelter, and suffered considerable loss in wounded; Captain 
Lane, of Company C, was shot through the breast and seri- 
ously wounded ; Lieutenant Liner, of Company C, received 
two slight flesh wounds; Lieutenant Douthit (who is named 
in Major Moore's "Roster" as Lieutenant Danthel), and 
Lieutenant Lineberry, of Company E, were both mortally 
wounded. This company, E, had nine men wounded in this 
engagement. Corporal W. R. Hill, of Company D, was 
killed and several others of that company wounded. The 
other companies had some of their men wounded, but I am 
not able now to give names and number. Major Millard, 
being absent from the battalion since leaving Wilmington, 
Captain Hall, a brave and courageous officer was in com- 


After the engagement at Kinston, the battalion was as- 
signed to the brigade of Junior Reserves, which already em- 
braced the Seventieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second Reg- 

394 NoETH Caeolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

iments (First, Second and Third Juniors), commanded by 
Colonel J. H. JSTetliercutt. This brigade belonged to Hoke's 
Division, and met the eaiemy next at Bentonville 19-21 March, 
1866. A portion of General Johnston's army was there con- 
fronting the advancing columns of Sherman's army approach- 
ing from the south. At this engagement the battalion took 
part and while not engaged in the hottest of the conflict it was 
exposed both toi the artillery and musketry fire of the enemy 
at f reqiient intervals for three days and sustained some losses. 
There were quite a number of the boys wounded at this en- 
gagement, but I am unable to give the names of any except 
Private Carter, of Company E. 


After the Bentonville engagement the Battalion made no 
other history except in common with the retreating forces of 
General Joseph E. Johnston before the victorious columns 
of Sherman's invading army. The fortunes of the Confeder- 
acy were rapidly yielding to the force of overwhelming num- 
bers and the want of army supplies. This great leader, sec- 
ond only tO' Lee, with his ai-my must soon capitulate to an 
army of invaders of far superior strength. The fate of that 
army was shared by the First Battalion of Junior Eeserves. 
Tt moved with the brigade and that wing of our army from 
Bentonville on through Smithfield, Raleigh, Durham and 
other intervening points until the final surrender 26 April 
near Greensboro, then, along with, their fathers and older 
brothers, scar-worn veterans that had contested the Federal 
advance from Chickamauga to Greensboro, the boys laid down 
their arms on the grave of the "Lost Cause" to return to their 
homes and enter again the paths of civil life. Eadi officer 
and man in the army was paid $1.25 in silver. The Jimior 
Brigade received their paroles 2 May, 1865, at Bush Hill, be- 
tween High Point and Trinity College, in Randolph County. 

This ends the real history of the First Battalion of North 
Carolina Junior Reserves and its services in the Civil War 
of thirty-six years ago. There are many incidents and mat- 
ters of detail which went to make up our army life that would 
no doubt, be interesting to individual members, to have re- 

Twentieth Battalion. 395 

corded in history ; want of information renders it impossible 
to go into them. I have given the histoiy of the organization 
and its services with soane of the incidents and results attend- 
ing its military career in the best manner I am able with the 
means at my command, Avhich I feel sure is substantially cor- 
rect in outline if not literally correct in detail. 

It will not be improper for me to say here, that while I 
have been engaged in writing this sketoh that I have been 
greatly aided in my work by Captain S. F. Conrad, of Com- 
pany E, and Lieutenant Joseph Liner, of Company C. Also 
Sergeant A. H. Matheson, of Company I), and Mr. E. E. 
Smith, of Settle, N. C, who married the sister of Li eii tenant 
Lineberry, who fell at Kinston, all of whom have fur- 
nished me much valuable data by which I have been enabled 
to Avrite up the movements of the battalion after my connec- 
tion with it ceased. Without their aid my work must have 
been very incomplete. I regret very much that I have not 
been able to get any assistance or information from any mem- 
ber of Company B, although I made cons'iderable effort to 
do so. 

Before closing this sketoh I think it will not be improper 
for me to call attention to some inaccuracies in Major Moore's 
"Roster" which appear to my own personal knowledge or by 
information from others who know the facts. The fourth 
volume of his work contains many errors in names and rank of 
men and officers in the companies composing our battalion. It 
is not my purpose to introduce myself as his critic because I 
have no doubt but his work is as perfect as he was able to 
make it with the material accessible to him, and taken as a 
whole he has given the State a valuable work. I think it 
quite likely the company rolls were often very badly or imper- 
fectly kept, either from want of proper qualification, or neg- 
lect, of company officers whose duty it was to attend to them. 
This, taken in connection with the confusion that existed at 
the close of the war, the loss of valuable records, etc., will ac- 
count for the fact that his work is not and could not be abso- 
lutely correct. I will cO'rxeot a few mistakes that I am aware 
of, viz. : 

In Company A, J. M. Greenlee was First, or Orderly Ser- 

396 ISToETH Caeolina Teoops, 1861-'65. 

geant, and not J. E. Dobson. J. Y. Hemphill, of McDowell 
County, was Second Sergeant. Dobson was wounded at 
Weldon 11 December, 1864, and died from the effects of his 
wound, as already stated. 

In Company B, the name of the Captain was J. L. Eaves, 
and not J. L. Evans, as given in the "Eoster." 

In Company C, the name of the Second Lieutenant was A. 
J. or Joseph Liner, and not "Lines," as printed in "Roster." 

In Company D, the name of the Second Sergeant is A. H. 
Matheson, and not "A. H. Wilkerson," as printed in "Ros- 

In Company E, the name of Captain Conrad is "S. F." in- 
stead of "F. S." The name of the First Lieutenant is James 
B. Douthit (mortally wounded at Kinston), and not "James 
B. Danthel." 

There are undoubtedly many mistakes among the names of 
privates and non-commissioned officers on the "Roster" that 
perhaps can never be corrected. 

In conclusion I desire tO' say that in looking back over a 
period of thirty-six years since the boys laid down their arms 
at Greensboro and saw their last service in that brave, but 
overpowered army of the strangled Confederacy, I ajn re- 
minded how swiftly time has flown and that while we were 
of tlie youngest of those who entered the military service of 
the "Lost Cause," the survivors are now men who' have long 
since crossed the meridian mark of life. Many of them have 
gone to their final reward. Others have sought homes in 
distant States. More than the third of a century has passed 
since they were last together in a common cause. The mel- 
lowing infliiences of time has done much to allay the surging 
billows of bitterness and strife that surrounded their earlier 
years and they remain only in the retrospect of the past. Let 
us hope that our children may never see such fratricidal strife 
in their day and that in the "great beyond" we may meet our 
old comrades and realize the full fruition of hope in a grand 
reunion in the land of eternal joy and peace. 

E. R. IlAMPTO]sr. 

Bryson City, N. C, 

26 Apeil, 1901. 



(brwin's senior besehve battalion.) 

By the KDITOR. 

This Battalion ^vas organized at Asheville in July, 1864, 
and was conni)nsod of Senior Keserves from the counties of 
Polk, RutheTford, AIcDowell, Henderson and Transylvania. 
It elected as Major, L. P. Erwin, who had been Captain of 
Company Gr, Sixteenth North Carolina Regiment, and had 
been disabled by wounds at Fredericksburg 13 December, 
186ii, having been previously wounded at Mechanicsville, but 
who now patriotically retiirned to aid his State in this hour 
of direst need. He has in the last few days died at his resi- 
dence in Eutherfordton. On 1 September, 1864, the battal- 
ion then in Asheville reported 200 men present. On 1 Novem- 
ber General Holmes telegraphed General Bragg that he had 
sent him Millard's Battalion (Juniors), Erwin's Battalion 
(Seniors), Shober's Regiment, Seventy-seventh (Seventh 
Seniors), and thirteen other companies of Seniors. If, as is 
probable, Erwin's Battalion Avent to Wilmington, one com- 
pany probably remained at Asheville, for 18 December, 1864, 
General Martin reports 43 men of Erwin's Battalion at that 
point, 89 Off. Records Union and Confed. Armies, 1279, 
and 10 March, 1865, there were 88 reported present, at that 
point. Vol. 103 of above work at page 1048. 



(hill's senior reserves.) 

By the editor. 

The Senior Reserves were organized into five regiments 
and three battalions. The regiments were the Seventy-third, 
Seventy-fourth, Seventy-sixth, Seventy-seventh and Seventy- 
eighth TSTorth Carolina (Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and 
Eighth Reserves), whose career has been already narrated as 
far as is now obtainable, in this volume. The battalions 
were First Battalion of Seniors, commanded by Major L. P. 
Erwin, just given, the Second Battalion of Seniors com- 
manded by Major A. A. Hill, and the Third Battalion of 
Seniors commanded by Major J. T. Littlejohn. The Second 
Battalion of Senior Reserves consisted of the Senior Reserves 
from Catawba and adjacent counties, and organized by elect- 
ing A. A. Hill, Major. He was a disabled officer from Lee's 
army who had been on light duty as enrolling officer for Alex- 
ander County. 

The services of this battalion were doubtless useful in 
guarding bridges, arresting deserters and possibly it may 
have rendered some service in guarding prisoners at Salis- 
bury. It is only incidentally mentioned in General Holmes' 
Order and Letter Books. 




By the editor. 

This was the Third Battalion of Seniors. There was an- 
other battalion called the Third Battalion of Reserves which 
was commanded by Major Boaz F. Hooks. That battalion, 
160 strong, was reported 1 June, 1864 (108 Off. Rex. Union 
and Confed, Armies, 988), as being then on duty guarding 
the JSTeuse river bridge just south of Goldsboro, which had 
once been burnt by the enemy. That battalion, however, 
was consolidated with other companies into the Seventy-eighth 
Regiment (Eighth Reserves) and after serving with it in 
both assaults on Fort Fisher, formed part of Jackson's Bri- 
gade at Bentonville 19-21 March, 1865. 

The present Third Battalion was composed of Senior Re- 
serves from Granville and adjoining counties. It was or- 
ganized in Raleigh about August, 1864, by electing James T. 
Littlejohn, of Oxford, Major. Lieutenant William Daniel, 
of Company C, was made Adjutant. It was composed of 
four companies commanded respectively by Captain J. W. 
Perry, Company A ; Captain E. J. Blackley, Captain J. M. 
Gardner, and Captain T. J. Crews. Lieiitenant A. Bobbitt 
is also incidentally mentioned. It was ordered to Raleigh 
(apparently having been furloughed) on 21 October, and was 
sent to Wilmington with Hahr's Battalion and saw several 
months service there, probably under command of Colonel 
George Jackson. On 17 March Captain J. W. Perry, of 
Company A, then in command of the battalion, was investi- 
gated and reprimanded for giving some of his men furloughs 
without higher authority. 



(bencher's battatjon. ) 

By the editor. 

The men "on detail" in JSTorth Carolina were reported by 
General Holmes to be 3,117 in number. In November, 1864, 
he was ordered by the Richmond authorities to organize them 
into regiments. They doubtless embraced all those on details 
of any kind .from 11 to 50 years of age. These were organ- 
ized into three regiments, Eighty-first, Eighty-second and 
Eighty-third ISTorth Carolina (First, Second and Third Reg- 
iments of Detailed Men) commanded by Colonels W. J. Hoke 
(or L. M. McCJorklo), Colonel A. G. Brenizer and Colonel 
Bouchelle and one battalion commanded by Lieutenant Wm. 
C. Rencher, a disabled officer who was enrolling officer at Fay- 
etteville where, upon the organization of the battalion, he 
was elected Major. Soon after its organization it was as- 
signed to the division commanded by General H. R. Jackson, 
of Georgia, and aided to cover the removal of the Confederate 
war material from the Fayetteville arsenal and the burning 
of the bridge at that place, for efficiency in the discharge of 
which duty the command was complimented by General Jack- 
son. The order books of General Holmes show that the bat- 
talion was ordered to Raleigh, but the nature of its services 
thereafter are not known. The three regiments of "De- 
tailed Men" were brigaded under Colonel W. J. Hoke 
and were marched to confront Sherman, when it was thought 
he Avas heading for Charlotte. One company of the Eighty- 
second was captured by Stoneman at Salisbury, and was kept 
in prison at Camp Chase, Ohio, for three months after the 
war as is related by Colonel A. G. Brenizer in his history of 

that regiment 



(Bingham's battalion.) 

By the editor. 

This was a battalion of three companies which was organ- 
ised in the winter of 1864-'G5 in Watauga and adjacent 
counties for their protection from Kirk and similar charac- 
ters. Harvey H. Bingham was elected Major. As men- 
tioned by Judge Avery in his history of Avery's Battalion 
(Seventeenth Battalion ante) Bingham and his battalion 
were captured by a force sent out from Franklin's Division, 
then at Bristol, Va., in February or March, 1865. 


By the editor. 

Gradually unattached companies were absorbed by neigh- 
boring battalions and regiments, but many companies re- 
mained unattached to the very last. We have no means of 
ascertaining exactly how many. On 10 June, 1864, the fol- 
lowing are mentioned : Two companies State cavalry, two of 
infantry and Captain Jno. W. Galloway's Coast Guard, 69 
Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 892, 893. Spencer's 
and Pitts' unattached companies were reported at Plymouth 
September, 1864. 88 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 
1226. Two such companies commanded by Captains H. P. 
Allen and E. D. Sneed were ordered to Wilmington 28 Octo- 
ber, 1864, 89 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 1181. 
26 401 

402 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

In same work, (Serial Vol.) 96, p. 1186, Captain J. Daw- 
son's and Captain Jno. B. Griswold's companies (both. Sen- 
ior Reserves) are reported at Goldsboro and on the next page 
Captain (!:!room's company at Kinston and Captain McDou- 
gald's and a company of Coast Guard at Wilmington. From 
same publication we know Captain Foy's and Captain Bass' 
company were both unattached. This is sixteen unattached 
companies (if none of these are counted twice) and there 
were certainly several others, for on 11 October, 1864, the 
official reports show that there was then twelve unattached 
companies from this State in the Confederate service. This 
was exclusive of the unattached companies in State service. 
129 Off. Bee. Union and Confed. Armies, 722. On 19 No- 
vember, 1864, the Adjutant-General's office of North Caro- 
lina reported 13 unattached companies. These being those 
in Confederate service, the unattached companies in State 
service could hardly have been fewer than seven, making a 
total of twenty companies, or two regiments. 

Captain Spencer was captured in Hyde County, 60 Off. 
Bee. Union arid Confed. Armies, 154-. In the history of the 
Sixty-eighth Regiment its author regards Swindell's and 
Spencer's companies as the eleventh and twelfth companies 
of that regiment. Vol. 3 of this work, p. 723, but they were 
probably unattached companies. These xmattached compa- 
nies were doubtless all very full, being mostly on home ser- 
vice. Foy's reported 100 present. 

Among many patriotic companies serving temporarily on 
an emergency as volunteers and of whom no official record 
was kept may be mentioned the Clarendon Guards, of Fay- 
etteville, composed of the best people of Fayetteville, not sub- 
ject to military service, who volunteered for an emergency in 
1862, and served for a month at Fort Fisher with Dr. T. D. 
Haigh as Captain, without pay and supported mostly by their 
own commissary. Their patriotism was a brilliant instance 
of the spirit of our people and should be recorded here. 
There were doubtless other like companies elsewhere which 
volunteered in emergencies, though not subject to duty. 


By the editor. 

Tn Governor Vance's address before the Southern Histori- 
cal Society at White Sulphur Springs 18 August, 1875, he 
stated that the records of the Adjutant General's office showed 
"troops from North Carolina serving in regiments of other 
States not borne on o;ir rolls," 3,103. 

Of these companies, we can now trace a company from 
Halifax and ISTorthampton whose officers were Captain Lit- 
tleherry W. Mason, later Kichard E. Mosely, and Lieuten- 
ants Junius C. Simmons, later Matthew M. Greene First 
Lieutenant, and Wm. F. Baugh and James M. Perkins, Sec- 
ond Lieutenants. The roll of this company is given in Vol. 
4, Moore's Eoster, pp. 432-43.5. This company was attached 
to the Twelfth Virginia Eegiment, Colonel Weisiger, in 
Wise's Brigade. 

Moore's Koster, pp. 435-438, mentions two companies, 
Captain Wm. B. Clement from Davie, and Captain H. E. 
Hinton from Northampton, which served in the Tenth Vir- 
ginia Battalion (Cavalry). Another North Carolina com- 
pany served in the Sixty-first Virginia Eegiment. Besides 
we know that there were North Carolina companies serving 
in other regiments or battalions, raised in Virginia, East 
Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina. In Captain Webb's 
history of Company A, Thirteenth North Carolina. Battalion, 
he tells of his and another company from this State which 
served in Bogg's Virginia Battalion of artillery, and the ef- 
fort to transfer them to a Virginia regiment of infantry. 
The mimber 3,103 given by Governor Vance from the records 
of the Adjutant-General's office would indicate probably about 
thirty companies, equal to three regiments. 

In Captain Benson's history of the "Engineer Corps" in 
this work, he gives account of a North Carolina company be- 
longing to the First Eegiment Confederate States Engineers. 

Another North Carolina company was Company F, in the 

404 NoETH Carolina Troops, 1861-66. 

Naval Battalion commanded by Commodore J. E.. Tucker, 
D. G. Conn, now residing in Kaleigh, was Eirst Sergeant 
While a member of Company L, Fifteenth North Carolina, 
he received five wounds, all at Malvern Hill. There was 
another North Carolina company in the same battalion of 
which — . — . Watts, of Mecklenburg County, was Orderly 
Sergeant. The officers of these companies were navy officers 
who had no ships to command. This battalion in the spring 
of 1865 was at Drewry's Bluff and it took an honorable part 
in the battle of Harper's Farm (or Green Plains) under Gen' 
eral Custis Lee, 6 April, 1865. These two companies were 
taken prisoners there and carried to Point Lookout. They 
were paroled at Newport News 19 June, 1865. 

Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, p. 443-449, gives a very imper- 
fect list of the North Carolinians who enlisted in the navy 
proper. Among the officers in the navy from this State were 
Captain J. W. Cooke, of the Albemarle; Commodore W. F- 
Lynch, Captain J. N. Maffitt, Captain Jas. I. Waddell, of 
the Shenandoah J Commodore W. T. Muse, of the North 
Carolina, Lieutenants W. H. Kerr, W. T. Murphy, Thomas 
L. Moore and Richard Battle, Master. The services of these 
and other naval officers from this State are treated in other 
articles in this work. 

On the other hand, in the Sixty-fourth North Carolina, 
there were two companies from Tennessee, and in the Twen- 
ty-fifth North Carolina one company from Georgia and 
South Carolina. But these were exceptional cases. In the 
Revolutionary war we know the South Carolina commands of 
Sumpter, Williams and others were almost entirely composed 
of North Carolinians, though our sister State got credit for 
them. So in 1861-'65, aspiring men raising regiments near 
the border in the adjoining States, largely recruited in this 
State. Even as to commands raised by this State, Governor 
Vance's letter books show his repeated complaints that so 
many of our regiments, and ofttimes our brigades, were coin- 
manded by men from other States. North Carolina has 
always been singularly unassertive and over modest as to the 
merits and capacity of her own sons, so much so that one of 
her defamers has called her the "Boeotia of the South." 


By captain DAVID G. MAXWELL, Co. H, Thirty-Pipth Reo- 
iMjiiNT, North Carolina Troops. 

The fortune of war was never more strikingly portrayed 
perhaps than by the two pictures opposite, entitled "Before 
and After," of two brothers, soldier boys of Mecklenburg 
County, who enlisted in Company B, Thirteenth North Car- 
olina Regiment, in April, 1861. The first picture of the 
boys, L. J. and H. J. Walker, of Mecklenburg County, in 
their Confederate uniforms, and with left hands clasped, was 
taken in 1861 a short while after enlistment. The second 
pictiire was taken some time after the war, the brothers in 
the same position as the first with left hands clasped, but the 
left leg of each does not appear in the picture. The leg of 
one brother was buried at Gettysburg, Pa., and that of the 
other at liagerstown, Md. L. J^. Walker, the younger brother, 
was wounded 1 July, 1863, he being the fifth color-bearer to 
be shot down in the charge on Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg. 
His leg was amputated at the field hospital by Dr. John H. 
McAden, of' Charlotte. He was afterwards taken prisoner 
and sent to David's Island, N". Y. H. J. Walker, the elder 
brother, participated in the three days' engagement at Get- 
tysburg, coming out unhurt, but on the retreat, 13 July, while 
on skirmish line near Hagerstown, Md., he was wounded in 
the left leg, conveyed to the field hospital and his leg ampu- 
tated by the late Dr. Campbell, of Statesville. Young Wal- 
ker was put in an ambulance and taken to Martinsburg, Va., 
and a few days thereafter was taken prisoner and sent to 
Johnson's Island, Ohio, and remained there until April, 

The brothers were poor boys and reared on the farm. They 
are now in affluent circumstances, and are honored citizens of 
Charlotte. Dr. H. J. Walker, the elder, studied medicine 
after the war, and now enjoys a good practice and owns two 

406 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

drug stores, one at Huntersville and one in Dilworth, a resi- 
dence suburb of Charlotte. L. J. Walker, the younger 
brother, and who appears on the left in each picture, is now 
a retired merchant. ISTo two better citizens than Dr. Jack 
and Jasper Walker can be found in North Carolina or in any 
other State. Mecklenburg is proud of them and North Car- 
olina should be. 

An amusing, though pathetic, incident is related of the 
two brothers. When they returned, battle-scarred, from the 
tented field, L. J. Walker found the sweetheart whom he had 
left behind, four years before, still true, and waiting to be 
claimed by her lover. The day for the wedding was set and 
all preparations made. But on that eventful day, and only 
a few hours before the ceremony was to take place, the pros- 
pective bridegroom met with an accident which seemed like 
the unfriendly dealing of fate. He slipped and in some way 
broke his cork leg. Deprived of this very useful member, the 
young man found that he could not possibly "stand up" for 
the ceremony, and was therefore in quite a dilemma. At 
this important juncture, his brother. Dr. H. J. Walker, went 
forward and saved the day by oifering to loan his leg to his 
brother. The proffered leg was gladly accepted and found to 
fit perfectly. This is perhaps the only case on record in 
which one man has been married while standing on the leg of 

David G. Maxwell, 
Chahlotte, N. C, 

9 April, 1901. 


By the editor. 

This is a large subject and was undertaken by the late Pu- 
laski Cowper, who was a most efficient officer (First Lieuten- 
ant) on the headquarter's staff of that department, and than 
whom no one could have written a more interesting and valu- 
able article. His illness and lamented death prevented his 
execution of the work and now there is no one available. 

The officers of the Bureau are given in Moore's Eoster, 
Vol. 4, pp. 452-455, and their names need not be repeated 
here. There was an inspector for each of the Congressional 
Districts and a stib-enroUing officer in each county. These 
officials were, as a riile, officers who had been in service and 
assigned to light duty in consequence of wounds or other dis- 
ability thus incurred. 

Major Peter Mallett, of Fayetteville, was at the head of 
the Bureau in North Carolina, with a very efficient staff. In 
January, 1863, Colonel T. P. August, from another State, 
was assigned to that post, but upon the vigorous protest cf 
Governor Vance, he was promptly removed. 

The first conscript act, 21 April, 1862, embraced all able- 
bodied men, not exempted by the act, between the ages of 18 
and 35. Those above the age of 35 already in the army were 
discharged and substitutes were allowed. Later this last 
provision was repealed and those who had put in substitutes 
were called on to serve while the age limit was extended to 45 
years. By act of Congress 16 March, 1864, those between 
the ages of lY and 18, and between 45 and 50 were called into 
service, as Junior and Senior Reserves respectively. 

On the passage of the successive conscript acts, many vol- 
untarily went into the army so as to select the companies in 
which they wished to serve, the number of such being reported 
in October, 1864, as 21,608. These were in addition to the 
original volunteers of some 71,000 men and 3,103 from this 
State serving in commands from other States. The Con- 

408 North Cakolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

script Bureau reported 18,585 forwarded by its agency up 
to that time, which by 9 February, 1865, was 21,347. 

The senior and junior reserves, the detailed men (3,117) 
and those who went to the army without reporting and the ad- 
ditions after October, 1864, make North Carolina's total 127,- 
000, as stated in Major Gordon's article in Vol. 1 of this 
work, p. 19, exclusive of nine regiments of Home Guards who 
were of use in arresting deserters, keeping the peace and 
guarding bridges, with some service in the field. 

The 21,347 conscripts gathered up and sent to the army up 
to February, 1865, represent only a part of the work of this 
department, whose duty was also to gather up and send back 
furloughed men who had overstaid their leaves and to arrest 
and return deserters. This evil became so great that from 
time to time regiments were sent home to assist in the work 
and finally it overcame all bounds and together with the 
break down in the finances of the Confederacy was the cause 
of its overthrow. 

Mr. Cowper stated to the writer that there were ten large 
bound volumes containing the names and records of desert- 
ers from this State and that since the war all these volumes 
had mysteriously disappeared. One volume only has been 
recovered. It perhaps speaks well rather than otherwise for 
human nature that there should be a wish to destroy such 
records. In like manner just after the Revolution, a list 
was adopted by the Legislature of North Carolina of those 
tories whose names should be preserved as enemies of their 
coixntry and copies were sent to the other States, but this list 
has not only been removed from our archives, biit the copies 
have disappeared from the archives of all our sister States. 

Those who are curious to look up the workings of the Con- 
script Bureau can find much data in the latter volumes of the 
"Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies," but 
nothing will supply the information which would have been 
given, and which would have been admirably told, by Lieu- 
tenant Pulaski Cowper had disease and death staid their re- 
lentless hands for a season. 

The Conscript Bureau was an indispensable agency and in 
the main an efficient one, though of course never a popular one. 


Thad Coleman, Captain, and Lt. Col. 2. C. B. Denson, 2d Lieut., Co. A. 

60th Regt. after 2Stli March, 1865. 3. J. O. Winder, Major. 
4. Samuel A. Ashe, 1st Lieut. 


By C. B. DENSON, Second Lieutenant Company A, Second 
Enqinebbs, C. S. a. 

The earthworks constructed by the Confederate or State 
authorities, in the early periods of the war, were built with 
patriotic celerity at many points by such troops as were near- 
est to the threatened localities, under the direction of the few 
engineer officers resident in the South, who had resigned from 
the United States Army, or such other skilled engineers as 
might be available. In many cases artillery officers ordered 
to command, strove to supply the needs of the hour, and the 
infantry graduates of West Point, and of the advanced mili- 
tary schools were also pressed into service. 

So vast was the area and so numerous the demands, that 
civil engineers were made military assistant engineers, while 
the labor was obtained from such men as had been brought up 
in industrial piirsuits and gathered together to assist and 
direct the negroes enrolled from the various counties, for the 
labor required in heavy excavation and embankments in the 
larger fortifications. 

Many meritorious engineer officers were developed from 
the hardy civil engineers who had been engaged in building 
the railroads, water works, and similar internal improve- 
ments. They learned rapidly in the field the principles of 
Vauban's great art, and brought into play the originality of 
the American mind, which so quickly adapts the available 
means to provide for the end to be attained. 

From necessity, in some States, the defenses of the coast 
and the rivers were hastily arranged in the best manner avail- 
able, by the State authorities, and subsequently turned over 
to the officers placed in charge by the Confederate Govern- 
ment at Richmond, according to the importance of the posi- 

410 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

tion, the immediate need of the hour, and the availability of 
officers to meet the demand. 

It may be said that the great wants of the navy and the 
army of the Confederate States were of an opposite charac- 
ter. The navy had a fine corps of brave and skilled officers, 
unexcelled in the world, but they were almost without ships ; 
or ports, in the absence of ships. The army had control of 
many natural positions of defence, but had very few en- 
gineers to improve them, and these were hampered by the 
lack of skilled artisans and labor to construct; of ordnance 
for works of sufficient strength to meet military require- 
ments; and of troops to man the same. 

It was more difficult to learn the delicate and responsible 
duties than in any other arm of the service. An engineer 
officer might be called upon to lay off earth works, build a 
bridge, repair roads for artillery, map the territory, construct 
magazines, or casemates, scoop out a mine, put together a 
pontoon, make and set a torpedo. All these were done, in 
the department of ISTorth Carolina, and also the obstruction 
of harbors and rivers, and the building of torpedo-boats, and 
laying of electric, then called "galvanic" sub-terra shells. 

The history of this service throughout the war for South- 
ern Independence will probably never be written. It cannot 
be readily followed like the events in the life of a regiment or 
a brigade, nor does it present the dramatic scenes of the 
charge of the infantry, or the onset of the cavalry. Indeed, 
so little of the pomp of war attends the quiet and steady per- 
formance of the indispensable work of the engineers, that 
few seem to be aware of their existence ; few apparently know 
the name of the distinguished General at the head of that 
service, who was a native of Worth Carolina (Major-General 
J. F. Gilmer), and never in any painting or sculpture, is 
there any emblematic representation like that of the artillery, 
cavalry, infantry and navy, to remind the observer that the 
military art was in the ranks with Southern valor. And this 
in a State upon whose soil was constructed the greatest for- 
tress in the Southern Confederacy, the Malakoff of America. 

But there was one man, who had himself been the chief 
engineer of Scott, the commanding general of the Mexican 

Corps op Engineeks. 411 

war, who was deeply concerned in developing that arm of the 
service, and the writer need not remind you that he was Rob- 
ert E. Lee. ISTor was General Jackson behind him in appre- 
ciation; he who was the best topographical engineer of the 
Army of the Valley, unless we except his alter ego in this re- 
spect, Major Jed. Hotchkiss, his faithful engineer. 

The first services were performed by the officers resigning 
from the old army, and military assistant engineers, who only 
had rank by courtesy. The Engineer Corps contained of- 
ficers who served on the staff of generals for work of emer- 
gency in the field, directly with the troops, and others who 
were employed, with the respective details under their com- 
mand in topographical work, or fortification, etc., and re- 
ported for orders, maintenance and equipment to the En- 
gineer Bureau of the War Department, at Richmond. 

Topographical work was indispensable, for no accurate 
map existed, except of such oiitlines as the Coast Survey had 
made on the exterior of the bay and ocean coasts. It is well 
known that the enemy possessed much better maps of the 
peninstila between the Chesapeake and the James at the time 
of the Seven Days Battles, than the Confederate authorities, 
a fact which had its infiuence in the failure to reap the results 
of victory gained at such bloody cost. ISTo one now doubts 
that there should have been no Malvern Hill. 

Military maps must be absolutely accurate, in all essential 
features. The roads must show exact length and direction, 
and all possible branches and by-ways — cleared and wooded 
land separately, and location of every house, fence, ford, hill 
and valley ; the depth of rivers, nature of swamps, character 
of soil, everything, in fact, necessary to form a correct judg- 
ment of the problem of moving troops, and the use of natural 
advantages for protecting the men and giving greatest effect 
to artillery or other arms. 

So important was such information in General Lee's opin- 
ion, that after the battle of Chan^ellorsville had occurred and 
Hooker had been driven across the Rappahannock, by an 
army greatly inferior in niimbers, the Confederate com- 
mander, as if foreseeing that Spottsylvania, the North Anna, 
etc., were again to be some day the battle ground, asked of 

412 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

the Engineer Department a minute and complete map of the 
whole territory, from the Rapidan southward. This was ex- 
ecuted with the transit, and the main lines chained. Indeed 
the engineers advanced across the Eappahannock, to the line 
of the Occoquan and near Alexandria, and were pursued by 
naval and marine forces on the Potomac. But a fairly good 
map was obtained of the roads, redoubts, etc., constructed by 
the enemy beyond the river. 

When General Grant began his assaults by the left flank 
toward Richmond in 1864, every foot of ground had been 
studied by Lee, and the troops shifted with masterly pre- 
cision, met every attack by the shortest route, and on the ex- 
act spot required. Grant sacrificed as many men as equaled 
Lee's entire army. 

It was perceived by the War Department at Richmond that 
the gathering of skilled men to supervise labor, and to exe- 
cute the details under the direction of officers temporarily or- 
dered for the erection or strengthening of works at various 
points, only to be scattered at the completion, and brought to- 
gether with difficulty at some other point, was a wasteful pro- 
cess, only permissible as a temporary expedient. 

In addition, therefore, to the Engineer Corps, it was de- 
termined to organize two regiments of Engineer Troops, of 
ten companies each. The officers were appointed by the 
President, and the nucleus of each company was to be ob- 
tained by detailing fifty men from each division or two men 
from each regiment, as far as possible from the same State, 
within a given district. The companies were to be organ- 
ized as a body of regulars. Commanding officers were re- 
quested to select only skilled men of approved record, in 
knowledge and conduct. The ranks were filled by volunteers 
reaching military age, or otherwise, to a minimum of one 
hundred men. Two new men were allowed in lieu of one 
veteran. As it was anticipated that these regiments would 
constitute a part of the regular army of the Confederate 
States, after the attainment of independence, and the disso- 
lution of the provisional army, the appointments were much 
appreciated, of commissions therein. 

Military graduates and military assistant engineers, then 

Corps of Engineers. 413 

in service, and a few officers of the corps proper and staff of- 
ficers in other departments who resigned higher rank, to enter 
the permanent Engineer Troops, were made the commis- 
sioned officers of the line. All appointments were made as in 
the case of regulars. No elections were permitted. Com- 
missioned officers were selected by presidential appointment. 
From the nature of the service, the company was the unit, 
and the Captain appointed the non-commissioned officers. 

The First Regiment was assigned to the Army of Northern 
Virginia. The Second Regiment belonged to the South and 
West, along the Atlantic coast, and in the Army of the West. 
Company A of this regiment was formed chiefly of North 
Carolinians and assigned to North Carolina. In addition 
to the details from regiments in Lee's army of North Caro- 
lina troops, the ranks were filled by enlistments at Wilming- 

Congress authorized these regiments 20 March, 1863. 
General Leo at first opposed the removal of the companies 
from their several divisions to regimental headquarters, and 
in fact, the second regiment served in separate companies 
throughout the war. 

The defences of North Carolina in 1861 consisted of the 
forts Macon and Caswell, the former built for the defence of 
Beaufort, by the United States, and the latter, at the mouth 
of the Cape Fear, and the improvised earthworks constructed 
by the companies of heavy artillery volunteers, under the 
class of officers heretofore referred to. Several officers were 
commissioned by the State for this special duty, as S. L. 
Fremont, Colonel of Artillery and Engineers; Major John 
J. Hedrick, Major Jas. D. Eadcliffe, Captain John C. Win- 
der, Lieutenant Samuel A. Ashe, Lieutenant-Colonel Fred. 
L. Childs, and others. 

It is but just to say of those in charge of the defensive 
works early in the war, that they were required to make 
bricks without straw. The men were unskilled, the works 
in most cases too large for the force available to man them, 
yet too weak in profile, for want of time, labor and means ; 
sometimes unsupplied with ordnance in time, and again 
mounting only the smooth twenty-fours and thirty-twos saved 

414 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

from the Gosport ISTavy Yard before its evacuation 10 May, 
1862. For even these, it was difficult to obtain ammunition. 

Colonel Fremont was an officer who had resigned some 
time before the war from the United States Army, and had 
won reputation as an architect and railroad engineer ; Major 
Hedrick was a brave and skillful artillery commander, and 
with Major Radcliffe, who had a military training, and was 
superintendent of a military academy in Wilmington, and 
Captain John C. Winder, who had been a skilled engineer 
employed on the Croton acqueduct, but resigned at the out- 
break of the war to return to his native south, were all in- 
dustriously at work on the southeastern coast. 

Brigadier-General R C. Gatling, a native of ISTorth Caro- 
lina, a gradiiate of West Point in 1832, had been a veteran 
of the Florida and Mexican wars, wounded and breveted 
Major for gallantry. Upon resigning and returning to his 
State, and appointed Colonel in the Confederate States 
Army, he was made Adjutant-General by North Carolina, 
and was assigned 1 July, 1861, to the coast defence, with the 
charge of the general engineering, being promoted to Briga- 
dier-General in August, 1861. 

Perceiving the troops enrolled and armed, to be called at 
once to Virginia, he made repeated calls for sufficient forces 
to man the hasty works thrown up at important points in the 
East, but without success. Hatteras Avas taken 29 August, 
1861, and Roanoke Island and New Bern fell in February 
and March following. His statement in his final report, in 
expressing his disappointment, reads thus: 

"We failed to make timely efforts to maintain the ascend- 
ency on Pamlico Sound, and thus admitted Burnside's fleet 
Avithout a contest. We failed to put a proper force on Koan- 
oke Island, and thus lost the key to our interior coast, and 
we failed to furnish General Branch with a reasonable force, 
and thus lost the important town of New Bern. What I 
claim is, that these failures do not by right rest with me." 

Relieved from duty during severe illness after the fall of 
New Bern, and being advanced in years (born 1808) he re- 
signed in September, 1862, but served afterward as Adjutant 
and Inspector-General of North Carolina. 

CoEPS OP Engineers. 415 

On 4 October, 1862, an important change occurred at Kich- 
mond in the assignment to duty of Lieutenant-Colonel (after- 
wards General) Jeremy Francis Gilmer (a native of Guil- 
ford County, A\ C), as Chief of the Engineer Bureau. Gen- 
eral Gilmer had graduated at West Point in 1839 with 
high honors, becoming Lieutenant of Engineers and subse- 
quently Assistant Professor of Engineering in the Academy. 
In the Mexican war he was Chief Engineer of the Army of 
the West in jSTew Mexico. He resigned 29 June, 1861, at 
San Francisco, where he was in charge of the defences of the 
Bay. Made Lieutenant-Colonel of Engineers in the Confed- 
erate States Army, he was Chief Engineer of General A. S. 
Johnston, and severely wounded at Shiloh. Was promoted, 
made Chief Engineer of the Department of Northern Vir- 
ginia, and then became Chief of Engineer Bureau. In 1863 
he became Major-General, serving as second in command at 
Charleston and Atlanta, but resumed control of the Engineer 
Bureau, serving until the close of the war. 

Under his orders, 9 October, 1862, Colonel Walter Gwynn 
(formerly of West Point, and afterward civil engineer of 
distinction), was assigned to examine and defend the Neuse, 
Tar, Roanoke and Chowan by obstructing their channels and 
placing batteries, to command the obstructions. The Bureau 
desired works at a point on the Neuse as low as Kinston, on 
the Tar at Greenville, and the Roanoke at or near Hamilton. 

Assistance was afforded by Captain C. R. Collins' En- 
gineer Corps at Caswell, and Lieutenant W. G. Bender re- 
porting directly to Colonel Gwynn, and by others. 

The authorities of the adjacent counties were asked for 
labor, and funds provided by the War Department, and by 
8 November, works were in progress, near Hamilton, in the 
vicinity of Tarboro, and at Kinston, and such advancement 
made that the Ordnance Department was asked for artillery 
to supply the works. In January following, works were in 
progress five miles above Greenville. 

But it was afterward reported of these, as of previous 
earthworks in this State, that they were too ambitious in 
outline, requiring too many men for their proper defence, 
while this extended work, resembling, on the Roanoke, an en- 

416 North Carolina Troops, 186]-'65. 

trenched .camp, was not of sufficient strength of profile for 
success in the event of persistent attack. 

On the Neuse Colonel Gwynn asked for the means of com- 
pleting a work requiring 10,000 men and 34 guns. But he 
was instructed by the Chief of the Bureau that a fort with 
strong land and water fronts, which one regiment could gar- 
rison in full, was all that could be undertaken, so many were 
the positions necessary to be cared for. 

Half of ten thousand men, supplied with ammunition, in 
Fort Fisher, would have changed the face of history. 

Two points, Eainbow Bend on the Boanoke, and White- 
hall on the ISfeuse, were to be especially provided with de- 
fences to protect the building of gun-boats. The brilliant 
career of the Albemarle, designed for the northeastern waters, 
which was completed and commanded by Captain Cooke, of 
the Confederate States Navy, is well knovTn. 

The great fortress at Fort Fisher, which was the result of 
years of labor by successive forces, but chiefly the outcome of 
the skill and energy of Colonel William Lamb, under the gen- 
eral direction of General Whiting, was first begun by volun- 
teer troops, largely the companies afterwards forming the 
Eighteenth North Carolina, with Major John J. Hedrick, 
and especially with the valuable engineering service of Cap- 
tain John C. Winder, aided by Lieutenant S. A. Ashe. Of 
this accomplished, but modest officer. Colonel S. L. Fremont, 
Chief of Artillery and Engineers of the District of the Cape 
Fear, under date of 1 October, 1861, when Captain Winder 
was relieved to become Major and Assistant Adjutant-Gen- 
eral with General J. G. Martin, wrote as follows : 

"Captain Winder has been from the first occupation of the 
public works by North Carolina, in the service of the Cape 
Fear coast and river, where his efficiency has been testified to 
by all observers. * * He has had the immediate charge 
of laying ou.t the batteries on the coast * * and the en- 
tire charge of the construction of Fort Fisher has been con- 
fided to him, until the guns on the water front were mounted. 
He laid out the casemate water battery at that place." 

He built works at Camp Wyatt, on Zeke's Island, and at 
other points. He was the son of General Winder, of the 

OoErs OF Enginbebs. . 417 

Confederate service, and a member of the distinguished fam- 
ily of the name, represented in the old army from its earliest 

Major Winder remained in the State service throughout 
1862, performing much duty as an engineer in addition to 
his labors as Assistant Adjutant-General. In November of 
that year, he was ordered to construct batteries near Hill's 
Ferry, on the Roanoke. Changes at headquarters in Raleigh 
induced his acceptance of an appointment as military assist- 
ant engineer under the Confederate States, in May, 1863, 
and he was subsequently made Captain of Conjpany A, En- 
gineer Troops, assigned to North Carolina, which will be 
hereafter more fully referred to. 

The writer deeply regrets the fragmentary nature of a 
sketch of the patriotism and accomplished officers who gave 
their indefatigable efforts to the defence of North Carolina, 
including those in the Engineer Corps, and from the Artillery 
and the Navy or Marine Corps, whose scientific training was 
available for this work. But in the course of forty years 
they have nearly all passed away, the majority having 
already at that time reached maturity of life in their profes- 
sion. In many cases no publication remains that even en- 
rolls their names. 

Among these should be named Captain Wm. H. James, 
Engineer Corps, Chief Engineer at Wilmington. He had 
been a civil engineer of the United States Navy, and was 
attached to the Navy Yard at PenSacola at the breaking 
out of the war. He was a Northerner by birth, but married 
in the South, and was true to her cause. His specialty was 
that of a dock engineer, and as additional ofiicers assumed 
duty, he was much confined to headquarters in Wilmington, 
having the control of the thousands of negroes impressed into 
the service from the several counties to perform the heavy 
excavations and embankment in building the great fortifica- 
tions erected upon the original lighter lines. One slave in 
five was taken from each plantation, with the consent of the 
Governor, but none where the number was smaller than five. 

Extensive quartermaster and commissary service was es- 
pecially required for these laborers, who numbered five thou- 

418 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

sand at one time. Shops were maintained for necessary iron 
and wood work, supply of entrenching tools, etc. 

Lieutenant John Kent Brown, Lieutenant Wm. A. Oben- 
chain, Captain Liernur (formerly of the regular army of the 
JSTetherlands, ) Lieutenant Parks (this gifted officer was 
killed at the battle of Fort Anderson, on the Cape Fear, be- 
low Wilmington), %vere all of the Engineer Corps. Cap- 
tain Wm. Tr. JSTorthrop commanded the Petteway, supply 
steamer in the engineer service, and was in the retreat on the 
west side of the river. Major Young, Captain Andrews and 
Captain Sweetman, of the artillery, were on engineer service, 
as were also Lieutenant-Colonel Gwathmey, Major Forest 
and Captain Meade, of the navy. All these were connected 
with the District of the Cape Fear for a shorter or longer 

To Captain C. E. Collins, Engineer Corps, was assigned 
the duty of strengthening Fort Caswell, in October, 1862. 

Captain Thaddeus Coleman, of the Engineers, serving with 
General D. H. Hill when the latter was in command of the 
Department of ISTorth Carolina, was requested to be assigned 
to the works at Kinston by General Daniel, to extend the 
same, and in May, 1863, General Martin reports of the works 
laid out by Coleman around Greenville, that while not fully 
what successful defence required, "I thought them the best 
the ground would permit." 

On 17 November, 1862, General W. H. C. Whiting ar- 
rived in Wilmington, after his brilliant service in command 
of a division of the Army of Northern Virginia, previous to 
which he had advised plans of defence for Wilmington on 
the ground in the Spring of 1861. 

Wilmington was the most important port of the Confed- 
eracy for the receipt of supplies and munitions of war, and 
an officer recognized in both armies as without a superior as 
an engineer was sent to its command. He was already 
familiar with its topography, having entered the army with 
the highest record ever made by any graduate at West Point, 
and had risen to the grade of Major of Engineers, having 
served before the war in charge of the improvements of the 
harbor and river of the Cape Fear. He had been with Jog. 

Corps of Engineees. 419 

E. Johnston as Chief Engineer at Harper's Ferry and Man- 
assas ; had planned the defences of Charleston, and now made 
a careful examination at Wilmington, reporting as follows 
to General Cooper, Adjutant-General Confederate States 
Army, 15 January, 1863: "Found partial line of earth- 
works, well constructed, but weak in proiile, one and a half 
miles long on the east and south of the city, mounting twelve 
guns, old 24's and 32's. There were three batteries below 
the upper jetty lights, and two at imperfect obstructions at 
Mount Tirza. Battery St. Philip (afterwards called Fort 
Anderson), fourteen miles from the city, was well con- 
structed, but without proper traverses. 

"On Confederate Point, to protect JSTew Inlet, had been 
constructed the earthwork known as Fort Fisher. Here the 
skill, ingenuity and perseverance of successively Major John 
J. Hedrick, of the artillery, ( Captain John C. Winder, Artil- 
lery and Engineers, accidentally omitted). Major K. K. 
Meade, Engineers (for a short time), and especially of Colo- 
nel Wm. Lamb, now commanding, and his men, have been sig- 
nally displayed. The fort is a strong seacoast work, partly 
casemated and partly barbette. It would not, however, be 
tenable for any length of time against a formidable land at- 

"The advanced batteries nearest the bar previously ar- 
ranged had, for some unknown reason, been leveled." * * "I 
have to give my warmest praise to the manner in which of- 
ficers and men have labored day and night. Colonel Lamb, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Gwathmey of the navy. Major Forrest 
of the navy (until his illness), Major Young and Captain 
Andrews, and Captain James and Lieutenant Obenchain of 
the Engineers, have been indefatigable, with their excellent 
commands, in strengthening the defences. Their value, in- 
complete as they still are (necessarily for want of time, im- 
plements and material), must shortly be tested. If they 
succeed, their officers and men should have great praise; if 
they fail, it is not their fault." 

The "advanced batteries" referred to were batteries Ead- 
clifFe and Campbell, on Oak Island, south of Caswell. The 

420 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

former of these commanded the bar with a flanking fire, and 
Tf?as held by the Confederate Grays in May and June, 1861, 
under the writer as Captain Commanding. This company 
had been drilled both as infantry and artillery, and subse- 
quently became Company E, Twentieth North Carolina. A 
crude picture (page 121, Vol. 2 of these records), shows a por- 
tion of the command in camp at Franklin Military Institute 
a few days after organization in April, 1861. Many had 
been cadets there several years, under Captain C. B. Den- 
son, one of the principals and the commandant. Among its- 
cadets were such ofiicers of high merit as Colonel John Ash- 
ford, Colonel Jesse P. Williams, Captains Stephen Cowley, 
(killed at the battle of Franklin as Inspector-General of 
Bate's Division), Owen L. Chesnutt, C. B. Monk (killed in 
battle), A. B. Hicks, Lieutenants A. D. Hicks, Jos. B. Oli- 
ver, and many others. 

One fact deserves record here which is believed to be 
unique, in regard to this command which was employed in 
completing the defensive work of which it was the garrison. 

There is probably no other instance North or South, of 
the complete equipment of a company by the direct contribu- 
tions of its members and their patriotic friends. Formed 20 
April, btit regularly organized 27 April, in a few days it had 
every article supplied to regulars in the old army. Yet it 
was formed at the Institute, in the woods, with no village 
nearer than Kenan.willo, eighteen miles distant, Mt. Olive 
being but a railroad station three miles away. Nothing 
whatever Avas furnished by the State of North Carolina, or 
the Confederate States, except the flint-lock muskets of the 
military school. Supplied with tents (made by the patriotic 
ladies), uniforms complete, two suits each, both dress and 
fatigue, also made by them, knapsacks, canteens, cap, pouch 
and belts, camp equipage, including mess chests and medical 
stores with boxes of extra shoes, blankets, ofiicers swords and 
with three days cooked provisions, and a parting gift of a silk 
Confederate fiag from the noble women, the command repaired 
to the mouth of the river, where attack was daily expected. 
These articles had been purchased or made in Richmond, 
Norfolk and Wilmington for cash contributed by the com- 

CoKPs OF Engineees. 421 

pany and its friends. Help was not expected or asked from 
the State authorities, and pay for service never entered the 
mind of any one of that band, of whom but twenty-seven now 
remain, who were members at any time in the four years. 

General J. R. Anderson ordered the levelling of the but- 
tery, it is believed, because of the fear that if carried by a land- 
ing force, it could be used against Caswell. He was an ex- 
cellent infantry officer, but this' did not accord with the judg- 
ment of an engineer, like Whiting, as noted in the extract re- 
ferred to. 

It is also due to the fine soldiers which were afterwards 
organized into the Fortieth ISTorth Carolina Troops, but then 
separate artillery companies, to record their arduous labors 
in the building, not only of Fort Fisher with its curtains and 
connecting batteries, and the works on Smith's Island, com- 
monly called Bald Head, and Fort Pender, Fort Holmes, etc. 
These are mentioned in the history of this regiment, Vol. 2, 
p. 755, of these records, by Sergeant T. C. Davis. 

In April, 1861, before his orders to Virginia, Major W. 
H. C. Whiting having established headquarters at Wilming- 
ton whither he had repaired from Charleston after the suc- 
cessful bombardment of Sumter, appointed Mr. Samuel A. 
Ashe, who had been a student at Annapolis, as a Lieutenant 
and assig-ned him to duty at Fort Caswell, under Captain 
F. L. Childs, Chief of Artillery and Ordnance. Upon the 
organization of the North Carolina forces, the Board of War 
sent Mr. Ashe a commission as First Lieutenant in the Corps 
of Engineers, Artillery and Ordnance, and he continued his 
duties with Captain John C- Winder, and Captain Childs. 
Captain Winder had been sent to Fort Caswell by Governor 
Ellis as soon as it was seized, and Captain Childs, a zealous 
and efficient officer of the old army, had hurried from Charles- 
ton, with Major Whiting, to render service on the Cape Fear. 

Except ten days detached service in June, to move the rifle 
machinery from Harper's Ferry to Fayetteville, Lieutenant 
Ashe served with Captain Winder until he fell ill with fever, 
recovering in September. In the meantime, the State had 
turned over its forces to the Confederate Government, with- 
out mailing provision for its engineer officers, and their com- 

422 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

missions had been annulled. The situation was anomalous. 
There was no Confederate General or other ofScer in com- 

Colonel S. L. Fremont, who had held a commission in the 
Engineer Corps, under some arrangement, continued in 
charge. There were no other persons to perform the neces- 
sary duties these gentlemen had been assigned to, and so they 
continued at work, in the enlergency, without commissions, 
without pay, and having rank only by courtesy. 

Captain Winder planned the first defences, in conference 
with Colonel Fremont, who devised means for constructing 
the first casemate on Federal Point — built of palmetto logs 
ctit on Smith's Island, and sand-bags, and strengthened with 
railroad iron. Lieutenant Ashe equipped the batteries, and 
superintended the rifling of old smooth-bore guns with ma- 
chinery designed by Messrs. Easons, of Charleston. 

Captain Winder's plan of defence for Federal Point con- 
sisted in a strong fort at the Point ; a redoubt at the head of 
the sound, and an intermediate one, with a heavy covered-way 
striking from the head of the Sound to Fort Fisher, and 
commanding the beach. Captain E. Kidder Meade arrived 
and completed the unfinished casemate, Captain Winder 
being at work elsewhere. 

General J. R. Anderson arrived from Richmond with a 
number of young Virginians for staff duty, and as the Fed- 
eral expedition, supposed to be preparing for attack at Wil- 
mington passed down to Pocotaligo, Lieutenant Ashe begged 
leave to retire, and joined Company I, Eighteenth Worth 
Carolina, at Pocotaligo. Shortly after, he was appointed 
Lieutenant of Artillery in the regular army of the Confed- 
erate States, and remained therein during the war, except 
when serving as Assistant Adjutant-General of Pender's Bri- 
gade, during the first Maryland campaign. 

It is quite true that the defences were immensely strength- 
ened by the labors of years, chiefly under Colonel Lamb, until 
the original works seem by comparison altogether inadequate, 
but it should not be forgotten that no such fleet as finally at- 
tacked Fisher, existed, with its monitors and iron-clads, in the 
early days of the war. Undefended, it would certainly have 

Corps or Engineees. 423 

been occupied, and with Wilmington gone and railroad com- 
munications cut, it is easy to perceive that the war could not 
have been waged with success. As it was, time was gained, 
and the object attained. 

When everything had to be erected, without implements, 
without resources, these patriotic officers, without pay, or 
rank, remained where the guns of the enemy were daily ex- 
pected, enduring privations and hardships, and laboring with 
unremitting devotion for the public welfare. Their work 
was of incalculable value, and should never be forgotten. 

What Fort Fisher became after the labor of years, and its 
admirable record of service, is told by the graphic pen of its 
distinguished defender, Colonel William' Lamb, in the his- 
tory of the Thirty-sixth Regiment in the second volume of 
these records. 

As Major of Artillery, C. S. A., Colonel Lamb was on duty 
at Fort St. Philip (afterwards Anderson), when he was 
elected Colonel of the Thirty-sixth, and relieved Major 
Hedrick at Fisher 4 July, 1862. With wonderful energy 
and tenacity he rendered the fort finally one of the wonders 
of the engineering art, impregnable against naval attack 
alone, and only to be taken by a combination of the greatest 
fleet ever gathered up to that period in warfare, and a land 
force five times its garrison, and after' the assail^ts had lost 
nearly as many as the entire Confederate garrison, and not 
a shot was left to continiie the defence. 

As the second volume may not be in the hands of the read- 
er, it may be permitted to add in the words of its supervising 
genius, what the fort had become when assailed on Christmas 
eve of 1864. He says : "At this time Fort Fisher extended 
across the peninsula 682 yards, a continuous work, mounting 
twenty heavy guns and having two mortars and four pieces of 
light artillery, and a sea face of 1,898 yards in length, con- 
sisting of batteries connected by a heavy curtain and ending 
in the Mound battery sixty feet high, mounting twenty-four 
guns, including one 170-pound Blakely rifie gun, and one 
130-pound Armstrong rifle gun. At the extreme end of the 
point at the entrance to the Cape Fear river was Battery 
Buchanan, a naval command with four heavy guns." 

424 NoKTH Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

The same sketch relates the mortal woiind, and death while 
a prisoner, of Major-^General W. H. C. Whiting, who volun- 
teered in the defence of this work, and fell gallantly leading 
in hand-to-hand combat. 

Fisher was provided with sub-terra shells which would 
have destroyed Butler's command had he advanced to attack 
with his troops, but when the second expedition occurred 15 
Janiiary, the wires had been cut by the rain of shells of enor- 
mous size, which ploughed up the whole surface, as the fire 
was directed by signal. More than ten thousand fell in forty- 
eight hours. 

Captain Kerrigan was sent for this special work, the tor- 
pedo service being a division of the engineer force. 

General Gabriel J. Rains began this organization, which 
was placed in charge of the engineer troops, and they were 
used with success at Charleston, Mobile and Savannah. The 
automatic sub-terra explosive shell was an invention of Gen- 
eral Eains, as was his machine for manuf actiiring gun-caps. 
He was a Worth Carolinian, born in Craven County, a gradu- 
ate of West Point in 1807, and was over 50 years old when 
the war broke out. Wounded in the Seminole war, he was 
also a veteran of the Mexican war. He was a Colonel in the 
Army of the Confederate States, and promoted to General in 
appreciatiou of his valued service. Wearly 1,300 of these 
shells buried near the lines of Richmond doubtless aided in 
keeping the enemy away during the siege of Petersburg. But 
the war closed as he was bringing his devices to perfection. 

Topographical work in ISTorth Carolina was done in part 
by engineers attached to the staff of the generals commanding 
districts, and in some cases by officers ordered for this special 
service by the Engineer Bureau. 

Among these was that experienced engineer. Captain John 
S. Grant, from the staff of General Lee. The writer served 
with him as Assistant Military Engineer, in the Southeastern 
District, along the White Oak and including the Angola Bay 
and -Holly Shelter regions and the coast. This was for use 
in preparing for offensive or defensive operations between 
New Bern and Wilmington. Captain Grant had been an en- 
gineer officer of the British army, and the author of impor- 

Corps ov Enginkees. 425 

tant works. Miich of the territory referred to equalled or ex- 
ceeded in difficulty the Wilderness of Spottsylvania, which it 
was also the fortune of the writer to survey with Captain B. 
L. Blackford, whose corps was ordered finally to Wilmington, 
and encamped at Wrightsville Soimd, in the autumn of 1863. 
Among those who joined it there were Messrs. A. Paul Kepi- 
ton and T. E. Purnell (now judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court in ISTorth Carolina. ) 

The Chief Engineer of the Army of the South, as it was 
called, under General Jos. E. Johnston, in North Carolina, 
was Colonel John Clark, and with him was Lieutenant James 
A. Tennent, of Asheville, N. C, who had served in the South 
Carolina infantry and afterward as Assistant Engineer in the 
Topographical Corps on the coast. 

Captain J. E. Lannea\i (Professor Applied Mathematics 
at Wake Forest) is another citizen of the State who rendered 
valuable service. He had been Captain in Hampton's Le- 
gion, and later was commissioned as Lieutenant of Engineers, 
being promoted to Captain. He served under Whiting, and 
Lee, and was finally Chief Engineer of Hampton's Corps. 


This was the only body of engineer troops organized in 
North Carolina. Captain John C. Winder, then a military 
assistant engineer, was commissioned as Captain, in recogni- 
tion of much meritorious service 12 August, 1863, and later 
the following were appointed by the President as Lieuten- 
ants in this organizatipn of the regular army: Francis 
Hawks, as First Lieutenant; Bruce Gwynn and C. B. Den- 
son, as Second Lieutenants. 

Francis Hawks, a son of Dr. Hawks, the famous divine 
and historian, was a native of New Bern, and had. been edu- 
cated as an engineer and engaged in staff duty. 

Lieutenant Gwynn was a son of Colonel Walter Gwynn, 
and was a brave and impetuous officer, who was detailed from 
the company for special diity at Fort Fisher shortly before the 
battle, ajid made prisoner there, and confined in a northern 
prison until the end of the war. 

Lieutenant Denson had organized Company E, Twentieth 

426 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

North Carolina, in April, 1861, and having been trained in 
a military school (Virginia Collegiate Institute) and com- 
mandant of cadets, was a strict disciplinarian, and was not 
re-elected at the reorganization in 1862, being absent serving 
as president of a general court-martial. Upon the personal 
suggestion of General Lee, he was assigned to staff duty by Ad- 
jutant-General J. G. Martin, and subsequently was appointed 
military assistant engineer, and served on topographical duty 
with Captain J. S. Grant in Eastern North Carolina and Cap- 
tain B. L. Blackford on the Eapidan, Eappahannock, Poto- 
mac, North Anna, etc. Transferred by the Engineer Depart- 
ment to topographical service on the Cape Eear, at the request 
of Captain Winder, he was commissioned as Second Lieuten- 
ant of Company A, Second Engineer Troops and took com- 
mand of the company in camp at Wrightsville, the other of- 
ficers being on detailed service. 

The duties of the company were severe, and covered much 
territory. They included the oversight and progress of many 
works, including seven batteries on the river, from Sugar Loaf 
to the city, , the redoubts near Wilmington, dams, military 
bridges and military roads up the coast ; also the work shops, 
the "Army Navy Yard," as the establishment for building 
torpedo-boats was called ; (these were never fully completed, 
awaiting machinery which failed to arrive) ; the preparation 
of maps and plans, and the construction of pontoons. The 
latter were fortunately finished in time for the retreat of the 

So constantly were the engineer officers in the saddle for 
this varied service, that they were furnished with two horses 
each, by the department. 

The company was composed of many veteran troops, de- 
tailed, of the highest efficiency, besides others who had vol- 
unteered. There were, however, a few inefficient and ill- 
disciplined men, transferred in violation of the spirit of the 
order, and probably to dispose of them. Lieutenant Denson 
drilled the company as infantry, and in skirmish drill, but it 
was necessary to detail Sergeants and Corporals frequently 
with small parties to provide for the many demands upon this 
single company. 

OoBPs OF Engineers. 427 

As the war proceeded, the necessity for adopting every 
means of the military art to spare the diminishing number of 
troops forced itself upon those in command. General Lee 
availed himself of every engineering device throughout the 
long and bloody campaign down to Cold Harbor and Peters- 
burg. He fully anticipated Grant's desperate efforts, as 
shown by his correspondence with Colonel A. L. Eives, in 
charge of the Engineer Bureau while General Gilmer was 
in the South, and said : "I shall want all the assistance I can 
get." He asked that besides his First Engineers, C. S. A. 
(ten companies under Colonel T. M. R. Talcott), that six 
companies of pioneers be added, and a force of engineer of- 
ficers for "the general stafF, with a Brigadier-General of En- 
gineers, suggesting General M. L. Smith, or Colonel W. H. 
Stevens, or General G. W. Custis Lee. He writes: "It is 
necessary that the Engineer Corps of this army be reorgan- 
ized and increased commensurate with the wants of the ser- 
vice. The engineer officers of the army have done well, but 
their numbers are inadequate to the duties." 

This was true; the responsibility was great, the service 
continuous and often severe, and promotion scarcely existed. 

The enemy moved up the Cape Fear river in February, his 
main attack developing on the west side, but with overpower- 
ing numbers upon both. General R. F. Hoke having fallen 
back from Sugar Loaf, the engineer troops joined his immedi- 
ate command, and threw up a temporary line five and a half 
miles long across the peninsula, terminating on the right flank 
at Battery Campbell, and an unfinished work, then in charge 
of Lieutenant Denson, who added also a water battery for one 
naval gun, screened from observation, and served by a fine 
crew of naval officers and men from the Chickamauga or Tal- 
lahassee, then in port shut up after Fisher fell. The fire 
here was effective, and although the fleet of thirteen gun- 
boats and a monitor, took part in the engagement, they did 
not attempt to run by, and take either command in the rear, 
but contented themselves with heavy shelling, the most of 
the projectiles passing over our heads. 

Several days skirmishing progressed with an occasional 
demonstration against our temporary lines which were a 

428 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

mere show of defence, except at the stout river batteries. 
The noble troops comprising Hoke's Division at the time 
have been described in earlier sketches in these volumes. 

After the first day's fighting, Captain Hawks being ill, ob- 
tained sick leave, and was in the hospital at Grreensboro the 
rest of the campaign. Finally on 22 February, the enemy 
having reached the bank of the river opposite Wilmington, 
after engagements at Fort Anderson, Town Creek, where 
a gallant stand was made by our troops at the bridge, at 
Brunswick river and Eagle Island, the evacuation was or- 
dered by General Bragg and General Hoke proceeded to exe- 
cute it with soldierly care. 

Some works were blown up and stores burned under orders, 
but the troops never marched with more good order and quiet 
courage than when they filed through the city, with a section 
of light artillery at the end of each street facing the water, 
while the masses of blue crowded nearer and nearer the op- 
posite bank of the river. Every other officer superior in 
rank having been disabled, or absent (Captain Winder had 
gone to his dying father. General Winder, shortly before this 
movement), the engineer train was under the command of 
Lieutenant Denson. 

The company of infantry reserves detailed to fire the 
bridge at the city, did not burn it in time, and the enem.y put- 
ting out the flames, so rapid was the pursuit, followed the 
army to the Northeast river, thirteen miles distant. The 
rear guard had frequent encounters, taking up the march 
again, after driving back the enemy. The railroad bridge 
was burned, and the dismounted cavalry held the enemy in 
check u.ntil the troops were passed over on the pontoons which 
had been built and laid by the engineer troops. 

The writer was ordered to cut the pontoon, which was done, 
as the enemy reached the bank, with but slight loss to us, and 
the bridge swung by a hawser from under the feet of the pur- 
suers. The enemy had the advantage of occupying works 
built there to command the road through the swamp toward 
New Bern, while we were unprotected after evacuating and 

Lieutenant Denson had been ordered to destroy the pon- 

Corps of Engineers. 429 

toon after the crossing of the army, and proceeded to do this, 
by knocking out the bottoms of the boats, it being impractica- 
ble to burn the water-soaked pine. This was effected under 
the plunging fire of the enemy, part of which was armed with 
new repeating arms ; the engineers were supported by regi- 
ments on the right and left of the corduroy road through 
which our forces had defiled, and formed line of battle to 
sleep upon their arms on the higher ground in the rear. The 
firing continued several hours, from twilight until nine or 
later, at intervals. But the enemy fired too high, the stream 
being not very wide, and our loss was small, their shots pass- 
ing over. 

General Hoke ordered a reconnoissance to see if Terry's 
troops had pontoons with them for immediate pursuit, and 
his gallant aid. Lieutenant George L. Washington, accom- 
panied the writer upon the river during their fire, where 
having perceived no signs of preparations for launching pon- 
toons, we returned to the shore and reported, at headquarters. 
The General kindly offered his own horse to the writer for 
this expedition, as his had been temporarily lost, his halter 
having been cut by a shot while the rider was on foot at the 

Long before daylight, the troops were put on the march, 
and the woods fired behind. At Burgaw, Captain Winder 
rejoined us and the company was detached to march to Eliza- 
bethtown, and obstruct the Cape Fear, at that point. Who- 
ever has seen that river in a freshet, will iinderstand the futil- 
ity of that imdertaking, so far as complete obstruction goes ; 
but we understood that it was deemed important to convey 
the impression to Wilmington to prevent the ascent of gun- 
boats (for the water was very high), until General Johnston's 
army was safely through Eayetteville. 

Much showy work was done of tree cutting, raft-building, 
etc., until we learned by private source that the object was 
acomplished. Kapidly burning the engineer steamer Flora 
McDonald, which had been lying at Elizabethtown, we made 
a forced march to Smithfield, appearing to the surprise of all, 
and taken by Hampton's Artillery for the enemy at one time. 

Captain Winder was detailed at headquarters and Lieu- 

430 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

tenant Denson given the charge of the erection of the works 
near Smithfield, with the company. As laborers on these 
works, several hundred "galvanized Yankees," as they were 
called in camp, were also sent to the writer. They had been 
prisoners from the Union army confined at Salisbury and had 
then taken the oath and enlisted under the Confederacy. But 
they were not trusted with arms, were uniformed in a very 
bright butternut colored cottonade and furnished with in- 
trenching tools. 

But the works were only fairly begun when the menacing 
attitude of Sherman, reinforced by Foster at Goldsboro, and 
the activity of Grant at Petersburg demanded precautions in 
Johnston's rear. Every bridge on the JSTeuse had been car- 
ried away by the repeated freshets. The company .was or- 
dered to Milburnie to build a substantial bridge upon cribs 
filled with stone for the passage of Johnston's artillery and 
trains. This work was pushed night and day, and when 
nearly finished was left with the command under temporary 
charge of Captain Sweetman, an artillery ofiicer who had 
some experience in engineering, while, under special order 
by General Johnston, Captain Winder and Lieutenant Den- 
son alone made rapid military reconnoissances of the terri- 
tory of the Tar river sixteen hours daily in the saddle, learn- 
ing the fords, roads, etc. Their orders also included a route 
to the Roanoke, with Gaston on the right flank. This indi- 
cates preparations for a junction between Lee and Johnston. 
But at this moment, the army was put in full retreat, the 
bridge being finished on Sunday, 9 April, when the head of 
the column was only seven miles distant. 

Here General J. E. Johnston informed Captain Winder 
that General Bragg had been ordered to the southwest, with 
his staff, and that he claimed Company A, Second Engineers, 
as part of his department, and as escort. Captain Winder 
was promoted to Major (deserved years before) and placed 
upon his personal staff by General Johnston, and Lieutenant 
Denson ordered to command the company, and take the en- 
gineer train, including 300 slaves from the Cape Fear, with 
tools, etc., to accompany Bragg. 

At Morrisville, after the first day's march from Milburnie, 

Corps of Engineers. 431 

we learned the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, but the men 
of Company A remained faithful to duty. General Bragg 
had a numerous staff and many accessions were made of of- 
ficers and stragglers moving south who refused to surrender 
in Virginia, but no other organized command. The writer 
having charge of the escort, without commissary service, sup- 
plied the troops, under orders, from the county tithing sta- 
tions, moving by Pittsboro, Carthage, Troy, Albemarle, 
Monroe, and finally into South Carolina, where a battery of 
artillery, and a portion of Lipscomb's Second South Carolina 
(cavalry) joined us in camp southeast of Chester. Captain 
Hawks had rejoined from the hospital, while on the march, 
but was not called upon for duty. 

Here orders were read on dress parade, creating General 
Bragg Commander-in-Chief of a department, from the south- 
ern line of North Carolina to the Gulf. But General J. E. 
Johnston having surrendered 26 April, a final order was 
read, thanking the troops for their fidelity in remaining by 
the colors to the last, and instructing us to return to our res- 
pective States, and acquaint the senior Confederate officer 
residing within the same, with our address, and "await or- 
ders from the War Department." 

This was the last order to a company of North Carolina 
troops during the war east of Asheville, and the next morn- 
ing we disbanded, most of the negroes and remaining men 
leaving for the east, after crossing the Catawba river. The 
writer reached home horseback, at Pittsboro, 7 May. 

Unfortunately he has access to no roll of the men whose 
superb endurance, courage and fidelity deserve lasting com- 
memoration. The non-commissioned officers often had the 
responsibility of Captains, on detached duty, and were of a 
high order. Sergeants Hardison, Leggett and Basket are re- 
membered only, of these. All believed they were on the way 
to the Trans-Mississippi for the prolongation of the war. 
There was no attachment to Bragg whatever, as there had 
been to Whiting — ^but the sense of duty was paramount, as 
long as a shred of hope remained. In this, it may be said, 
that they were true Tar Heels. 

This sketch has somewhat been lengthened, because the 

432 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

writer is aware of no publication since the war, which con- 
tains many of the facts herein embodied, and he is the only 
survivor of the officers of the Engineer Troops from North 

0. B. Dewson. 
• Raleigh, N. C, 

5 December, 1901. 

Brigade Histof?ies. 



TF.TOON "^ ^^^' i 



By WALTER CLARK, Lieutenant-Colonel, Seventieth Regiment 
NoETH Carolina Tboops. 

In the first year of the war the troops from different States 
were indiscriminately brigaded together. In 1862 the policy 
was adopted of making the brigades, as far as possible, of 
troops from the same State. 


Some few ITorth Carolina regiments remained in mixed 
brigades till 1864, when they were finally transferred to 
!North Carolina brigades. There was in that army thirteen 
brigades exclusively from this State, eleven being infantry 
and two cavalry brigades. 

They were, giving the names of the successive Brigadiers 
of each, as follows: 

1. The Ajstderson-Ramseue-Cox Brigade, consisting of 
the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fourteenth and Thirtieth 
Regiments. The First and Third, however, served in Geo. 
H. Steuart's Brigade till a large part of them were captured 
at the salient 12 May, 1864, when the remnant was trans- 
ferred to this brigade. 

2. The Branch-Lajste-Baeey Brigade, consisting of the 
Seventh, Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third and Thir- 
ty-seventh Regiments. General Barry commanded the bri- 
gade only a few days while General Lane was absent 

3. Ct-ingman's Brigade, consisting of the Eighth, Thirty- 
first, Fifty-first and Sixty-first Regiments. The Eighth was 
temporarily attached to Ransom's Brigade at the capture of 
Plymouth 20 April, 1864. 

4. Cooi<:e''s Brigade, consisting of the Fifteenth, Twenty- 
seventh, Forty-sixth, Forty-eighth and Fifty-fifth Regiments. 
The Fifty-fifth served in Davis' Mississippi Brigade and 
was not transferred to Cooke's till 1864. 

436 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

5. The Danibl-Gkimes Brigade consisted of the Thirty- 
second, Forty-third, Forty-fifth and Fifty-third Kegiments, 
and Second Battalion (eight companies). The Fiftieth Eeg- 
iment belonged to this brigade from June, 1862, to July, 
1863, when it was transferred to the Martin-Kirkland Bri- 
gade. The Forty-third was temporarily detached and served 
with Hoke's Brigade at capture of Plymouth, 20 April, 1864. 

6. The Gaelanb-Iveeson-Joi-inston-Toon Brigade, con- 
sisting of the Fifth, Twelfth, Twentieth and Twenty-third 
Eegiments and First Battalion. This battalion long served 
in Hoke's Brigade, but was transferred to this in 1864. The 
Thirteenth was originally in this brigade, but was trans- 
ferred to Pender's Brigade October, 1862. General TooH 
served only a few months in summer of 1864, while General 
Johnston was home wounded. 

7. The Hoke-Godwin-Lewis Brigade, consisting of the 
Sixth, Twenty-first, Fifty-fourth and Fifty-seventh Regi- 
ments. The First Battalion served in this brigade till 1864, 
when it was transferred to the Johnston-Toon Brigade above. 

8. The Maetht-Kieklaistd Brigade, consisting of the Sev- 
enteenth, Forty-second, Fiftieth and Sixty-sixth Pegiments. 
When the brigade was ordered to Virginia in 1864, the Fif- 
tieth did not go with it and did not serve with it again till 
after the battle of Bentonville. 

9. The Pendee-Scales Brigade, consisting of the Thir- 
teenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Thirty-fourth and Thirty- 
eighth Pegiraents. The Thirteenth was transferred to this 
brigade from Iverson's in October, 1862. 

10. The Pettigrew-Kikeleak-d-MacRae Brigade, consist- 
ing of the Eleventh, Twenty-sixth, Forty-fourth, Forty-sev- 
enth and Fifty-second Regiments. 

11. Raistsom's Brigade, consisting of the Twenty-fourth, 
Twenty-fifth, Thirty-fifth, Forty-ninth and Fifty-sixth Regi- 
ments. The Twenty-sixth, which was originally in this bri- 
gade, was transferred in Aiigust, 1862, to Pettigrew's Bri- 
gade and in February, 1863, the Fifty-sixth was added to 
this brigade. 


12. The GoEDOiir-BAEETNGEE Brigade, consisting of the 

Brigade Oeganization. 487 

Ninth, J^^ineteenth, Forty-first and Sixty-third Regiments 
(First, Second, Third and Fifth Cavalry). The Fifty- 
ninth (Fourth Cavalry) was also originally in this brigade, 
bnt was transferred in 1864 to Bearing's and later to Eob- 
erts' Brigade. 

13. Roberts' Brigade, consisting of the Fifty-ninth and 
Seventy-fifth Regiments (Fourth and Seventh Cavalry). 
The latter regiment was at first a battalion of nine companies 
styled Sixteenth Battalion, and retained that designation in 
official reports though raised by the addition of another com- 
pany in 1864 to a regiment, with a Colonel. 

From above it will be seen that adding the "Bethel" Reg- 
iment, which was not in any of the above brigades having 
served only six months, and the Sixty-ninth and Eightieth 
(Thomas' Legion), which in 1864, served in the Valley of 
Virginia in Smith's Brigade, ISTorth Carolina had fifty-nine 
regiments and two battalions (equal to another regiment) in 
the Army of ISTorthern Virginia, besides seven batteries of 
artillery. Manly, Latham, Reilly, Graham, Cumming, Webb 
and Moore. 

During the battles around Richmond, 1862, Anderson's 
and Garland's JSTorth Carolina Brigades were in D. H. Hill's 
Division; Branch's and Pender's Brigades in A. P. Hill's 
Division ; Ransom's and Walker's Brigades in Huger's Di- 
vision; Daniel's Brigade in Holmes' Division. The other 
North Carolina regiments were at that time in mixed bri- 
gades with regiments from other States. 

Several of above brigades served from time to time in 
North Carolina and Clingman's and Cooke's were in Charles- 
ton and Savannah in 1863. 

In the Valley campaign of 1864, North Carolina was rep- 
resented by Cox's and Grimes' Brigades in Rodes' Division, 
by Godwin's and Johnston's Brigades in Early's Division, 
and Sixty-ninth and Eightieth Regiments in Smith's Bri- 

In the winter of 1864-5 the North Carolina brigades 
were thus assigned: 

First Corps (Longstreet), none. 

Second Corps (Ewell's), Cox's and Grimes' Brigades in 

438 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

Eamseur's Division (later Grimes') and Johnston's and 
Lewis' Brigades in Early's Division. 

Third Corps (A. P. Hill), Cooke's and MacKae's Brigades 
in Heth's Division, and Lane's and Scales' in Wilcox's Divis- 

Anderson's Corps. In Bushrod Johnson's Division was 
Eansom's Brigade, and in Hoke's Division, Clingman's and 
Kirkland's Brigades. 

Hamptons Cavalry Corps. Barringer and Dearing 
(later Eoberts') Brigades, were in W. H. F. Lee's Division. 

On 22 December, 1864, Hoke's Division was sent to Wil- 
mington and became a part of Johnston's army just prior to 
Bentonville, and surrendered with that army. The Junior 
Reserves' Brigade was attached about 1 March to Hoke's 

Webb's Battery and the Sixty-ninth and Eightieth were 
also sent back to ISTorth Carolina, so that at Appomattox this 
State had only forty-nine regiments, two battalions and six 
batteries, or rather what was left of them. 


Though North Carolina had nine regiments in that army, 
there was no North Carolina brigade. It is due to this fact 
probably that North Carolina had only one general officer ap- 
pointed from that army, Brigadier-General E. B. Vance, who 
was soon afterwards captured. 

At Chickamauga, the Twenty-ninth was in Ector's Bri- 
gade, Walker's Division, D. H. Hill's Corps. Soon after the 
Thirty-ninth was transferred to the same brigade and they 
served together (with three Arkansas Eegiments) in that 
brigade the balance of the war. Before Chickamauga this 
regiment was in Eaines' Brigade, being with him at Mur- 
freesboro 31 December, 1862, when he was killed. 

The Thirty-ninth was in McNair's Brigade, Johnson's 
Division, Buckner's Corps. Not long after, it was trans- 
ferred, as just stated, to Ector's Brigade. In the Kentucky 
campaign of 1862 (Perryville) this regiment was in Eaines' 
Brigade, and at Murfreesboro in Walthall's Brigade. 

Brigade Organization. 439 

The Fifty-eighth was in Kelly's Brigade, Prestou's IDivis- 
ion, Buekner's Corps. 

The Sixtieth was in Stovall's Brigade, Breckinridge's 
Division, D. H. Hill's Corps. Later the Fifty-eighth and 
Sixtieth were both transferred to Keynolds' Brigade, Steven- 
son's Division, Hood's Corps. 

The Sixty-fifth (Sixth Cavalry) was in Davidson's Bri- 
gade, Pegram's Division, Forrest's Corps. Later it was in 
Harrison's Brigade, Hume's Division. In June, 1864, the 
Sixty-fifth was sent to Eastern North Carolina, where it 
served the balance of the war. It was assigned to Dearing's 
Brigade and ordered to Virginia, but never went. 

The Sixty-second and Sixty-fourth were captured, except 
a fragment, at Cumberland Gap, 9 September, 1863, being 
then commanded by General Frazer. They had previously 
been in Grade's Brigade in East Tennessee. 

The Sixty-ninth and Eightieth (Walker's Battalion till in- 
creased) were in Thomas' Legion serving in Eastern Tennes- 
see till April, 1864, when they served the Valley of Vir- 
ginia in Smith's Brigade in Wharton's Division. In the 
Spring of 1865, these two regiments, the fragments of the 
Sixty-second and Sixty-fourth, and Seventy-ninth (to which 
the Fourteenth Battalion had been increased) were in West- 
ern North Carolina in command of Colonel Jno. B. Palmer, 
of the Fifty-eighth. 


At Wilmington, General Louis Hebert's Brigade was com- 
posed of the Tenth, Thirty-sixth and Fortieth Eegiments 
(First, Second and Third Artillery), the Third, Tenth and 
Thirteenth Artillery Battalions, and the First Heavy Artil- 
lery Battalion, saving the six batteries belonging to above 
which were in Virginia as above stated, and a few batteries 
at Fort Branch on the Koanoke and around Kinston. 

The Junior Eeserves Brigade was composed of the Seven- 
tieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second (First, Second and 
Third Junior Eeserves) and Millard's Battalion. Early in 
March, 1865, it became part of Hoke's Division, which was 
then attached to Johnston's army at Smithfield. 

440 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

The Seventy-third, Seventy-fourth and Seventy-sixth were 
brigaded and commanded by Colonel Jno. F. Hoke. They 
w^ere Senior Reserves. 

In the Spring of 1865, the three regiments of detailed 
men. Eighty-first, Eighty-second and Eighty-third, were 
brigaded under command of Colonel W. J. Hoke. They did 
not see very much service, but a few of them who were cap- 
tured were at Camp Chase, Ohio, for three months after the 

The Sixty-seventh and Sixty-eighth were in Eastern JSTorth 
Carolina mostly and were, together with detachments from 
other commands, under General Leventhorpe and General 
Baker at different times. 

There was a temporary brigade of the Seventy-eighth 
(Senior Reserves) with some Junior Reserves at Wilming- 
ton ISTovember, 1864, to January, 1865, commanded by Col- 
onel Jno. K. Connally, of the Fifty-fifth. The Juniors being 
taken out. Burr's Regiment of Home Guards and some de- 
tachments added, the brigade was then commanded by Colo- 
nel George Jackson till after the battle of Bentonville. 


Another temporary brigade (from November, 1864, to 
April, 1865) -was composed of the Fiftieth, Seventy-seventh 
(Senior Reserves) and Tenth Battalion, which under com- 
mand of Colonel Wash. Hardy, of the Sixtieth, defended 
Savannah in the siege, retreated skirmishing before Sher- 
man, through South Carolina, and fought him at Averasboro 
and Bentonville, after which last battle the brigade was dis- 
solved, the Fiftieth going back to Kirkland's brigade. 


In 1861 and the early part of 1862, i. e., during the first 
year of the war, the North Carolina troops were, many of 
them, unbrigaded, and others assigned for the moment, with 
frequent changes of commanders and transfers. Without 
tracing these out, as the details will be found in the histories 
in this work of the respective regiments, it may be stated that 
the most permanent of these assignments were: 

Brigade Organization. 441 

Thirteenth and Fourteenth in Colston's, later Pemberton's 
Brigade, at Suffolk and the Fifteenth in Howell Cobb's. 

Twenty-first and First Battalion in Crittenden's, later 
Trimble's Brigade. These last were the only Worth Caro- 
lina troops in Stonewall Jackson's famous "Valley Cam- 
paign" in the Spring of 1862. 

The TweKth was in Mahone's Brigade at Norfolk. This 
transferred and added to the Fifth, Twentieth, Twenty-third, 
which were in Early's Brigade made Garland's Brigade. 

The Sixth was in Whiting's Brigade. Later the Sixth, Fif- 
ty-fourth and Fifty-seventh were Law's Brigade, which by 
taking out the regiments from other States and transferring 
to it the Twenty-first and First Battalion from Trimble's 
Brigade, after Fredericksburg (in December, 1862 j, formed 
Hoke's Brigade. 

The First and Third were in Eipley's, later Geo. H. Steu- 
art's Brigade, and were not transferred to a North Carolina 
Brigade (Cox's) till after 12 May, 1864, and not till after 
this was the Fifty-fifth transferred from Davis' (Missis- 
sippi) Brigade to Cooke's Brigade. 

The North Carolina cavalry regiments were not brigaded 
together till 1863, and hence we had no Cavalry General 
from this State, till -then. Eobert Eansom, Colonel of the 
Ninth (First Cavalry), had been made a Brigadier-General, 
but was given an infantry brigade. 


At Appomattox 9 April, 1865, the North Carolina Bri- 
gades surrendered as follows. 95 Off. Bee. Union, and Con- 
fed. Armies, 1277, 1278. 

Officers. Men. 
Cox's Brigade, Grimes' Division, Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Cox 51 521 

Grimes' Brigade, Grimes' Division, Colonel 

Cowand 34 496 

Johnston's Brigade, Early's Division, Colonel 

J.W.Lea • •■ 30 433 

Lewis' Brigade, Early's Division, Captain 

John Beard 26 421 

442 North Cakolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

Cooke's Brigade, Heth's Division, Brigadier- ' 

General Cooke 70 490 

MacRae's Brigade, Heth's Division, Brigadier- 
General MacRae 42 400 

Lane's Brigade, Wilcox's Division, Brigadier- 
General Lane 56 514 

Scales' Brigade, Wilcox's Division, Colonel J. 

H. Hyman 92 627 

Ransom's Brigade, Johnson's Division,, Brig- 

dier-General M. W. Ransom 41 394 

Barringer's Brigade, W. H. F.' Lee's Division. . 2 21 

Roberts' Brigade, W. H. F. Lee's Division, 

Brigadier-General Roberts 5 88 

Major-General Grimes and Staff 13 5 

Manly's, Planner's, Ranisey's, Williams', Cum- 

ming's and Miller's Batteries, about 12 250 

Total at Appomattox 474 4,660 

In Joseph E. Johnston's army 26 April, 1865, vi^as surren- 
dered Clingman's, Kirkland's and Nethercutt's (Junior Re- 
serves) Brigades, all in Hoke's Division, the Fifty-eighth 
and Sixtieth in Brantley's Brigade, D. H. Hill's Division, 
and several batteries of artillery. 

The Twenty-ninth and Thirty-ninth Regiments were sur- 
rendered at Mobile, Ala., 4 May, 1865, in Ector's Brigade, 
commanded by Colonel David Coleman. 

The Sixty-second, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-ninth, Seventy- 
ninth and Eightieth (Palmer's Brigade), were surrendered 
by General J. G. Martin at Waynesville, N. C, 10 May, 

The remainder of North Carolina regiments and battal- 
ions surrendered at sundry times, or simply went home with- 
out that formality after Johnston's surrender. 

Raleigh, N. C, 

13 December, 1901. 


1. A. K. Simonton, Major, 4th Regiment. 

2. Claudius S. Alexander. Captain, Co. C., 4th Regiment. 

3. Francis D. Carlton, 1st Lieut , Co. A., 4th Regiment. 

4. James B. Stinson, 4th Regiment, Courier for Gens. Anderson, Ramseur, and Grimes. 

5. Bryan W. Cobb, Captain, Co. H., 2d Regiment. 

(Pictm-es of G«ns. Anderson, Ramseur and Cox in Groups of Generals, Vols. I., II. and IV.) 


By brigadier-general WILLIAM R. COX. 

In the preparation of this sketch, which I have been called 
on to furnish on short notice, my responsibilities are very 
much lightened by the regimental histories of this brigade. 

A regularly organized and well disciplined army is a 
machine, an autocracy, regulated and governed by master 
spirits. It is not for subordinates to reason why, but to obey; 
to lead a forlorn hope, to do or to die as commanded. 

The leaders in the Confederate Army, while in the main 
graduates of West Point and great soldiers, were rot n^icesisa- 
rily martinets. Yet there was little of social intercourse be- 
tween officers in the service, and more especially is this true, 
as between old army officers and those promoted from civil 
life. Probably it was as well that restrictions should prevail 
against too frequent visits among the .officers in the field. 
One effect, however, of these restrictions was to give too free 
currency to camp rumors, creations of active brains, as to 
what this or that General said to this or that officer or 
thought of this or t,hat officer or command, and these riunors 
too often reached the ear of correspondents as veritable facts 
and found lodgment in popular histories of the war. 

Personally speaking. General Lee was a splendid speci- 
men of man and soldier, reserved and even impassive; for 
when Governor Vance visited our army and delivered one of 
his most irresistible addresses, it elicited from the General 
only the semblance of a smile. His soldiers were devoted to 
him and always ready to follow his leadership, still they 
could not cheer him. There was something so stately 
about him, it seemed a breach of propriety to attempt it. 
Brave and fearless himself he required these qualifications 
should be possessed by those under his command. Careful 

444 North Caeolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

and guarded in his commendations, his usual recognition of 
conspicuous acts of gallantry was, simply to pass by the com- 
mand which attracted his attention, and return the salutation 
of the gratified troops. As a commander he was never harsh 
or unjust, but on the contrary often forbearing in his pun- 
ishments. In many respects Jackson was his antipode; 
though outwardly awkward and ungainly, he impressed those 
serving under him as being the very incarnation of war. 

When anticipating a battle he would occasionally pass 
through his troops, as they rested by the road side, at full 
speed with hat in hand while they cheered him to the echo, 
for they believed he would soon lead them in a pursuit of the 

Both he and D. H. Hill recklessly exposed themselves in 
battle, and seemed to bear charmed lives, and acted as if they 
looked upon even reckless bravery as a duty rather than a 
thing to be commended. A striking incident of this charac- 
ter was recently recalled to my attention by Captain C. IST. Al- 
len, of the Thirtieth North Carolina Regiment, who himself 
lost an arm in our service. Hill's Division at the battle of 
Cold Harbor, while lying in line, was subjected to terrible ar- 
tillery fire, and occasionally shells would plough through the 
ranks, killing men as they lay in line. Bondurant's Missis- 
sippi Battery attempted to reply, but his men and horses were 
literally cut to pieces. The brave Captain came to Hill and 
said he could do no more. At this moment the General 
observed that his men were greatly annoyed by the fire from 
a battery. As if thinking aloud he said : "I wish I knew 
whose battery that is ; if mine the fuse is too short and it 
should be stopped." A Major commanding the sharpshooters 
indignant at finding no one else to volunteer, promptly re- 
plied, "I will ascertain," when he remarked: "I wish you 
would." Promptly springing upon his horse, this officer 
rode at full speed through the furious fire of concentrated 
batteries, and then stopping for. a moment in a ravine, a shell 
buried itself beside his horse and exploding, literally covered 
horse and rider with mud. The battery proved to belong to 
Colquitt's Georgia Brigade and was silenced. Though this 
officer was brought in frequent contact with Hill during the 

The Anderson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 445 

time he commanded the division, he never thanked him nor 
alluded to the matter aftervyards. 

I mention these characteristics of these General Officers 
from the fact the brigade for quite a time served xmder them. 

In an army of the magnitude of that of Northern Vir- 
ginia, where there vsras often more than fifty different bri- 
gades, the officer was fortunate who could attract the eye of 
our Great Commander, for any singularly meritorious 

After the battle of Williamsburg, Anderson was promoted 
and given a brigade composed of the Second, Fourth, Four- 
teenth and Thirtieth Kegiments. A graduate of West Point, 
he was commissioned Lieutenant and had seen service in the 
old army, before the crisis of 1861. When it was seen that 
war between the States was inevitable, he promptly surren- 
dered his commission and offered his sword to his native 
State. Physically, he was a splendid specimen of young 
manhood; six feet in height, broad-shouldered, erect and 
thoughtful, and endowed with a commanding and well modu- 
lated voice. 

His promotion was secured under the most flattering cir- 
cumstances. At the battle of Williamsburg, Anderson (then 
Colonel of the Fourth North Carolina) seized the flag of the 
Forty-seventh Georgia Regiment, and, dashing forward amid 
storms of shot and shell, his men were aroused with enthusi- 
asm, and cheering followed while they fell thick and fast, 
but their impetuosity was irresistible and they halted not 
until Anderson had planted the colors on the stoutly defended 
breastworks of the enemy. President Davis witnessed this 
charge and at once promoted him to a Brigadiership. The 
superb discipline and training of his men may be ascertained 
from the fact, that out of the 520 rank and file carried into 
action, 462 were killed or wounded, and of his twenty-seven 
commissioned officers, all save one were killed or wounded. 

The Regiments of the Brigade appreciated the compliment 
and congratulated themselves on their good fortune in secur- 
ing as their commander an officer so accomplished and coura- 
geous as "Anderson" had shown himself to be. Singularly 
pure, natural and unostentatious, he early impressed his 

446 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

strong personality upon the members of his brigade. While 
his devoted wife, modestly and without ostentation, embraced 
every opportunity to be near him. "The bravest are the ten- 

While Major I was assigned to the command of the sharp- 
shooters, and when Anderson received his commission, I was 
near him and much impressed with his manner of receiving 
it. Anderson, dismounted, was standing when General C. S. 
Winder, of Maryland, elegantly mounted and faultlessly 
dressed, even to Ms un soiled gauntlets, rode up to congratulate 
him on his promotion. Anderson, dressed in an old soiled 
fatigue suit, greeted him in his usually quiet and dignified 
manner. Soon after his departure, Hon. George W. Ran- 
dolph, Secretary of War, as an especial mark of distinction, 
brought him on the battle field his commission, which he re- 
ceived in the quiet and manly manner with which he greeted 
his old comrade Winder. This was but a short while before 
the beginning of the seven days battles around Richmond. 

From the beginning of this series of battles — from Mechan- 
icsville to Malvern Hill, from which McClellan, after the 
loss of prisoners, war material and destroying supplies, 
hastily retreated to the protection of his gun-boats at Harri- 
son's Landing, the brigade bore a prominent and conspicuous 
part. Anderson was vigilant, strategic and prepared to 
strike the enemy where and when his blows were most oppor- 

After McClellan's escape we took a day for a much needed 
rest and then Lee moved to the neighborhood of Malvern 
Hill and made a careful reconnoissance. Besides the pro- 
tection of the river and gun-boats in his rear, McClellan's 
army was found drawn up on a commanding hill, strongly 
protected by his batteries of artillery. ISTevertheless Lee de- 
termined to attack his left. His first line was composed of 
the divisions of Magruder, T). H. Hill (in which was An- 
derson'^s Brigade), and Jackson. We advanced under cover 
of the woods near the base of the hill late in the afternoon 
and began the battle, which continued until 10 o'clock at 
night. Owing to a misunderstanding, or failure to execute 
orders by part of Lee's command, the attack miscarried and 

The Anderson-Rams EUR Cox Brigade. 447 

McClellan escaped to the cover of the gun-boats and further 
pursuit was abandoned. In this engagement, the brigade ac- 
tively participated and suffered severely; and Anderson re- 
ceived a painful, but not dangerous wound. After further 
reconnoitering and manoeuvering without discovering an as- 
sailable point, we returned to our camp. In the mean- 
time McClellan was receiving heavy reinforcements, but 
when it became evident he would not renew his effort 
to capture Richmond, Lee determined to assume the offen- 
sive and moved his army northward, accompanied by 
Anderson's Brigade. This brigade being a part of the troops 
assigned to watch McDowell, who still occupied Freder- 
icksburg, it took no part in the second battle of Man- 
assas, and hence was engaged in no other battle of importance 
until it reached Boonsboro, Maryland. Here, with the other 
brigades of D. H. Hill's Division, these troops in a severe 
and bloody engagement held in check nearly half of McClel- 
lan's army until nightfall, for it was not the policy of Lee to 
bring on a general engagement while his army was divided. 
Considering the number of our troops engaged, together with 
the object sought to be accomplished, and the stubborn and 
unyielding character of our resistance, this was really one of 
the most remarkable feats of the war. The Federal army 
having been discouraged and severely punished in recent en- 
gagements, did not resume its aggressive movements until late 
on the morning of the 16th, and then they appeared before 
Sharpsburg late in the afternoon where, with some prelim- 
inary skirmishing, the operations of the day were closed. 

During the night, both armies lay on their arms, conscious 
that the ensuing day would witness the most formidable bat- 
tle that had yet occurred on this Continent. The battle be- 
gan by an attack on our left, which was followed by massing a 
heavy force which broke our line. This, on our part, was 
met by McLaws' and Walker's Divisions, and the brigades of 
Rodes and Anderson, of Hill's Division. The enemy was 
repulsed, and retired behind the crest of the hill from which 
an irregular fire was continually kept us. By some mistake or 
miscarriage of orders, Rodes' Brigade was at this juncture 
withdrawn from the division to another part of the field. 

448 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

The enemy quickly perceived and availed itself of this mis- 
take, passed through the gap, and concentrated its attack upon 
Anderson's Brigade; where, after a heroic effort and sacri- 
fices, the line was broken, Anderson was wounded, and the 
command was compelled to retire. From the wound here re- 
ceived, after lingering in much suffering, Anderson yielded 
up his life for the caiise and the State he had so patriotically 
served. After his death. Colonel Bryan Grimes, of the 
Fourth North Carolina Kegiment, was placed in charge of 
the Brigade; but he had no opportunity to distinguish 
himself in battle with the brigade before he was relieved by 
Kamseur, who was placed in charge the ensuing Febru- 
ary. During the time Grimes was its commander, we were 
engaged chiefly in reinforcing its ranks, in drilling, and 
preparing for the great events which were to follow. It is 
true we took part in the very important and successful 
battle of Fredericksburg (13 December) but being placed on 
the right to support the cavalry and artillery, while eager and 
anxious to participate in the great battle then going on, we 
suffered but few casualties. For the brunt of the bat- 
tle, the great slaughter inflicted on the Federals took place 
near the town opposite Marye's Heights, when Burn- 
side crushed and demoralized, was glad to take cover of the 
darkness of the night to withdraw his shattered army across 
the river, beyond our reach. 

In my sketch of the life and services of General S. D. Bam- 
seur, I gave so full and comprehensive an account of the ser- 
vices and operations of this brigade while under command of 
this distingxiished and accomplished ofiicer, that it is unneces- 
sary to prolong this sketch by repeating the recitals therein 
given. More especially as this address has been given very 
general circulation through the "Southern Historical 
Bapers" published at Richmond, and in that valuable and 
important publication, edited by W. J. Feele, Esq., of Bal- 
eigh, entitled "Lives of Distinguished North Carolinians." 
Sufiice it to say that this brigade, while under the command 
of Eamseur, suffered no abatement of its efiiciency, but on 
the contrary, attained its highest standard of usefulness and 
its greatest distinction. 

The Andrrson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 449 

When Early advanced upon Washington in 1864, this bri- 
gade, which was in the front, made a nearer approach to the 
Federal Capital and suffered greater losses during the time it 
was in action than any other similar command of his army. 
The remains of my men who there fell have been collected 
together by the patriotic women of that neighborhood, and 
with the remains of other Confederate soldiers, have found 
sepulture there, for they are now cared for in the beautiful 
cemetery near Silver Springs. 

When Lieutenant-General R. S. Ewell was in command of 
the corps in which were Rodes' Division and Ramseur's Bri- 
gade, he sent his Aide-de-Camp, Campbell Brown, to me with, 
the following message: "That General Rodes had promised 
him that on the first vacancy he would recommend me for a 
Brigadier-Generalship." This message was a surprise, as I 
was looking for the promotion of another. I therefore begged 
Captain Brown to convey to the General my high apprecia- 
tion of tbe compliment, and to say I was perfectly content 
to leave the question of promotion to the authorities at Rich- 

Soon thereafter, I called upon General Junius Daniel, a 
grand soldier and ardent ISTorth Carolinian, and acquainted 
him with the occurrence. He promptly replied, "You are 
wrong. It is an unusual compliment, and you should show 
your appreciation by giving him your co-operation. I will 
cheerfully recommend you for promotion, and Ramseur will 
do likewise; for I have heard him say so." Thereupon I 
forwarded my application through the usual channels to the 
Secretary of War. After that series of engagements which 
led up to our glorious achievements at Spottsylvania Court 
House, when Ramseur was made Major-General, I was 
given command of his brigade, together with such parts of 
the First and Third ISTorth Carolina Regiments as escaped 
capture with Edward Johnson's Division. These regiments 
were indeed among the best in our service, and now for the 
first time were incorporated into a regular North Carolina 
Brigade, under a North Carolina commander. And during 
the time they served under me, I bear willing testimony to 
their bravery and their intelligence and patriotic services in 

450 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

the cause of the South. The Second Eegiment had been 
brigaded with them early in the war. 

On leaving the Valley of Virginia, the greater part of 
Early's command under Gordon proceeded at once to Peters- 
burg and were placed behind the intrenchments erected for 
the protection of that town. Soon my brigade was detached 
from the division for important and special duty north of the 
Appomattox, with, orders to "make all reports and forward all 
matter directly to General Lee's headquarters" ; a signal act 
of confidence, as only steady troops were trusted to guard the 
several miles of river front, on which we were stationed, from 
any advance of the enemy in this direction. 

The corps of sharpshooters who were under the comraand 
of the brave and fearless Colonel H". A. Brown, of the Third 
!North Carolina Eegiment, did not accompany me, and it may 
be here stated that this body of sharpshooters were really 
about the size of an ordinary regiment, and in their assault 
upon Hare's Hill 25 March, 186.5, which soon after occurred, 
were first to penetrate the enemy's lines and make important 
captures. When Lee decided to assault and break Grant's 
lines in front of the Hill, he endeavored to concentrate all his 
available forces at this centre. A courier was sent to me 
with orders to move at once to the point of intended assault. 
This courier lost Ids way during the night, which loss of time, 
together with the concentration of my troops, delayed my 
movements until early dawn. ISTot apprised of the contem- 
plated movement, my first intimation of the conflict was 
given by the booming of artillery and the sharp, quick re- 
ports of the small arms. Leaving my brigade moving with 
a quick step, I put spurs to my horse and sought General Lee. 
As I dashed across the Appomattox bridge into the town I 
was surprised to find so many Federal soldiers coming down 
the street and, for the moment, my impression was they had 
broken through our lines. But I quickly discovered they 
wrere disarm.ed and our prisoners. Keeping on, I found Gen- 
eral Lee standing alone in old Blandford Cemetery, looking 
thoughtfully on at the battle, whose tide had begun to turn 
against us; for the Federals recovering from their surprise, 
with reserves already in the rear, soon concentrated, and with 

The Anderson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 451 

overwhelming numbers repulsed us. Inquiring what I was 
to do, the General, calm and seemingly unmoved, quietly 
directed me to hurry up the brigade, take it into the covered 
way leading up to our intrenchments, and cover the retreat, 
liastening back to join the brigade, I moved it through the 
covered way, deployed my troops along the line, and protected 
the retreat of the army, which was rapidly falling back. 
Soon everything except picket firing was again quiet. The 
opposing lines were then not exceeding two hundred yards 
apart. Between these lines lay the dead and wounded, who 
had suffered in this contest. A white flag was now raised on 
the ^ Federal breastworks, which was responded to on our 
side, and an agreement for a truce was made in order to 
remove those who had siiffered, who lay in great numbers over 
the space of the conflict. In this interval. General M. W. 
Kansom and myself entered the intervening space, and were 
soon joined by a few Federal ofiicers, who promptly said: 
"Gentlemen, won't you have some commissary?" for they 
knew full well this article was a scarce commodity on our 
side. We promptly accepted the proffered hospitality. As 
they unbraced their flasks and handed them to us, a Federal 
oflicer, struck with the novelty of our siirroundings, remarked 
"Isn't this strange ? A few hours ago we were endeavoring 
to kill each other ; now we are engaged in exchanging hospi- 
talities and in friendly conversation." And thus was illus- 
trated that between the brave men of these two armies who 
had so long and desperately contended for the mastery, there 
was no personal animosity, no enmity, and no reserve. Of 
one race, of one country, reared under the same institutions, 
each man fought heroically for the right, as he saw it, and 
accorded to his enemy equal sincerity and patriotism. Yet 
let us not forget that there were ever in the rear on either side 
malingerers and black flag advocates, who "did not care how 
many of their wives kin were sacrificed, provided they were 
permitted to remain out of the reach of danger." 

This assault upon the enemy's lines having miscarried, it 
became necessary to strengthen the lines with additional 
troops. I was consequently recalled and placed on the right 
of Grimes' Division, where skirmishing and picket firing was 

452 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

kept up day and night and two-thirds of my troops were on 
constant duty. 

From June until March, with a force of forty-five thou- 
sand men, Lee with masterly skill and courage had main- 
tained a line of thirty-five miles extent, against Grant, who 
had three times that number, provided with abundant sup- 
plies, clothing, provisions, forage for horses and medicines, 
and with a railroad line traversing his entire defences, while 
we, with brave and resolute hearts, determined and fearless, 
though deprived of many of the necessaries of life, never at 
any moment thought of yielding to our formidable adver- 
saries. Indeed, had Lee been reinforced with even twenty 
thousand men, I am confident in the belief that he would have 
driven Grant, as he had his predecessor McClellan, not only 
from his front, but cut off his line of supplies, and made his 
campaign a failure. When spring returned, it became appar- 
ent that mere human endurance could not much longer defend 
the beleaguered Confederate Capital, and that therefore its 
evacuation was near at hand. Lee at once began to quietly 
remove his surplus material to Amelia Court House and 
make ready for withdrawing our army, but his purposes 
were not properly seconded by the civil authority. While 
making these preparations. Grant was concentrating his 
forces to complete the investment of his line. Sheridan's 
well equipped and well mounted cavalry were called in from 
the Valley, while Sherman was marching through Georgia, 
menacing the Carolinas, our bases of supplies. Lee was not 
idle. His purposes were well considered. His object was, 
in the event of abandoning our lines, to retreat to the hills 
of the Blue Ridge and protract the war until honorable terms 
of surrender could be exacted. On the first of April Sheri- 
dan supported by two corps of infantry, advanced upon our 
lines at Five Forks, where, after a severe engagement, he was 
repulsed and driven back. In this engagement my command 
was near at hand to render any support to our cavalry which 
the emergency might demand. ' 

The attack of the Federals was renewed the ensuing day, 
and as it was successful, our lines were drawn back towards 
Petersburg. I was occupying the right of the division when 

The Anderson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 453 

the advance of the Federals was arrested after Wilcox's Di- 
vision gave way, by the fire of the batteries of Forts Gregg 
and Alexander, in which guns of my line participated. It 
was now apparent that the contest was to be continued on our 
part only to enable us to evacuate our lines, and commence 
our retreat under the cover of night. For the enemy, just 
before daylight, drove in our pickets on the left of Grimes' 
Division, rushed in, and leaped over our breastworks, where 
Grimes assaulted them with a determination and resolute 
courage which would accept no defeat. He fought from 
traverse to traverse for hours together, until the cowed Fed- 
erals who were left upon the line sought protection under 
cover of our works where they were severely punished. In 
the meantime, Colonel Henry Peyton, Inspector-General of 
Lee's staff, came and told me that General Lee directed that 
I should hold my line at all ventures ; for while I was cover- 
ing a mile of our breastworks with my men ten feet apart, 
this line was well protected with siege guns, and fire from my 
pickets, so that the enemy were kept at a respectfiil distance. 
Still there was a long unoccupied traverse on my right, run- 
ning diagonally to my line. At this moment, I discovered 
an engineer corps composed of 350 negroes, under the com- 
mand of a Colonel, who were used for strengthening our 
works. I requested Colonel Peyton to place this corps un- 
der my command, which he did. Using them as dummies, 
I extended them on this unoccupied line, and as only their 
heads were exposed, the enemy naturally supposed they were 
there to meet any assault that might be made. This ruse 
accomplished the object that I had in view, and I presume it 
may be safely said it is the only time during the war when ne- 
groes were employed in aiding us to fight our battles. 

General Lee, in his report to President Davis, in describ- 
ing our retreat from Petersburg to Appomattox, among other 
things, said: "Arriving at Amelia Court House on the 
morning of the 4th, and not finding the supplies ordered to 
be placed there, nearly twenty-four hours were lost in endeav- 
oring to collect in the country, subsistence for men and 
horses. This delay was fatal, and could not be retrieved. 
The troops, wearied by continued fighting for several days 

454 North Carolina Troops, 1861 -'65. 

and nights, obtained neither rest nor refreshments, and 
moving on the 5th on the Richmond & Danville Railroad, we 
found at Jetersville the enemy's cavalry, and learned of the 
approaching infantry, and the general advance of his army 
towards Burkeville. This deprived us of the use of the rail- 
road, and rendered it impracticable to procure from Danville 
the supplies ordered to meet us at this point of our march. 
Nothing could be procured from the adjacent country, and 
our route was therefore changed to Farmville, where supplies 
were ordered to meet us. This change threw the troops over 
the road pursued by the artillery and wagon trains, which 
were muddy, cut into ruts, and occupying the line of march 
impeded and embarrassed oiir movements. After succes- 
sive attacks, Anderson's and Ewell's Corps were captured or 

During the day, Gordon's Corps, embracing Grimes' Divis- 
ion, together with Fitz Lee's cavalry, bore the brunt of the 
assault of the enemy, checked his advance, delayed the ad- 
vance from Amelia Springs, guarded the wagon trains, re- 
sisted combined assaults and ultimately repulsed them. In 
this retreat, the Division was conspicuous for its steadiness, 
its courage, its resolute resistance to all assaults from the 
victorious and exultant foe, who though often punished for 
temerity, continued to renew their attacks. 

Grimes' Division was in the rear of the Corps, when Ord's 
Division began its attack at daylight, and made stubborn re- 
sistance to the repeated assaults which were made throughout 
the day. Our retreat was conducted in the following man- 
ner. One brigade would be formed across the line of re- 
treat, while another brigade was formed in its rear. The 
front brigade resisted attack as long as it could safely do so 
without capture, when it fell back and retired behind the 
troops in its rear. In the latter part of the day, we hurried 
forward our wagon trains and such artillery as was not en- 
gaged, and the greater part of our troops, for the enemy waa 
massing heavily in our rear and upon our flanks. About 5 
o'clock p. m., Evans' Georgians were resisting the enemy in 
the front, while my brigade was placed across the road less 
than a mile from Sailor's Creek, which crossed the line of our 


1. J. S. R. Aliller, Captain, Co. H, Ist Regt. 

Killed at Winchester, 5 June, 1862. 

2. C. W. Rivenbark, Sergeant, Co. C, 1st Regt. 

3. William Groom, }?rivate, Co. C, 1st Regt. 

4. James M. Hobaon, 2d Lt., Co. E, 2d Regt. 

5. Thomas CoTvan, 1st Lt., Co. B, 3d Regt. 

Mortally wounded, Sharpsburg, 17 Sept., 

6. Thomas L. Perry, Ist Lt., Co. E, 4th Regt. 

7. W. A. Smith, Private, Co. C, 14th Regt. 

8. Alexander Crews, 2d Lt., Co. G, 30th Regt. 

9. Walter S. Turner, Private, Co. F., 30th Regt., 

Orderly for Col. F. M. Parker. 

The Andeeson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 455 

retreat. The Georgians fell back througli my brigade, whose 
flanks were protected on either side by thick woods, while 
Lewis' Brigade was still further ^o the rear. The enemy 
appearing in my front, its advance was stubbornly resisted 
until it became necessary for me to retire. Instead of fall- 
ing back down the road upon which the artillery was occa- 
sionally playing and demoralizing our retreating army, I 
faced the brigade to the left, marched them in column through 
the protection of the woods, and thus preserved its organiza- 
tion. The enemy still advancing, soon encountered Lewis' 
Brigade, the last organized command between them and 
Sailor's Creek, when this brigade, after offering a brave, reso- 
lute and determined resistance, was overwhelmed and dis- 
persed. In the meantime, our trains had reached Sailor's 
Creek, a low, muddy stream with high embanlanents on either 
side. Our exhausted teams were unable to move f oi*ward, but 
were stalled in the middle of the line of retreat of our de- 
moralized army, while the enemy triumphant and exultant, 
advanced in such numbers and impetuosity as to throw our 
army into confusion and place it beyond the control of its 
ofBcers. It was at this juncture that my brigade emerged 
from the cover of the woods, reached the banks of the stream, 
and in column moved rapidly towards the scene of the disas- 
ter. The condition of affairs at this point is so vividly and 
graphically described by Governor Vance in an address he 
delivered and published in "The Land We Love," then edited 
by that indomitable soldier. General D. H. Hill, that I ven- 
ture to present the following extract as a description of the 
situation, rather than seek to portray it myself. He said : 

"During the retreat from Petersburg to that memorable 
spot which witnessed the final scenes of that once splendid 
army of ISTorthern Virginia, when everything was in the ut- 
most confusion, the soldiers struggling hopelessly along, thou- 
sands deliberately leaving for their homes, and the demorali- 
zation increasing every moment, and the flushed and swarm- 
ing enemy piirsuing them closely, a stand was made to save 
the trains upon which all depended. Some artillery was 
placed in position, and General Lee, sitting on his horse on a 
commanding knoll, sent his staff to rally the stragglers, mixed 

456 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

in helpless, inextricable confusion behind a certain line,- when 
presently an orderly column comes in view, a small but entire 
brigade, its commander at its head, files promptly along its 
appointed position. A smile of momentary joy passed over 
the distressed features of the general as he calls out to an 
Aide, 'What troops are those ?' 'Cox's Worth Carolina Bri- 
gade,' was the reply. Then it was that taking off his hat, 
and bowing his head with goodly courtesy and kindly feeling, 
he said : 'God bless gallant old North Carolina !' " 

I saw General Lee mounted upon his horse upon a knoll, as 
described by Governor Vance, as I advanced in column, and 
was gratified that amidst the confusion, he should witness 
the order and the promptness with which the brigade hastened 
to the rescue. I was too far off to hear any remark he may 
have made, or order he might have given. From the effect 
of our artillery and infantry fire, and from the fact that night 
was coming on, the pursuit was discontinued, and friends 
hastened to me and to members of the brigade, and repeated 
what the General had said. I was not aware that Governor 
Vance was acquainted with the facts until he delivered his 
address. But with that love for the North Carolina soldiers 
and pride in our native State, for which he was eminently 
distinguished, with pen and tongue he was ever ready to de- 
fend their good name, and see that justice was accorded them. 

There was no such army as that which followed Lee. In 
its ranks were men from all orders of society, of property and 
of education. They were accustomed to the use of fire- 
arms and to riding horseback. There was a comradeship 
and individuality among them. Ever cheerful in camp or on 
the march, they discussed around the camp fire the conduct of 
the officers and the merits of the battles they had fought ; and 
so resourceful were they in battle, that the commands of the 
officers were often unnecessary to enable them to seize strate- 
gic advantages, or even when dispersed, to rally in squads, 
and continue the struggle, infficting severe punishment upon 
the enemy. This was never more apparent than during the 
day following the disaster at Sailor's Creek; for, notwith- 
standing its dispersion, the next day Grimes' Division was in 
good spirits, and seemingly as ready for battle as ever. 

The Anderson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 457 

Upon an appeal from General MaJione, whose right was being 
turned, they rushed forward, and in a hand-to-hand encoun- 
ter, recapt\ired a battery, restored the line, and stopped all 
further pursuit for the day. 

The last scene of this fearful drama was rapidly drawing 
to a close. Having done all that valor and human endurance 
could accomplish, the inevitable result could not be much 
longer postponed without a needless sacrifice of human life. 
When directed to cut their way through the encircling ranks 
of the enemy they cheerfully attempted it. The army now 
rediiced to two corps under Generals Longstreet and Gordon, 
moved over wretched roads steadily towards Appomattox 
Court House, our purpose being to reach Danville. By great 
effort, the head of the column reached Appomattox Court 
House on the evening of the 8th, and the troops were halted 
for rest. During the night, there were indications of a large 
force moving on our left and front. Besides his own division. 
General Grimes was pi\t in command of the remnants of 
Bushrod Johnson's Division and Wise's Brigade. Just be- 
fore daylight, Gordon moved his command through the vil- 
lage, and was supported by Fitz Lee's cavalry on his right. 
At 5 o'clock a. m., I received an order that on the firing of a 
cannon the division woiild move forward. This order was 
communicated to the Brigade Commanders through my Or- 
derly, A. M. Powell (now Mayor of Ealeigh). At this time 
the bronzed and scarred veterans of the division which had 
served under D. H. Hill, R. E. Rodes, S. D. Ramseur and 
Bryan Grimes, remained undaunted, and their devotion to 
their peerless chief, who had so repeatedly led them to victory, 
was unshaken ; and thiis stimulated, their faith rose superior 
to imrelenting fate, and their resolution never faltered. Even 
while their vigilant and gallant foe was hemming them in on 
every side, the word of command braced anew their expiring 
energies, and their brave hearts beat quick and responsive to 
the prospect of the renewal of the conflict Therefore, when 
the signal to advance was heard, they promptly moved for- 
ward in echelon by brigades at intervals of one hundred paces. 

Sheridan's dismounted cavalry was in our front and on our 
right, hopeful and exultant at the prospect of an early termi- 

458 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

nation of the conflict, and the reward which awaited success. 
But they were destined to find that the lion, though so pressed 
and wounded, was a lion still. 

The division had not proceeded far before Cooke's and 
Cox's Brigades were exposed to a murderous artillery fire, 
but, instead of halting and recoiling, they promptly charged 
and captured it. The engagement now became general along 
our front, and our cavalry, though worn down by incessant 
duties on the retreat, gallantly and bravely supported us on 
the right. The struggle, however, was unequal. The pistol 
and carbine were ineffective against the Enfield range and de- 
structive "buck and ball," and but few infantry were sup- 
porting them. Retiring slowly at first, their retreat soon be- 
came a route as they hastened to their infantry supports in 
the woods, while riderless horses galloped over the field 
where lay their wounded and dying. An infantry Captain 
was captured and brought before me, and he gave me the first 
information that General Ord, with ten thousand infantry, 
was in our front. Upon taking a commanding position, I 
ordered a halt, when many columns of infantry were seen 
advancing, evidently with the intention of capturing us. 
Firing was now resumed, when General Grimes directed me 
through his courier, H. A. London, to withdraw. The armis- 
tice had evidently been agreed to, but I did not anticipate it. 
Still contesting the field, I retired slowly. The enemy seeing 
the movement, hastened their advance with the evident pur- 
pose of surrounding us, and moved so rapidly as to make 
some ruse necessary to check their zeal. In this emer- 
gency, through an Aide, James S. Battle, I ordered the 
regimental commanders of Cox's Brigade to meet me at the 
centre as we retired. I then directed their attention to a 
gradually rising hill, between us and the advancing columns 
of the enemy, and directed that they face their regiments 
about, and at a double quick charge to the crest of the hill, 
and before the enemy should recover from their surprise, 
halt, fire by brigade, and then with like rapid movement face 
about and rejoin the division. Raising the "rebel yell," the 
brigade with celerity and precision, promptly and faultlessly 
executed the order, and having gained the brow of the hill, the 

The Anderson-Ramseur-Cox Brigade. 459 

enemy anticipating a determined struggle, commenced to de- 
ploy and prolong their line as if on parade. But before the 
movement was fully executed, the command rang along the 
Confederate line clear and distinct above the din of battle, 
"Halt, ready, aim, fire!" And while the encircling troops 
were surprised and stunned by the audacity of the charge 
and the unusual character of the fire, the brigade safely with- 
drew and regained the division, which in the meantime had 
been skirmishing as it withdrew. General Gordon, superbly 
mounted, as we passed by exclaimed, "Grandly and gloriously 

This was the last charge of the Army of Northern Vir- 

I have abundant cause to be proud of my brigade, and my 
obligations are due and cheerfully rendered to each and every 
brave soldier who contributed to its success. 

Especially am I indebted to my regimental commanders, 
whose prompt obedience to orders and patient endurance 
greatly lightened my labors and responsibilities to whom, and 
to the members of the staff alone will the limits of this sketch 
permit me to individually refer. 

Tt will be remembered that after the disaster to Johnston's 
Division at Chancellorsville, such members of the First and 
Third Regiments as escaped capture were consolidated and 
placed in my brigade. As many more of the Third than of 
the First Regiment escaped, H. A. Brown, the gallant and 
efficient Colonel of the First Regiment, was placed in charge 
of the corps of sharpshooters, where he won well merited 
distinction, while S. D. Thurston, the cool and accomplished 
Colonel of the Third, was placed in command of the consoli- 
dated regiments in which he served with great intelligence 
and acceptability. At the battle of Winchester, he was dan- 
gerously wounded and rendered incapable of rejoining his 
command. He was succeeded by W. M. Parsley, the Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Third, a gallant officer of great personal 
magnetism, who was killed on the retreat from Petersburg. 
During his service with me he had shown himself conspicu- 
ously brave and intelligent and his early death was greatly 

460 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

The conunand then devolved on W. T. Ennett, Major of 
the same regiment, a physician by profession, highly ac- 
complished, a brave soldier and a warm friend. He led his 
command in the last charge at Appomattox. 

Upon my promotion to the command of the brigade, W. S. 
Stallings succeeded to the Colonelcy of the Second Eegi- 
ment. He was ardent in his temperament, an excellent sol- 
dier and much beloved by his men. In the brief and severe 
engagement at Snicker's Gap, while in the fore-front of bat- 
tle, he was mortally wounded and yielded up his life to the 
cause he loved so well. 

John P. Cobb, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second, was pro- 
moted to the Colonelcy of the regiment. He was cool, fear- 
less, intrepid and where the battle was thickest you might 
expect to find him. In the battle of Winchester, he had one 
of his feet torn off by a cannon ball, but so enthused was he 
with the intrepidity of his men that he hopped about on his 
remaining foot and cheered them forward. 

Now, the command passed to Major James T. Scales, 
whose coolness and philosophical bravery was ever noticeable 
and exercised great influence over his men, whom he likewise 
led in the last charge at Appomattox. 

Following the promotion of Grimes, Lieutenant-Colonel 
James A. Wood succeeded to the command of the veteran 
Foiirth Eegiment and in camp and field showed himself to 
be eminently qualified for the position. He was attractive in 
person, refined and scholarly, faithful in the observance of 
every duty he gave promise of great future usefulness both 
as a soldier and a citizen. But like Stallings, he was mor- 
tally wounded at Snicker's Gap and his spirit passed through 
the morning gates while "our needs were the rarest." 

Lieutenant-Colonel E. A. Osborne was next in rank, and 
the command of the regiment devolved upon him. Osborne's 
polar star was duty, and though quiet and undemonstrative, 
he never forgot what was due to himself, to officers or men. 
His constitution was greatly shattered by severe wounds pre- 
viously received in battle, which would have caused one less 
courageous and zealous to have retired from the service. A 
single instance of the courage and resourcefulness of this 

The Andeeson-Eamsbur-Cox Beigadb. 461 

officer under the most trying circumstances will illustrate the 
character of Osborne. While shot down and left upon the 
battle field, he observed an armed, prowling Yankee ap- 
proaching. Drawing his gun he ordered him to surrender, 
which the Yankee did, when Osborne, by the assistance of his 
prisoner, was enabled to reach his friends. Further com- 
ment is unnecessary. 

Major J. F. Stancill, who several times commanded the 
regiment, was a brave and faithful officer, who bore the scars 
of many wounds. 

R. T. Bennett, Colonel of the Fourteenth Regiment, was 
of imposing presence, strong individuality, and an able com- 
mander. His voice was clear and sonorous and there was no 
mistalting or disobeying his commands. When I was 
placed in command of the brigade, he was suffering from an 
unhealed wound, yet he promptly returned to duty. In the 
battle of Winchester, after having two horses shot under him, 
he on foot pressed so far to the front, when the brigade was 
changing its position to one of more effectiveness and the 
movement was so rapidly executed that he, with a few others 
on the right were taken prisoners. 

Lieutenant-Colonel W. A. Johnston, who was then on 
wounded furlough, subsequently returned and took charge of 
the command. He was a fine specimen of man and soldier, 
brave, dashing and impetuous. In the battles around Peters- 
burg, seeing the sharpshooters in front of the works sorely 
pressed by the enemy, he ordered his regiment over the breast- 
works and rushed to their assistance, where I found him gal- 
lantly contending on equal terms. He likewise was with his 
command at Appomattox. 

F. M. Parker, the courteous and refined Colonel of the 
Thirtieth Regiment, was a brave, cool, and excellent officer 
and ever observant of his duties to the cause and to his com- 
mand. He was severely wounded in nearly every important 
engagement in which he participated, which so impaired his 
health that, to the general regret of all, he was compelled to 

Thereupon, Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Sellers was pro- 
moted to the Colonelcy. An officer, singularly quiet, and un- 

462 North Carolina Troops, 1861-'65. 

assuming yet brave and fearless, he had not occupied the 
position a great while before he was mortally wounded 
at Kelly's Ford and slept "an iron sleep — slain fighting for 
his country." 

Major Moore, of Edgecombe County, the next in rank, 
was absent on wounded furlough. So severe was his wound 
it was doubtful whether he would ever be able to join his com- 
mand, but he did so before the wound was closed and before 
he received his promotion was shot through the body, while 
unnecessarily exposing himself, and instantly killed. He 
was an officer singularly attractive in person and manner and 
greatly beloved and admired by his friends. 

Before and after the death of Major Moore, the regiment 
was under the command of Captain J. C. McMillan. His 
promotion had been marred by the want of that one essential 
of a commanding officer, "discipline," yet he was otherwise 
faithful and diligent in the discharge of his duties. While 
issuing an order to the regiment some three days before the 
surrender, he was shot through the body, and with the blood 
gushing from his nose and mouth, he turned and inquired of 
one whether the wound was fatal. He was placed in an am- 
bulance, taken to the rear, and his wound dressed and in this 
condition remained with the army to the last. 

The foregoing record of casualties among the field officers 
alone in the closing days of the war is a far more eloquent 
eulogy than mere words can express, of the devotion, the zeal 
and undaunted fortitude of this brigade, which General Lee 
declared was among the first of its rank in the service. 


Seaton^ Major and A. A. G. 

Caleb RicHMOjsrD, First Lieutenant and Aide-de-Camp. 

W. C. CouGiiENOUE^ Captain and A. I. G. 

S. H. CoLEMAWj First Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer. 

J. W. Wilson, Major and Brigade Q. M. 

B. D. Williams, Major and Brigade Q. M. 

H. M. MiLLEE, Major and Commissary. 

G. W. Bkiggs, Brigade Surgeon. 

The Andekson-Ramsetje-Cox Beigade. 463 

cox's BRIGADE. 

Seatox Gales, Major and A. A. G. 

J. S. Battle, First Lieutenant and A. D. C. 

W. C. CouGHENouE, Captain and A. I. G. 

John B. Beowiv, Captain and A. I. G. 

J. Jones, Captain and A. A. G. 

S. H. Coleman, First Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer. 

B. T). Williams, Major and Brigade Q. M. 

W. T. Fatecloth, Captain and A. Q. M. 

H. M. Millee, Major and C. S. 

G. W. Beiggs, Brigade Surgeon. 

Geoege L. Kieby, Brigade Surgeon. 

Major Gales was a man of varied accomplishments. He 
entered the service as Assistant Adjutant-General at the for- 
mation of the brigade and served with Anderson, Eamseur 
and myself until captured at the battle of Fisher's Hill. Be- 
fore entering the service, he had an established reputation 
as a speaker and writer. As an officer of the brigade, I ever 
found him. true and loyal to his commander. 

Lieutenant Bichmond, on the motion of General Ramseur, 
was transferred to the division staff. 

W. C. Coughenour near the close of the war was transferred 
to Bearing's Brigade, afterwards Roberts' Brigade, as As- 
sistant Inspector-General. 

Gales, Richmond and Battle, during every engagement of 
their service, were kept on the firing line bearing commands 
from point to point as the battles progressed and proved them- 
selves true and gallant soldiers. 

Coughenour and Brown, while not required to be thus ex- 
posed, frequently volunteered for such duties and proved 
themselves efficient and fearless. 

Drs. Briggs and Kirby were not only excellent surgeons, 
but in camp and hospital were excellent physicians, careful 
and attentive to the needs of the men. 

I must not omit to mention the couriers of this brigade, 
who were connected with it from its organization. James 
A. Stinson, a mere youth of 20, when shot down upon the bat- 
tle field, signaled with his message for some one to take it to 

464 North Carolina Troops, 1861-65. 

the commanding officer. J. B. Beggarly carried ammuni- 
tion to the line in the horse-shoe at Chancellorsville, where it 
looked as if no one could live who was not behind the works. 
To every member of my staff I return thanks for merited 
services upon the field and in camp, for in their respective 
positions they fully discharged every duty enjoined upon 

W. K. Cox. 
Penblo, N. C, 

13 December, 1901. 


1. Eeuben P. Campbell, Colonel, 7th Eegiment. 

2. J. McLeod Turner, Lieut. -Colonel. 7th Regiment. 

3. Wm. Lee Davidson. Lieut. Colonel, 7th Regiment. 

4. Wesley M. Campbell, Surgeon, 7th Regiment. 

5. Pinekney C. Carlton, Captain, Co. A., 7th Regiment. 
C. F. D. Stockton, Adjutant, 7th Reginient 


By brigadier-general JAMES H. LANE. 

I'liis brigade was organized at Kinston and left the State 
for Virginia as a North Carolina Brigade, under General L. 
O'B. Branch. It was composed of the Seventh, Eighteenth, 
Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third and Thirty-seventh North Caro- 
lina regiments, and there Avas no change in its composition 
throughout the war. It was known as "Branch's Brigade" 
till after General Branch's death at Sharpsburg 17 Septem- 
ber, 1862, and then as "Lane's Brigade" from the writer's 
promotion shortly thereafter to Brigadier-General, till 9 
April, 1865. After reaching the Old Dominion, it was or- 
dered over the moimtains ostensibly to reinforce Jackson, but 
it did not cross the Blue Ridge. It was marched backwards 
and forwards between the foot of the mountains and a little 
town called Criglersville to deceive the enemy whose signal 
station was in full view, and whose flag was kept constantly 
waving during the day. It was then suddenly ordered back to 
Gordonsville, from which point it was moved rapidly by rail 
to Hanover Court House. Shortly afterwards it made a gal- 
lant fight at Slash Church and Kinney's Farm against an 
overwhelming force of infantry, artillery and cavalry under 
Fitz John Porter, and was handsomely complimented by Gen- 
eral Lee in a .written communication which was read on 
parade. It was then assigned to A. P. Hill's Light Division. 

It was the first brigade of Lee's Army to cross the Chicka- 
hominy, which it did near "Half Link," and sweeping down 
its eastern bank, it cleared the way for the division to cross at 
Meadow Bridge. The official reports tell how nobly it 
fought and how terribly it suffered in those memorable seven 
days fights around Richmond. 

At Cedar Run it was the first brigade of Hill's Division to 
go into action, and it there gallantly repulsed the enemy's 
infantry and cavalry, and restored Jackson's disordered left. 

466 XoETir Carolina Teoops^ 1861-'65. 

At Manassas Junction, in rear of Pope's Army, it chased, 
with rebel yells, Taylor's New Jersey Brigade, after it had 
been broken by the artillery fire, and made many amusing 
captures in the swamps of Bull Run. 

On the extreme left at Manassas Plains, it and McGowan's 
splendid South Carolinians fought repeatedly over the same 
ground, while Jackson anxiously awaited the arrival of Long- 

It was one of the brigades that met the enemy at Ox Hill, 
and fought them successfully in a pouring rain. 

It was this brigade that scaled at midnight the cliffs of the 
Shenandoah and lay concealed in the woods on the left and 
rear of the enemy on Bolivar Heights, ready and eager to 
charge ; but Harper's Ferry having soon surrendered (14 Au- 
gust) under our concentrated artillery fire, it had no opportu- 
nity to do so. 

It was also in that noted rapid march of the Light Division 
from Harper's Ferry to Sharpsburg, where it arrived in the 
afternoon of that long, hard-fought day of battle, just in 
time to help hurl back the fresh troops of the enemy and save 
the right of Lee's grand, but hard-pressed army. Here it 
was that the peerless Branch gave up his life in defense of 
the cause he loved so well, and Lane was called upon to take 
command of his heroes upon the battlefield. 

It was one of the three brigades that formed the rear guard 
of the Army of Northern Virginia when Lee retired from 
Sharpsburg and recrossed the Potomac. There bravely fac- 
ing the enemy, it held its ground until every wagon and am- 
bulance had safely crossed — its own litter corps hauling an 
ambulance of brave wounded Georgians across that turbulent 
river, as the driver and others had mounted the mules and 
cowardly deserted them. 

It was this brigade that chased the finely dressed Pennsyl- 
vania Corn Exchange Regiment over the banks of the river 
near Shepherdstown, and under a heavy artillery fire from 
the opposite side of the river, made the Potomac red with 
Yankee blood at the old dam just above the ford. 

It was also this brigade that fought so stubbornly on the 
right at Fredericksburg, driving back two lines of battle after 

The Beanch-I.axe Brigade. 467 

fl large force of the enemy had penetrated that unfortunate 
opening left between Archer and itself, turned its right, and 
caught its intended support with their arms stacked. 

It was this North Carolina brigade that was ordered to 
the front to make a night attack in that matchless flank move- 
ment of Jackson at Chancellorsville, but the attack was aban- 
doned on account of the wounding of Jackson and Hill. This 
brigade and Pender's braves constituted the front line that 
terrible night until after 12 o'clock, and it was Lane's men 
that repulsed Sickle's formidable midnight attack on the 

This brigade was charged by some of the heroes of the rear 
with being unduly excited on that occasion, because the Eigh- 
teenth, under a misapprehension caused by the darkness, had 
fired upon its friends ; and yet it stood its ground under three 
terrific and prolonged artillery fires which doubtless made 
those self -constituted critics of the rear quake; and it gal- 
lantly repulsed that formidable attack of. Sickles, taking from 
him the colors of the Third Maine Regiment and a number 
of prisoners^ — oflioers and men. It was this censured bri- 
gade that carried the enemy's works next morning in a direct 
assault, but was forced to retire because its intended support 
broke under the tremendous fire, in the teeth of which Lane's 
men had so intrepidly advanced. 

At Chancellorsville this brigade lost nearly one-third of 
its strength in killed and wounded, and of its thirteen field 
Oifficers carried into action, all were shot down — killed or 
wounded — except the gallant young Barry. Here the noble 
and fearless Purdie, of the Eighteenth, the gentle, but cour- 
ageous and dashing Hill, of the old Seventh, the heroic boy 
Captain, Johnnie Young, of the same regiment. Captain 
Kerr, Lieutenants Campbell, Bolick, Emack, Weaver, Bou- 
chelle, Babb, Callais, Eagin and other noble spirits lost their 
lives in the gallant discharge of their duties, as did also Gen- 
eral Lane's boy brother, J. Hooker Lane, who was acting aide 
at the time. 

In the first day's fight at Gettysburg, Lane's brigade was 
ordered from the centre of Hill's line, put on the right and 
charged with the responsible duty of protecting that flank of 

408 JSToKTii Caeoi.ina Troops, 1861-'65. 

the army. In the second day's fight, its skirmishers under 
that daring young Major, Brown, of the Thirty-seventh, elic- 
ited by their dauntless bearing a written compliment from 
General Ewell, who was in command of other troops. Next 
day it was on the extreme left of the Pickett-Pettigrew 
charge, and though flanked by a large force, it retired in order 
and reformed in rear of the artillery by order of the battle- 
scarred and experienced Trimble. How many of the bri- 
gades in that bloody charge reformed as close and stood ready 
to repulse the expected counter-charge ? 

A northern military writer informs General Lane that his 
brigade has never had justice done it for its valiant part in 
that great battle. 

After boldly confronting the enemy at Hagerstown while 
the Potomac was "on a tear" in its rear, it withdrew in a rain 
and after a weary night's march, was ordered to act as rear 
guard to that portion of the army which crossed the Potomac 
on the pontoon bridge at Falling Waters. There it stood 
alone, with the spirited young Crowell, of the Twenty-eighth, 
in charge of the skirmish line unerringly picking off every 
man that dared show himself too close, until every other com- 
mand had crossed safely ; then it retired to the Virginia shore 
in perfect order, and General Heth, in honor of such unusual 
fortitude and success, doffed his hat to these veterans as they 
proudly marched by him in columns of fours. Next day 
when Heth greeted Lane in the rain, while on the march, he 
told him it was an unexpected pleasure, as he feared when he 
ordered him to cover the rear that his whole command would 
be killed, wounded or captured. 

It was the guns of this brigade as it went into action in the 
Wilderness, late in the afternoon of 5 May, 1864, that caused 
Colonel Venable to remark to Colonel Palmer : "Thank God ! 
I will go back and tell General Lee that Lane has just gone 
in and will hold his ground until other troops arrive to-night." 
The brigade not only held its ground, but drove the enemy 
some distance. 

It was this brigade that left the works, formed a new line 
and piled the Yankees, in front of it at Spottsylvania Court 
House, early on the morning of 12 May, after the'y had 

The Beanch-Lane Beigabe. 469 

broken through Johnson's front. Its gallantry on that occa- 
sion caused a London correspondent to write to his paper that 
"Lane's North Carolina veterans stopped the tide of Federal 
victory as it came surging to the right." Later, it was this 
brigade that General Lee selected to cross the works and strike 
Bumside's Corps in flank, in which assault it captured be- 
tween 300 and 400 prisoners, three flags and a battery of six 
guns, but was unable to bring off the latter, as they were 
without horses and could not be dragged through the woods. 
General Lee acknowledged the receipt of the flags in a com- 
plimentary note, written on the battlefield, which was read 
to the command by the Brigadier in person, and was received 
with the wildest rebel yells. Still later in the day it was 
that splendid body of tried men — the sharpshooters of Lane's 
Brigade — under the dashing and accomplished JSTicholson, 
who were "requested" by General Lee, through their Briga- 
dier, to make an important reconnoissance for him in front 
of Spottsylvania Court House, though they had been fighting 
all day, and there were fresh troops at hand. 

At Jericho Ford this brigade advanced as far as, if not far- 
ther than, any other troops and held its ground until relieved 
that night. 

At the second Cold Harbor it behaved as it did at the first. 
Here General Lane was severely wounded — it was feared at 
the time mortally — and had to be borne from the field. 

Around Petersburg it was not kept in the trenches, but as 
"flying infantry" or "foot cavalry," under Colonels Barry 
and Speer, it behaved with its accustomed bravery in the 
fights at Riddel's Shop, Petersburg, Gravel Hill and Fussell's 

Under General Connor it was one of the three l^orth Caro- 
lina brigades that handled Hancock so roughtly in his en- 
trenched position at Reams Station, after the failure of the 
first attack by other troops. It was this fight that caused 
General Lee to write that handsome letter to Governor Vance 
about the gallantry of Cooke's, MacRae's and Lane's Brigades, 

Note. — On 3 August, 1864, Colonel Barry was made a (temporary) 
Brigadier General but was soon after wounded, and after General Lane's 
return became again Colonel of his regiment. — Ed. 

470 XoiiTH Caeouna Teoops, 1861-'65. 

and also caused that grand old chieftain tO' tell General Lane, 
when he rejoined his command just before the battle of Jone8' 
Farm, that those three brigades, by their gallantry at Reams 
Station, had placed not only ISTorth Carolina, but the whole 
Confederacy, under a debt of gratitude which could never be 

In the Jones' Farm fight this brigade occupied the right, 
soon routed the enemy in its front and on its right flank, and 
captured a large number of prisoners. 

It was in the Pegram House fight the next day that the 
modest, but daring young Wooten, with his sharpshooters, 
dashed into the enemy's works, which were being shelled by 
Brander's Artillery, and returned witli more prisoners than 
he had men in his command. It was around that beleaguered 
city — Petersburg — that the sharpshooters of this brigade be- 
came still more famous and Wooten's name was made so 
familiar on the enemy's skirmish line by his frequent and 
most unexpected "pop calls." It was Wooten's brilliant Davis 
House surprise that elicited congratulatory letters from h